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1.
Medical Forum Monthly. 2015; 26 (11): 31-35
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-184778

ABSTRACT

Objective: To determine the effects of George Ohsawa One [GO1] on sodium, potassium, calcium, hemoglobin and platelet count in rabbits with and without anticoagulated blood


Study Design: Interventional study


Place and Duration of Study: This study was conducted at the Department of Pharmacology, FederalPost Graduate Medical Institute and National Health Research Complex, PMRC, Sheikh Zayed Hospital Complex, Lahore from January 2010 to August2011


Materials and Methods: Forty eight [n=48] male rabbits were included in the study. They were divided into two groups which were further divided into two subgroups each. About 700 grams of GO1 was used in the study


Results: The effect of GO1 on platelet count, hemoglobin, serum sodium, potassium and calcium were found to be insignificant


Conclusion: This work on the effect of GOI is first of its kind on biochemical and hematological parameters other than prothrombin time and activated partial thromboplastin time in rabbits measured quantitatively. Although theuse of herbal products may not be dangerous per se, further research work is required to explore the benefits of GO1 on biochemical and hematological parameters before it can safely be used in humans as an anti-hemorrhagic agent

2.
Professional Medical Journal-Quarterly [The]. 2014; 21 (4): 804-809
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-149895

ABSTRACT

Majority of the public and private sector hospitals are using reusable gowns and scrubs whereas only a few hospitals are using disposable ones. Protection during surgery is very important both for the patient as well as for the surgeon. The reasons are not only hygienic but also creating a barrier so that the bacteria and the viruses do not transfer from patient to doctor and vice versa. The surgical gowns have been in use for many decades. With the advancements in the field of manufacturing [weaving and finishing], the quality of gowns has been improving over the period of time. In Pakistan, there is no awareness yet regarding the construction of surgical apparels viz. surgical gowns and scrubs so no standards are being followed as such during the manufacturing [weaving and finishing] of surgical apparels. For effective barrier function of surgical gowns and scrubs, it is necessary for them to comply with certain standards in terms of physical characteristics viz. mass per unit area, number of threads per unit length, tensile strength etc. The idea behind this study was to evaluate the physical characteristics of surgical gowns and scrubs currently being used in different public sector hospitals of Lahore. [1] To evaluate the pore size of existing and experimental surgical gowns being used in different hospitals of Lahore. [2] To compare the pore size analysis of existing surgical gowns with experimental surgical gowns. Experimental study design was used. January 2014- April 2014. Samples of fabric used for making surgical gowns and scrubs were collected from different hospitals of Lahore and evaluated for pore size with the help of optic microscope. For experimental gowns the fabric was developed according to the international standards. Pore size of surgical gowns was measured with the help of scanning electron microscope. The results showed large pores in existing surgical gown. No length or width wise pores in the experimental surgical gowns fabric except there are tiny holes of 0.5 after 20 launderings. The existing reusable surgical gowns did not offer any resistance against bacterial penetration because of large pores. The fabric used for the existing surgical gowns was not up to the mark and did show large pores under microscope. The experimental surgical gown showed no pores in the fabric structure when subjected to scanning electron microscope. The functional ability of resistance against bacterial penetration of the surgical gowns is important because the risk of SSI. If the patient develops SSI weather it is grades 1, 2 or 3, the cost is significant. The cost effectiveness of the existing reusable surgical gowns becomes insignificant as none of the existing surgical gowns offer any resistance against bacterial penetration and the risk of SSI with subsequent treatment cost. Necessary guidelines can be formulated and proposed to the concerned departments of various hospitals, in the light of which they can design some specifications and select appropriate materials for surgical apparels in future


Subject(s)
Hospitals , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , Porosity
3.
Professional Medical Journal-Quarterly [The]. 2014; 21 (6): 1200-1203
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-162201

