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Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 79(10): 871-878, Oct. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1345317


Abstract Background: The cuneiform nucleus is located in the center of the circuit that mediates autonomic responses to stress. Hemorrhagic hypotension leads to chemoreceptor anoxia, which consequently results in the reduction of baroreceptor discharge and stimulation of the chemoreceptor. Objective: Using the single-unit recording technique, the neuronal activities of the cuneiform nucleus were investigated in hypotensive states induced by hemorrhage and administration of an anti-hypertensive drug (hydralazine). Methods: Thirty male rats were divided into the control, hemorrhage, and hydralazine groups. The femoral artery was cannulated for the recording of cardiovascular responses, including systolic blood pressure, mean arterial pressure, and heart rate. Hydralazine was administered via tail vein. The single-unit recording was performed from the cuneiform nucleus. Results: The maximal systolic blood pressure and the mean arterial pressure significantly decreased and heart rate significantly increased after the application of hydralazine as well as the following hemorrhage compared to the control group. Hypotension significantly increased the firing rate of the cuneiform nucleus in both the hemorrhage and hydralazine groups compared to the control group. Conclusions: The present data indicate that the cuneiform nucleus activities following hypotension may play a crucial role in blood vessels and vasomotor tone.

RESUMO Antecedentes: O núcleo cuneiforme está localizado no centro do circuito que media as respostas autonômicas ao estresse. A hipotensão hemorrágica leva à anóxia dos quimiorreceptores, que, consequentemente, resulta na redução da descarga dos barorreceptores e estimulação do quimiorreceptor. Objetivo: Utilizando a técnica de registro em unidade única, as atividades neuronais do núcleo cuneiforme foram investigadas em estados de hipotensão induzida por hemorragia e administração de um anti-hipertensivo (hidralazina). Métodos: Trinta ratos machos foram divididos nos grupos controle, hemorragia e hidralazina. A artéria femoral foi canulada, para o registro de respostas cardiovasculares, incluindo pressão arterial sistólica, pressão arterial média e frequência cardíaca. A hidralazina foi administrada na veia da cauda. O registro de unidade única foi realizado a partir do núcleo cuneiforme. Resultados: A pressão arterial sistólica máxima e a pressão arterial média diminuíram significativamente, e a frequência cardíaca aumentou significativamente após a aplicação de hidralazina, bem como a hemorragia seguinte, em comparação com o grupo controle. A hipotensão aumentou significativamente a taxa de disparo da população do núcleo cuneiforme em ambos os grupos de hemorragia e hidralazina, em comparação com o grupo de controle. Conclusões: Os presentes dados indicam que as atividades do núcleo cuneiforme após hipotensão podem desempenhar um papel crucial nos vasos sanguíneos e no tônus vasomotor.

Animals , Male , Rats , Midbrain Reticular Formation , Hypotension , Blood Pressure , Hypovolemia , Heart Rate
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 73(9): 784-790, Sept. 2015. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-757393


Inflammation and oxidative stress have important roles in memory impairment. The effect of 7-nitroindazole (7NI) on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced memory impairment was investigated. Rats were used, divided into four groups that were treated as follows: (1) control (saline); (2) LPS; (3) 7NI-LPS; and (4) 7NI before passive avoidance (PA). In the LPS group, the latency for entering the dark compartment was shorter than in the controls (p < 0.01 and p < 0.001); while in the 7NI-LPS group, it was longer than in the LPS group (p < 0.01 and p < 0.001). Malondialdehyde (MDA) and nitric oxide (NO) metabolite concentrations in the brain tissues of the LPS group were higher than in the controls (p < 0.001 and p < 0.05); while in the 7NI-LPS group, they were lower than in the LPS group (p < 0.001 and p < 0.05, respectively). The thiol content in the brain of the LPS group was lower than in the controls (p < 0.001); while in the 7NI-LPS group, it was higher than in the LPS group (p < 0.001). It is suggested that brain tissue oxidative damage and NO elevation have a role in the deleterious effects of LPS on memory retention that are preventable using 7NI.

Inflamação e estresse oxidativo tem importante papel no déficit de memória. O efeito do 7-nitroindazol (7NI) no déficit de memória induzido por lipossacarídeos (LPS) foi investigado. Foram utilizados ratos que foram divididos em quatro grupos e tratados da seguinte maneira: (1) controles (solução salina); (2) LPS; (3) 7NI-LPS; e (4) 7NI antes da esquiva passiva (PA). No grupo LPS, a latência para entrar no compartimento escuro foi mais curta que nos controles (p < 0,01 e p < 0,001); enquanto no grupo 7NI-LPS, a latência foi maior que aquela do grupo LPS (p < 0,01 e p < 0,001). Concentrações de malondialdeído (MDA) e metabólitos do ácido nítrico (NO) no tecido cerebral do grupo LPS foram maiores que aquelas dos controles (p < 0,001 e p < 0,05); enquanto no grupo 7NI-LPS, as concentrações foram menores do que no grupo LPS (p < 0,001 e p < 0,05, respectivamente). O conteúdo cerebral de tiol no grupo LPS foi menos do que nos controles (p < 0,001); enquanto no grupo 7NI-LPS, este conteúdo foi maior que no grupo LPS (p < 0,001). Sugere-se que o dano oxidativo cerebral e o aumento de NO tenham um papel nos efeitos deteriorativos dos LPS na memória de retenção, e que isto possa ser prevenido com o uso de 7NI.

