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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e245372, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339409

ABSTRACT

Abstract Hybridization and Polyploidization are most common of the phenomenon observed in plants, especially in the genus Nicotiana leading to the duplication of genome. Although genomic changes associated with these events has been studied at various levels but the genome size and GC content variation is less understood because of absence of sufficient genomic data. In this study the flow cytometry technique was used to uncover the genome size and GC contents of 46 Nicotiana species and we compared the genomic changes associated with the hybridization events along evolutionary time scale. The genome size among Nicotiana species varied between 3.28 pg and 11.88 pg whereas GC contents varied between 37.22% and 51.25%. The tetraploid species in genus Nicotiana including section Polydiclae, Repandae, Nicotiana, Rustica and Sauveolentes revealed both up and downsizing in their genome sizes when compared to the sum of genomes of their ancestral species. The genome sizes of three homoploid hybrids were found near their ancestral species. Loss of large genome sequence was observed in the evolutionary more aged species (>10 Myr) as compared to the recently evolved one's (<0.2 Myr). The GC contents were found homogenous with a mean difference of 2.46% among the Nicotiana species. It is concluded that genome size change appeared in either direction whereas the GC contents were found more homogenous in genus Nicotiana.


Resumo A hibridização e a poliploidização são os fenômenos mais comuns observados em plantas, principalmente no gênero Nicotiana, levando à duplicação do genoma. Embora as mudanças genômicas associadas a esses eventos tenham sido estudadas em vários níveis, o tamanho do genoma e a variação do conteúdo de GC são menos compreendidos devido à ausência de dados genômicos suficientes. Neste estudo, a técnica de citometria de fluxo foi usada para descobrir o tamanho do genoma e o conteúdo de GC de 46 espécies de Nicotiana, e comparamos as mudanças genômicas associadas aos eventos de hibridização ao longo da escala de tempo evolutiva. O tamanho do genoma entre as espécies de Nicotiana variou entre 3,28 pg e 11,88 pg, enquanto os conteúdos de GC variaram entre 37,22% e 51,25%. As espécies tetraploides do gênero Nicotiana, incluindo as seções Polydiclae, Repandae, Nicotiana, Rustica e Sauveolentes, revelaram aumento e redução do tamanho do genoma quando comparados à soma dos genomas de suas espécies ancestrais. Os tamanhos do genoma de três híbridos homoploides foram encontrados perto de suas espécies ancestrais. A perda da grande sequência do genoma foi observada nas espécies evolutivas mais velhas (> 10 Myr) em comparação com as que evoluíram recentemente (< 0,2 Myr). Os teores de GC foram homogêneos com diferença média de 2,46% entre as espécies de Nicotiana. Conclui-se que a mudança no tamanho do genoma apareceu em ambas as direções, enquanto os conteúdos de GC foram encontrados mais homogêneos no gênero Nicotiana.


Subject(s)
Tobacco/genetics , Genome, Plant/genetics , Phylogeny , Base Composition , Genome Size
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e246440, 2023. tab
Article in English | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339395

ABSTRACT

Abstract Utilization of modern breeding techniques for developing high yielding and uniform plant types ultimately narrowing the genetic makeup of most crops. Narrowed genetic makeup of these crops has made them vulnerable towards disease and insect epidemics. For sustainable crop production, genetic variability of these crops must be broadened against various biotic and abiotic stresses. One of the ways to widen genetic configuration of these crops is to identify novel additional sources of durable resistance. In this regard crops wild relatives are providing valuable sources of allelic diversity towards various biotic, abiotic stress tolerance and quality components. For incorporating novel variability from wild relative's wide hybridization technique has become a promising breeding method. For this purpose, wheat-Th. bessarabicum amphiploid, addition and translocation lines have been screened in field and screen house conditions to get novel sources of yellow rust and Karnal bunt resistant. Stripe rust screening under field conditions has revealed addition lines 4JJ and 6JJ as resistant to moderately resistant while addition lines 3JJ, 5JJ, 7JJ and translocation lines Tr-3, Tr-6 as moderately resistant wheat-Thinopyrum-bessarabicum genetic stock. Karnal bunt screening depicted addition lines 5JJ and 4JJ as highly resistant genetic stock. These genetic stocks may be used to introgression novel stripe rust and Karnal bunt resistance from the tertiary gene pool into susceptible wheat backgrounds.