ABSTRACT

To determine the frequency of family history of IHD and related risk factors in the first degree relatives of patients suffered from acute myocardial infarction [AMI]. Descriptive study. PMRC Research Centre, Nishtar Medical College, Multan, Cardiology unit Nishtar Hospital Multan and Chaudhry Pervez Elahi Institute of Cardiology, Multan. One year from July 2011 to June 2012. In this descriptive study 331 patients of AMI of either sex and age >/= 20 years admitted in Cardiology unit of Nishtar Hospital Multan and Chaudhary Pervez Elahi Institute of Cardiology Multan were registered. For data collection non-probability convenient sampling technique was used. Informed consent was taken from each patient. The information were recorded in a pre-designed questionnaire. The data were analyzed through SPSS-11. Mean age of the study cases was 54.99+/-11.25 years [Minimum age was 20 years and maximum was 90 years]. Two hundred sixty four [79.8%] were male and 67 [20.2%] were female patients and male to female ratio was 3.9:1. Out of these 331 patients 111 [33.6 %] were having positive family history of IHD. In these 111 [33.6 %] cases history of diabetes was seen in 45 [40.5 %], 43[38.8 %] had history of hypertension and history of hyper-cholesterolemia was present in 23 [20.7 %] of cases. The family history of IHD in addition to traditional risk factors such as hypertension, hyperlipidemia, diabetes mellitus and smoking is itself an important risk factor for IHD. Relatives of the young patients with IHD should be considered as high risk group and it calls for close surveillance of their first degree relatives and early intervention. All their family members should be advised life style modification, appropriate management of risk factors and regular follow up of even apparently healthy descendents


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Male , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Myocardial Ischemia , Risk Factors , Hypertension , Diabetes Mellitus , Surveys and Questionnaires , Family
4.
Professional Medical Journal-Quarterly [The]. 2013; 20 (6): 882-886
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-138084

ABSTRACT

To determine the frequency of painless MI in patients with acute coronary syndrome. Descriptive cross-sectional study. Setting and duration: This study was conducted at cardiology unit Nishtar Hospital Multan and Chaudhry Pervez Elahi Institute of Cardiology Multan. The study duration was 1 year starting from July 2011 to June 2012. This descriptive study included 331 patients of AMI of either sex and age which were admitted at "Cardiology unit Nishtar Hospital Multan and Chaudhry Pervez Elahi Institute of Cardiology Multan" using non-probability convenience sampling technique. Informed verbal consent was taken from each patient for participation. Out of these 331 patients 308 [93.1%] patients reported chest pain as the presenting complaint. Remaining 23[6.9%] presented with clinical feature other than chest pain. Of these 23 patients who presented without chest, minimum age was 30 years while maximum was 90 years with mean age 54.82 +/- 12.28 years. Patients with painless AMI presented with variety of symptoms. Most common symptoms seen in patients of AMI without chest pain were generalized weakness and cold sweats. Out of 23 patients with painless AMI, 15[65.22%] patients were male and 08[34.8%] were female. Diabetes mellitus was present as co-morbid condition in 16[69.56%] while 7[30.44%] patients were non diabetic. Hypertension was present in 8[34.78%] patients with painless AMI. Painless AMI or atypical presentation of AMI is seen in substantial proportion of ischemic heart disease patients. Absence of chest pain in AMI patients may misguide the doctors and diverts his attention towards other diagnosis which can lead to considerable delay in the essential therapies required in the management of AMI. It definitely affects morbidity and mortality of emergency department. Health care professionals particularly those working in emergency set up must keep in mind that absence of chest pain in suspected cases of ischemic heart disease does not necessarily rule out AMI. Features of AMI other than chest pain should also be kept in mind while dealing with a suspected case of ischemic heart disease. Further research work on painless AMI and presentation of AMI other than chest pain is needed


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Male , Acute Coronary Syndrome , Myocardial Infarction/epidemiology , Chest Pain
5.
JSP-Journal of Surgery Pakistan International. 2012; 17 (1): 40-42
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-124948