Animals , Male , Rats , Indazoles/pharmacology , Lipopolysaccharides/toxicity , Memory Disorders/prevention & control , Memory/drug effects , Neuroprotective Agents/pharmacology , Brain Chemistry , Memory Disorders/chemically induced , Rats, Wistar
Indian J Med Sci ; 2010 Aug; 64(8) 363-372
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-145554


Background: Airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) is the most characteristic feature of asthma, which is reported in COPD patients and smokers. Increased airway responsiveness to ί-agonists is also demonstrated in asthmatics as well as smokers. However, there is no report regarding AHR to ί-agonist drugs in COPD patients. Therefore, in this study pharmacologic bronchodilation response to salbutamol in COPD patients was examined. Materials and Methods: The threshold concentrations of inhaled salbutamol required for a 20% change in forced expiratory flow in 1 sec (FEV 1 ) as PC 20 , or a 35% change in specific airway conductance (sGaw) as PC 35 was measured in 14 COPD patients and 14 normal subjects. Results: Airway responsiveness to salbutamol in COPD patients (PC 20 = 14.14 ± 1.62 and PC 35 = 9.70 ± 1.48 mg/l) was significantly lower than normal subjects (PC 20 = 224.57 ± 16.62 and PC 35 = 81.87 ± 8.16 mg/l, P < 0.001 for both cases). The values of FEV 1 and sGaw in COPD patients (56.43 ± 14.45 and 0.081 ± 0.120 respectively) were significantly lower than those of normal subjects (104.07 ± 5.72 and 0.194 ± 0.041 respectively), (P < 0.001 for FEV 1 and P < 0.005 for sGaw). There was a significant correlation between FEV 1 with PC 20 salbutamol (r = 0.862, P < 0.001). The correlations between PC 20 and PC 35 was also statistically significant (r = 0.862, P < 0.001). Conclusion: These results showed increased airway responsiveness of most COPD patients to salbutamol which was highly correlated to airway caliber.

Adult , Aged , Airway Remodeling/drug effects , Airway Resistance/drug therapy , Albuterol/pharmacokinetics , Albuterol/pharmacology , Anti-Asthmatic Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Asthmatic Agents/therapeutic use , Asthma/drug therapy , Asthma/physiopathology , Bronchi/drug effects , Bronchi/pharmacology , Bronchi/physiology , Bronchial Hyperreactivity/pharmacology , Bronchodilator Agents/pharmacokinetics , Bronchodilator Agents/pharmacology , Patients , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/drug therapy , Smoking/adverse effects , Smoking/complications
Indian J Exp Biol ; 2007 Sep; 45(9): 770-7
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-63258


The effects of captopril and Ang II on morphine-induced conditioned place preference (CPP) and morphine self-administration in male Wistar rat were investigated. In CPP experiment, injection of captopril before test significantly decreased the difference of the time spent in compartment A between pre- and post-conditioning compared to morphine group. In self- administration experiment number of active lever pressing was significantly greater than passive in morphine group. In captopril group number of active lever pressing was significantly lower than morphine group however, there was not significant difference between active and passive lever pressed number. The results showed that captopril significantly decreased morphine-induced conditional place preference and morphine self-administration but the effect of Ang II was not significant. It can be concluded that RAS may have a role in rewarding properties of morphine.

Angiotensin II/pharmacology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/pharmacology , Animals , Captopril/pharmacology , Conditioning, Psychological , Male , Morphine/administration & dosage , Rats , Rats, Wistar , Renin-Angiotensin System/drug effects , Reward , Self Administration
Indian J Exp Biol ; 2005 Jul; 43(7): 635-9
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-60828


A potent inhibitory effect of aqueous extract from N. sativa on calcium channel of guinea pig heart was found comparable and even greater than that of diltazem. The results may also indicate an opening effect for the plant on potassium channel of isolated heart.

Animals , Calcium Channel Blockers/pharmacology , Calcium Channels/drug effects , Diltiazem/pharmacology , Female , Guinea Pigs , Heart/drug effects , Heart Rate/drug effects , Male , Myocardial Contraction/drug effects , Myocardium/metabolism , Nigella sativa , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Potassium Channels/drug effects , Water