Resumo A utilização de técnicas modernas de melhoramento para o desenvolvimento de tipos de plantas uniformes e de alto rendimento, em última análise, estreitando a composição genética da maioria das culturas. A composição genética restrita dessas plantações tornou-as vulneráveis a doenças e epidemias de insetos. Para uma produção agrícola sustentável, a variabilidade genética dessas culturas deve ser ampliada contra vários estresses bióticos e abióticos. Uma das maneiras de ampliar a configuração genética dessas culturas é identificar novas fontes adicionais de resistência durável. A esse respeito, os parentes selvagens das culturas estão fornecendo fontes valiosas de diversidade alélica para vários componentes de qualidade e tolerância ao estresse abiótico e biótico. Para incorporar a nova variabilidade da ampla técnica de hibridização de parente selvagem tornou-se um método de reprodução promissor. Para esse efeito, trigo-Th. As linhas anfiploides, de adição e translocação de bessarabicum foram selecionadas em condições de campo e de casa de tela para obter novas fontes de ferrugem amarela e resistência ao bunt de Karnal. A triagem de ferrugem em faixas em condições de campo revelou as linhas de adição 4JJ e 6JJ como resistentes a moderadamente resistentes, enquanto as linhas de adição 3JJ, 5JJ, 7JJ e as linhas de translocação Tr-3, Tr-6 como estoque genético de trigo-Thinopyrum bessarabicum moderadamente resistente. A triagem Karnal bunt descreveu as linhas de adição 5JJ e 4JJ como estoque genético altamente resistente. Esses estoques genéticos podem ser usados para introgressão da nova ferrugem e resistência ao bunt de Karnal do pool genético terciário em origens de trigo suscetíveis.


Subject(s)
Basidiomycota/genetics , Triticum/genetics , Plant Diseases/genetics , Chromosomes, Plant , Disease Resistance/genetics , Plant Breeding
3.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e246436, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339391

ABSTRACT

Abstract Application of different fertilizers to check the efficiency of expression of Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis) gene in one of the leading commercialized crops (cotton) against Lepidopteran species is of great concern. The expression of Cry protein level can be controlled by the improvement of nutrients levels. Therefore, the myth of response of Cry toxin to different combinations of NP fertilizers was explored in three Bt cotton cultivars. Combinations include three levels of nitrogen and three levels of phosphorus fertilizers. Immunostrips and Cry gene(s) specific primer based PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction) analysis were used for the presence of Bt gene that unveiled the presence of Cry1Ac gene only. Further, the ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) kit was used to quantify the expression of Cry1Ac protein. Under various NP fertilizers rates, the level of toxin protein exhibited highly significant differences. The highest toxin level mean was found to be 2.3740 and 2.1732 µg/g under the treatment of N150P75 kg ha-1 combination while the lowest toxin level mean was found to be 0.9158 and 0.7641 µg/g at the N50P25 kg ha-1 level at 80 and 120 DAS (Days After Sowing), respectively. It was concluded from the research that the usage of NP fertilizers has a positive relation with the expression of Cry1Ac toxin in Bt cotton. We recommend using the N150P50 kg ha-1 level as the most economical and practicable fertilizer instead of the standard dose N100P50 kg ha-1 to get the desired level of Cry1Ac level for long lasting plant resistance (<1.5). The revised dose of fertilizer may help farmers to avoid the cross-resistance development in contradiction of insect pests.


Resumo A aplicação de diferentes fertilizantes para verificar a eficiência da expressão do gene Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis) em uma das principais culturas comercializadas (algodão) contra espécies de lepidópteros é uma grande preocupação. A expressão do nível de proteína Cry pode ser controlada pela melhoria dos níveis de nutrientes. Portanto, o mito da resposta da toxina Cry a diferentes combinações de fertilizantes NP foi explorado em três cultivares de algodão Bt. As combinações incluem três níveis de nitrogênio e três níveis de fertilizantes de fósforo. A análise de PCR (reação em cadeia da polimerase) específica para o gene (s) Immunostrips e Cry (s) foi usada para a presença do gene Bt que revelou a presença do gene Cry1Ac apenas. Além disso, o kit ELISA (ensaio de imunoabsorção enzimática) foi usado para quantificar a expressão da proteína Cry1Ac. Sob várias taxas de fertilizantes NP, o nível de proteína de toxina exibiu diferenças altamente significativas. A média do nível mais alto de toxina foi de 2,3740 e 2,1732 µg / g sob o tratamento da combinação N150P75 kg ha-1, enquanto a média do nível mais baixo de toxina foi de 0,9158 e 0,7641 µg / g no nível de N50P25 kg ha-1 em 80 e 120 DAS (dias após a semeadura), respectivamente. Concluiu-se com a pesquisa que o uso de fertilizantes NP tem relação positiva com a expressão da toxina Cry1Ac no algodão Bt. Recomendamos o uso do nível de N150P50 kg ha-1 como o fertilizante mais econômico e praticável em vez da dose padrão N100P50 kg ha-1 para obter o nível desejado de nível de Cry1Ac para resistência de planta de longa duração (<1,5). A dose revisada de fertilizante pode ajudar os agricultores a evitar o desenvolvimento de resistência cruzada em contradição com as pragas de insetos.