ABSTRACT

Intramuscular haemangioma are subset of vascular tumours of skeletal muscle. Haemangioma of the deep soft tissue are uncommon and more frequently present a diagnostic dilemma. Intramuscular haemangioma is most frequently located in the muscles of the lower extremities. We present a case of intramuscular haemangioma of triceps muscle of right arm in proximity to brachial vessels with compression on median nerve. Haemangioma ws successfully excised without any complication


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Muscle, Skeletal , Muscle Neoplasms , Median Nerve , Arm , Vascular Neoplasms
6.
Professional Medical Journal-Quarterly [The]. 2012; 19 (3): 351-355
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-131443

ABSTRACT

To determine the frequency of chronic liver disease in patients presenting with upper gastrointestinal bleeding [UGIB] at Nishtar Hospital, Multan. Descriptive case series. Six months from August 2009 to January 2010. Department of Internal Medicine, Nishtar Hospital Multan. A total of 88 patients with upper GI bleed were registered. Prior permission was taken from Institutional Ethical Committee to conduct this study. Informed consent was taken from each patient. Upper GI Endoscopy was done to find out the source of bleeding. For identification of each patient, personal data was collected. All the data collected were entered and analyzed using SPSS-10. Mean age was 41.64 +/- 13.56 years with 49 [55.70%] male patients and 39 [44.30%] female patients. Majority of the patients 38[43.18%] were between 36-50 years of age. In our series frequency of chronic liver disease was 56.82%. Chronic liver disease is the most common cause of upper GI bleeding in our setting


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage , Endoscopy, Digestive System , Esophageal and Gastric Varices , Chronic Disease
7.
Professional Medical Journal-Quarterly [The]. 2012; 19 (6): 909-913
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-150342

ABSTRACT

The objective of this study was to compare the mean bacterial penetration% in surgical gowns at different laundering cycles which were used in three different categories of Hospital. Fifty, locally available reusable surgical gowns were collected from all the major teaching hospitals of Lahore as sample. Samples were analyzed and compared against international standards. Samples were tested at different laundering cycles [after 0, 5, 10, 15, and 20 washings]. The gowns were laundered at Mayo hospital laundry services. The surgical gowns were subjected to multiple laundering cycles. The bacterial penetration test was performed at Microbiology Lab., PCSIR [Pakistan Council of Scientific and lndustrial Research] Laboratories Complex, Lahore. Data was analyzed by using SPSS 16 versions and for comparison Repeated measurement ANOVA was used. A p-value less or equal to 0.05 will be considered as significant. Overall the mean +/- S.D penetration of bacteria in all samples was as under, at 0 Washing [86.47 +/- 2.91%], 5th washing [91.53 +/- 1.72%], 10th washing [95.60 +/- 0.91%], 15th washing [08.53 +/- 0.34%] and at 20th washing [99.47 +/- 0.13%]. While comparing on different laundering intervals or times the penetration of bacteria [%] was statistically increased from 86.47 +/- 2.91% to 99.47 +/- 0.13%, p-value 0.001. When studied for change in porosity after laundering reusable surgical gowns set up of hospitals in Pakistan resulted in increased porosity and hence more penetration of bacteria across the fabric used for manufacture of surgical gowns. The loss of barrier effect of surgical gown is further compounded by lack of standardization of laundering technique, infra-structure use of improper detergent and other cleaning agents. This loss of fabric characteristics results in more bacterial contamination of surgical wound risk of infection to the patient.

