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Neurol India ; 1999 Mar; 47(1): 8-11
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-121668


31 patients of multiple sclerosis (MS) diagnosed in the last six years in a large teaching hospital were reviewed. The hospital incidence of 0.85% of total admissions in neurology unit in western India is comparable to the series from other parts of India. The mean age at onset was slightly lower compared to other series. The female preponderence was noted in addition to higher incidence of Devic's syndrome. Visual loss (47%) and motor weakness (27%) were the commonest presenting symptoms. The clinical pattern was more similar to Asian series of MS than the western series. All patients underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan. 24 out of 25 MRI of Brain and 15 out of 16 MRI of spine were abnormal. CSF immuno-globulins were raised in 80% of patients who underwent CSF study. The data has been compared with other Indian, Asian and Western series.

Adolescent , Adult , Child , Evoked Potentials, Auditory, Brain Stem , Evoked Potentials, Somatosensory , Evoked Potentials, Visual , Female , Humans , India , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Male , Middle Aged , Multiple Sclerosis/physiopathology , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-89483


Poor patient compliance is one of the major causes of non responsiveness to antiepileptic drug therapy. Compliance is mostly assessed by self reporting, pill counting and plasma drug level estimation. However, none of them is fool proof. Subtherapeutic plasma drug levels can be due to poor compliance or need for higher dosage. Therefore, in the present study, 20 adult non responsive epileptic patients showing subtherapeutic plasma phenytoin levels inspite of receiving standard phenytoin therapy and history of good compliance were admitted in the clinical pharmacology ward and received supervised drug treatment for five days after which plasma phenytoin levels in 14 patients increased to therapeutic range. All except one (i.e. 9 out of 10) patients showing phenytoin levels < 5 ug/ml inspite of phenytoin dosage of > 300 mg/d and history of good compliance were found to be noncompliant. Hence adult patient receiving greater than or equal to 300 mg/day phenytion and showing phenytoin levels less than or equal to 5 ug/ml should be investigated for possible noncompliance before altering their dosage schedules.

Adolescent , Adult , Epilepsy, Tonic-Clonic/drug therapy , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Compliance , Phenytoin/blood
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-93307


Fifty-four consecutively referred patients with uncontrolled epilepsy were subjected to Therapeutic Drug Monitoring on an out patient basis. Regular 2 weekly follow up for a minimum period of 2 months was done, after altering the drug dosage and bringing plasma level(s) within therapeutic range. Plasma levels of Phenobarbitone, Phenytoin and Carbamezepine were done by High Pressure Liquid Chromatography. Eventually, 24 patients were controlled and 30 remained uncontrolled. Significant differences between these 2 groups were found, as regards, duration of epilepsy (p < 0.01), associated mental retardation (p < 0.02), initial carbamazepine dosage and plasma levels in patients on carbamazepine montherapy (p < 0.02 and P < 0.01, respectively) and final phenytoin plasma levels in patients on combined therapy with phenobarbitone and phenytoin (p < 0.05). This study emphasizes the importance of early diagnosis and treatment of epilepsy with the help of plasma level monitoring of anti-epileptic drugs.

Anticonvulsants/administration & dosage , Carbamazepine/administration & dosage , Drug Administration Schedule , Drug Monitoring , Drug Therapy, Combination , Epilepsy/drug therapy , Female , Humans , Male , Phenobarbital/administration & dosage , Phenytoin/administration & dosage , Treatment Failure
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-89463


Phenytoin is widely used for the treatment of generalized tonic clonic and partial seizures. Monitoring of serum phenytoin levels is essential to optimize therapy. Of 320 patients monitored, 190 patients whose seizures were uncontrolled were followed up before and after dosage adjustment was carried out. Plasma phenytoin estimation was done by HPLC method. Of all the patients receiving the drug, 20% and 8% of patients were finally on dosages requiring 50 and 25 mg fraction administration respectively. Administration of 100 mg fractions resulted in either loss of seizure control or toxicity. This emphasizes the need for providing tablets of 25 mg strength, presently not available in this country.

Adolescent , Adult , Child , Child, Preschool , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Electroencephalography/drug effects , Epilepsy, Tonic-Clonic/drug therapy , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Phenytoin/administration & dosage