Subject(s)
Animals , Hemolysin Proteins/genetics , Moths , Phosphorus , Bacterial Proteins/genetics , Insecticide Resistance , Plants, Genetically Modified/genetics , Endotoxins/genetics , Fertilizers , Bacillus thuringiensis Toxins , Larva , Nitrogen
4.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e243511, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1285591

ABSTRACT

Abstract Vegetable oils have their specific physicochemical properties due to which they are playing vital role in human nutritional diet for health benefits. Cottonseed oil is obtained from various species of cotton seeds that are famous to be grown mainly for their fiber quality. The most prominently used specie is Gossypium hirsutum. It is obvious that the seeds of different variety of cotton vary as grown in diverse agroclimatic conditions with respect to oil, fats and protein contents. Cottonseed oil is routinely used for cooking and food manufacturing products. Cottonseed oil obtained after proper extraction/processing steps from crude state to refined oil in a variety of ways. Cotton crop is considered for their dual-use purpose, for fiber quality and oil production to promote health benefits in the world. Keeping in view the above facts, this review clearly demonstrated an overview about physicochemical and functional properties of cottonseed oil to promote health benefits associated with the use of this oil. The overall characteristics and all concerned health benefits of CSO will further improve their usefulness is a compact way. We have summarized a brief multi-dimensional features of CSO in all aspects up to the best of our knowledge for the end researchers who can further research in the respective aspect.


Resumo Os óleos vegetais têm propriedades físico-químicas específicas que desempenham um papel vital na dieta nutricional humana em benefício à saúde. O óleo de semente de algodão, utilizado rotineiramente no preparo e na fabricação de alimentos, é obtido através de várias espécies de sementes de algodão, famosas pela alta qualidade de sua fibra., cuja espécie mais utilizada é Gossypium hirsutum. As sementes variam, em relação ao teor do óleo, da gordura e das proteínas, de acordo com o cultivo e as diversas condições agroclimáticas. O óleo de algodão é obtido após etapas adequadas de extração das sementes e processamento do estado bruto ao refinado. Assim, a presente revisão demonstra, de maneira geral, as propriedades físico-químicas e funcionais do óleo de semente de algodão e seus benefícios à saúde humana, resumindo suas características multidimensionais. As características gerais e todos os benefícios do composto podem melhorar ainda mais se utilizadas de forma compacta, auxiliando futuros pesquisadores.


Subject(s)
Humans , Cottonseed Oil , Health Promotion , Seeds , Plant Oils , Gossypium
5.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e238812, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1278475

ABSTRACT

Abstract Optimum planting arrangement is an important attribute for efficient utilization of available resources and to obtain high yield of cotton. Application of plant growth promoter and retardant on cotton in improved planting density are the innovative techniques in the establishment of more productive cotton crop. Therefore, we planned a field study to assess the role of bio-stimulant and growth retardant in the resource utilization efficiency of cotton cultivars planted under variable row spacing at Agronomic Research Area Bahauddin Zakariya University and Usmania Agricultural Farm Shujabad during Kharif 2012. Experimental treatments consisted of cotton genotypes viz. CIM-573 and CIM-598, cultivated under conventional (75 cm), medium (50 cm) and ultra-narrow row spacing (25 cm) with foliar spray of bio-stimulant (moringa leaf extract) and growth retardant (mepiquate chloride), either sole or in combination, keeping distilled water as a control. Exogenously applied MLE alone and MLE + MC significantly enhanced the number of squares, flowers and green bolls per plant leading to higher cotton seed and lint yield of CIM 598 cultivar cultivated under conventional row spacing. While application of MC alone and MLE + MC produced maximum micronaire value, fiber strength and fiber uniformity ratio of CIM 573 cultivar cultivated under conventional row spacing. The results suggested that application of MLE is a possible approach to enhance the cotton productivity and the use of MC to enhance the fiber quality attributes under conventional row spacing.