8.
Medical Forum Monthly. 2012; 23 (5): 23-26
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-144613

ABSTRACT

To determine the frequency of various causes of upper gastrointestinal bleed [UGIB] at Tertiary Care Hospital. Descriptive cross-sectional study. This study was conducted at the Department of Internal Medicine, Nishtar Hospital Multan from August 2009 to January 2010. A total of 88 patients with upper GI bleed were registered. Prior permission was taken from Institutional Ethical Committee to conduct this study. Informed consent was taken from each patient. Upper GI Endoscopy was done to find out the source and cause of bleeding. For identification of each patient, personal data was collected. All the data collected were entered and analyzed using SPSS-11. Mean age was 41.64 +/- 13.56 years with 49 [55.70%] male and 39 [44.30%] female patients. Majority of the patients 38[43.18%] were between 36-50 years of age. In our series the commonest cause of UGIB was oesophageal varices in 56.82% of cases followed by peptic ulcer disease in 38.63% of patients. Oesophageal varices followed by peptic ulcer disease are the commonest causes of UGIB in our setting


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Tertiary Care Centers , Cross-Sectional Studies , Endoscopy, Gastrointestinal , Esophageal and Gastric Varices , Peptic Ulcer , Peptic Ulcer Hemorrhage
9.
Annals Abbassi Shaheed Hospital and Karachi Medical and Dental College. 2011; 16 (1): 24-29
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-127754

ABSTRACT

The dental impressions contaminated with saliva and/or blood must be considered source of infection, with the potential of transmitting disease to the dentists, auxiliary personnel and laboratory technicians. The cross infection control measures must follow while handling these impressions or casts without compromising on their dimensional stability. The objective of this study was to evaluate the linear dimensional stability of irreversible hydrocolloid [alginate] when it is disinfected with 0.5% NaOCl by immersion and incorporation methods. This was Quasi Experimental study. One-hundred-seventeen [117] impressions were made out of which Fifty-seven [57] were not included in the study. Impressions were made by non-probability purposive sampling technique. Casts were made from the impressions. Measurements of the casts at three specific points were carried out using measurement guiding template through screw gauge and were recorded. In this study Sodium Hypochlorite 0.5% was used as disinfectant material for irreversible hydrocolloid. Immersion disinfection of irreversible hydrocolloid in 0.5% Sodium Hypochlorite showed statistically significant effect on its linear dimensional stability [p<0.05]. On the other hand, incorporation of Sodium Hypochlorite 0.5% in irreversible hydrocolloid as a water substitute was not practical, as it resulted in detachment of material from the impression tray. Disinfection of irreversible hydrocolloid by immersion method results in linear dimensional instability of the material and by incorporation method it is not possible

10.
Professional Medical Journal-Quarterly [The]. 2011; 18 (3): 390-395
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-113350

ABSTRACT

Around the world, majority of the public and private sector hospitals are using reusable gowns and scrubs whereas only a few hospitals are using disposable ones. Protection during surgery is very important both for the patient as well as for the surgeon. The reasons are not only hygienic but also creating a barrier so that the bacteria and the viruses do not transfer from patient to doctor and vice versa. The surgical gowns have been in use for many decades. With the advancements in the field of manufacturing [weaving and finishing], the quality of gowns has been improving over the period of time. In Pakistan, there is no awareness yet regarding the construction of surgical apparels viz. surgical gowns and scrubs so no standards are being followed as such during the manufacturing [weaving and finishing] of surgical apparels. For effective barrier function of surgical gowns and scrubs, it is necessary for them to comply with certain standards in terms of physical characteristics viz. mass per unit area, number of threads per unit length, tensile strength etc. The idea behind this study was to evaluate the physical characteristics of surgical gowns and scrubs currently being used in different public sector hospitals of Lahore. After which, necessary guidelines can be formulated and proposed to the concerned departments of various hospitals, in the light of which they can design some specifications and select appropriate materials for surgical apparels in future. 1]. To evaluate the physical characteristics of surgical apparels [gowns and scrubs] currently being used in different public sector hospitals of Lahore. 2]. Comparison of results with existing/available performance requirements. Experimental study design. April 2010-June 2010. Samples of fabric used for making surgical gowns and scrubs were collected from different hospitals of Lahore and evaluated for different fabric properties viz. mass per unit area, construction analysis [number of threads per unit length] and tensile properties in accordance with EN and ISO standards, in standard atmosphere for testing textiles. The results obtained were compared with the available international standards and limited research studies done in the area of surgical apparels yet. It was found that none of the samples collected meet the minimal requirements available yet. So, there is a dire need of some minimal criteria of surgical apparels for the safety of the patients as well as of the health care personnel

11.
Pakistan Journal of Medical and Health Sciences. 2007; 1 (1): 9-10
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-84670

ABSTRACT

To evaluate the efficacy of caudal epidural anaesthesia in selected patients having anorectal surgical conditions. A prospective randomized study. Department of Anesthesia and Department of Surgery Lahore General Hospital, Lahore from September 2001 to August 2003. The study includes 90 pts having common anorectal surgical conditions recruited with consent over 2 years. All patients were subjected to surgery planned under caudal block. Seventy nine patients [87%] were satisfied with the method of anesthesia and eighty three [92%] patients showed their satisfaction with the post operative pain control. Seventy six patients [84%] were contended with the preoperative information and seventy nine patients [87%] showed their willingness to choose this type of anaesthesia if required again. In ten patients there was failure of block resulted in a failure rate of about 11.11%. The cost effectiveness, minimal requirement, satisfactory anaesthesia an[high patients acceptability make caudal anaesthesia a usefull option for minor anal surgery


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Anesthesia, Epidural , Anal Canal/surgery , Rectum/surgery
12.
Pakistan Journal of Pharmacology. 2005; 22 (2): 41-45
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-166421

ABSTRACT

Alloxan monohydrate is a common drug used for developing experimental diabetes in animals, as streptozotocin, though less toxic than alloxan is considerably costlier. This study aimed to provide an exact and detailed account of alloxan induced diabetes in rabbits as none was available in both local and international literature and in Pharmacology textbooks. This resulted in extremely high mortality in experimental animals i.e., rabbits, leading to inevitably wasted research time and effort for a researcher.Twenty-four healthy rabbits of a local strain weighing 1000 to 1800 g were obtained and kept at the animal house of the Department of Pharmacology Shaikh Zayed Hospital, Lahore. They were injected with varying doses of Alloxan monohydrate [from 75mg -1 l0mg]/ kg body weight in order to induce diabetes. The blood glucose RBS levels were estimated 8 days after injecting the alloxan and subsequently randomly at intervals of five to ten days till the rabbits became diabetic. These doses were found to lower the rabbit mortality by 25% as compared to [upto 75%] that was encountered with a single standardized dose of 160mg/kg body weight suggested by Akhtar et al. [1982] or 80mg/kg body weight [Puri and Prabhu 2002]. It was therefore concluded that our proposed regime may be beneficial for future researchers aiming to develop a similar animal model

13.
Proceedings-Shaikh Zayed Postgraduate Medical Institute. 2005; 19 (1): 33-36
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-173061

ABSTRACT

To find out the frequency of hepatitis B, C and human immunodeficiency virus [HIV] in blood donors at Shaikh Zayed Hospital, Lahore. Design: This is a non-interventional study. Study Period: Period of this study is from 1-1-2005 to 30-6-2005. Study was conducted at the Blood Bank of Shaikh Zayed Hospital, Lahore. Subjects and Methods: In this study 18216 young healthy voluntary blood donors [age 16-50 years] comprising of 16611 males and 1605 females were included and tested for HBsAg, Anti-HCV and HIV by Accu check one step test [chromatographic immunoassay] in serum. Results: Frequency of hepatitis B, C and HIV infection was 3.36%, 4.16% and 0% respectively. We can get representative prevalence values of HBV, HCV and HIV infection in general population by collecting data from all blood transfusion centers of Pakistan. This is also helpful to create public awareness regarding hepatitis and HIV transmission through blood transfusion

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