Resumo A configuração ideal de plantio é um atributo importante para a utilização eficiente dos recursos disponíveis e para obter alto rendimento de algodão. A aplicação de promotores de crescimento de plantas e reguladores de crescimento no algodão em uma densidade de plantio adequada são técnicas inovadoras na obtenção de safras de algodão mais produtivas. Portanto, foi planejado um estudo de campo para avaliar o papel de um bioestimulante e um regulador de crescimento na eficiência da utilização de recursos de cultivares de algodão plantadas com espaçamento variável entre linhas na Área de Pesquisa Agronômica Universidade Bahauddin Zakariya e Usmania Agricultural Farm Shujabad durante Kharif 2012. Os tratamentos experimentais consistiram em genótipos de algodão viz. CIM-573 e CIM-598, cultivadas sob espaçamento convencional (75 cm), médio (50 cm) e ultraestreito (25 cm) e pulverização foliar de bioestimulante (extrato de folha de moringa) e regulador de crescimento (cloreto de mepiquato)), sozinho ou combinado, mantendo a água destilada como controle. O MLE aplicado exogenamente sozinho e o MLE + MC aumentaram significativamente o número de quadrados, flores e cápsulas verdes por planta, levando a um maior rendimento de sementes e fibra de algodão da cultivar CIM 598 cultivada sob espaçamento convencional entre fileiras. Enquanto a aplicação de MC sozinho e MLE + MC produziu valor máximo de micronaire, resistência da fibra e razão de uniformidade da fibra da cultivar CIM 573 cultivada sob espaçamento convencional entre linhas. Os resultados sugeriram que a aplicação do MLE é uma abordagem possível para aumentar a produtividade do algodão e o uso de MC para aprimorar os atributos de qualidade da fibra no espaçamento convencional entre linhas.


Subject(s)
Humans , Water , Agriculture , Flowers
6.
Genet. mol. res. (Online) ; 6(4): 1123-1130, 2007. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-520036

ABSTRACT

Ephedra, also known as “ma huang”, is a dioecious, drought- and frost-resistant, perennial, evergreen shrub with compelling medicinal value. The genus is represented by 42 species around the world, 9 of which were provisionally reported from Pakistan. Species of the genus have a controversial taxonomy due to their overlapping morphological features. Conventional tools alone are not sufficient for characterizing the species. The objective of present study was to assess the genetic variability present in different biotypes of Ephedra growing in Pakistan using molecular markers. A total of six genotypes collected from diverse geographic zones of Pakistan were used. The DNA of all genotypes was amplified using nine randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) primers to study genetic variability at the molecular level. The dissimilarity coefficient matrix based on the data of 9 RAPD primers was used to construct a dendrogram which was then used to group the genotypes in clusters. Based on the dendrogram and dissimilarity coefficient matrix, the RAPD markers used here revealed a moderate to high level of genetic polymorphism (6 to 49%) among the genotypes. It was found that the collection of genotype accessions from Swat Valley in northwestern Pakistan was most distantly related to the other five collections. More molecular markers including functional genes and ribosomal spacer regions are suggested to find a better estimate of the genetic diversity present in Ephedra growing in Pakistan. The information provided here is useful for identifying valuable Ephedra variants which will be used for medicinal purposes and earning foreign currency.


Subject(s)
DNA, Plant , Ephedra/genetics , Genetic Variation , Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA Technique , Base Sequence , DNA Primers , Ecosystem , Genetic Markers , Genotype , Pakistan , Plants, Medicinal/genetics
7.
J Environ Biol ; 2005 Apr; 26(2): 187-90
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-113738

ABSTRACT

The correlation study of secondary aerosol (nitrate and sulfate) with RPM in ambient air at different traffic junctions of Vadodara city is reported. RPM was analyzed using Ion Chromatography technique and measured the level of nitrate and sulfate in ambient air. The correlation studies of these particulates with RPM have been established. The average concentration of sulfate and nitrate in ambient air was found 35.74 microg/m3 and 24.22 microg/m3, which ranged of 5.33-84.69 and 1.93-77.86 microg/m3 respectively. The correlation of RPM and SO4 (r = 0.813, P<0.01), RPM-NO3 (r = 0.5549, P<0.01) and SO4-NO3 (r = 0.6133, P<0.01) were found significant. The presence of sulfate and nitrate in RPM is 8.25% and 5.60% . The pH of water extract of RPM averaged 6.81, which ranged 6.17-7.28. Regression analysis result showed that the relationship between RPM-SO4 was significantly (R2=0.66215) correlated. This indicate that probably the secondary aerosols such as nitrate and sulfate in excess may cause irritation and increasing lung disease.


Subject(s)
Aerosols/analysis , Air Pollutants/analysis , Cities , Dust/analysis , Environmental Monitoring , India , Nitrates/analysis , Particle Size , Sulfates/analysis , Vehicle Emissions
8.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-171018

ABSTRACT

Three hundred and seventy four random patients admitted to the postoperative intensive care unit (lCU) underwent postoperative clinical positioning of endotracheal tube(ET), nasogastric tube, central venous catheter and laboratory arterial blood gas (ABG) assessment. Chest roentgenography was done for all the admitted patients and the findings reviewed. Thirteen (3.47%) patients required intervention because of abnormalities detected on chest roentgenography. None of the pathologic conditions detected was life threatening. Chest roentgenography on admission to the cardiovascular ICU should be done only if the surgery has been performed for cardiac trauma, re-exploration, and also if clinical and laboratory assessment indicate the possibility of underlying pathologic conditions that can only be confirmed by chest roentgenography.

9.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-94993

ABSTRACT

Twelve out of 72 (16.7%) multi-transfused patients with thalassemia major (age range: 7-22 years) were found to be positive for antibody to hepatitis-C virus (anti-HCV). Nine (75%) of these 12 cases were positive for hepatitis B core antibody (anti-HBc) and/or hepatitis B surface antibody (anti-HBs). Out of the remaining 60 patients (83.3%), 27 patients (45%) were positive for anti-HBc and/or anti-HBs, while six (10%) were HBsAg positive Anti-HCV positive patients had significant higher levels of liver enzymes than those who were negative (p < 0.01). S. Ferritin was also significantly higher in those with seropositivity for anti-HCV than those who were negative (p < 0.01). It is concluded that HCV (besides HBV) is a major problem in multi-transfused thalassemia major patients and routine pre-transfusion screening of blood for anti-HCV must be introduced in the blood banks.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Antibodies, Viral/isolation & purification , Blood Transfusion/adverse effects , Child , Female , Hepacivirus/immunology , Hepatitis B Surface Antigens/isolation & purification , Hepatitis B virus/immunology , Humans , India , Liver/enzymology , Male , beta-Thalassemia/therapy
10.
J Postgrad Med ; 1992 Apr-Jun; 38(2): 60-1
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-115554

ABSTRACT

Data on 105 solitary thyroid nodules, confirmed at surgery to be solitary, is presented. Six (5.7%) were malignant, 4 papillary and 2 follicular. The sensitivity and the specificity of 131I radionuclide thyroid scan (n = 90) were 100% and 24% respectively. Similarly, the sensitivity and specificity of fine needle aspiration cytology (n = 65) was 75% and 100% respectively. In both instances, the "gold standard" was the histopathology of the surgically removed nodule. In order to avoid unnecessary surgery, without missing malignancy, we would recommend the combination of radionuclide thyroid scan and FNAC for investigation of solitary thyroid nodules.


Subject(s)
Adult , Biopsy, Needle/standards , Evaluation Studies as Topic , Female , Hospitals, University , Humans , India/epidemiology , Iodine Radioisotopes/diagnosis , Male , Sensitivity and Specificity , Thyroid Nodule/diagnosis , Thyroidectomy
12.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-65391

ABSTRACT

Spontaneous rupture of the biliary tree leading to bile peritonitis is rare. We report a boy who developed spontaneous perforation of the left hepatic duct and had acalculous cholecystitis.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Bile Duct Diseases/pathology , Cholecystitis/pathology , Chylous Ascites/microbiology , Enterobacter/isolation & purification , Hepatic Duct, Common/pathology , Humans , Male , Rupture, Spontaneous
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