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BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 1054, 2019 Dec 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31842781


BACKGROUND: Primary care may be an avenue to increase coverage of HIV testing but it is unclear what challenges primary healthcare professionals in low- and middle-income countries face. We describe the HIV testing practices in community health centres (CHCs) and explore the staff's attitude towards further development of HIV testing services at the primary care level in China. METHODS: We conducted a national, cross-sectional survey using a stratified random sample of CHCs in 20 cities in 2015. Questionnaires were completed by primary care doctors and nurses in CHCs, and included questions regarding their demographics, clinical experience and their views on the facilitators and barriers to offering HIV testing in their CHC. Multivariate logistic regression was conducted to examine the association between staff who would offer HIV testing and their sociodemographic characteristics. RESULTS: A total of 3580 staff from 158 CHCs participated. Despite the majority (81%) agreeing that HIV testing was an important part of healthcare, only 25% would provide HIV testing when requested by a patient. The majority (71%) were concerned about reimbursement, and half (47%) cited lack of training as a major barrier. Almost half (44%) believed that treating people belonging to high-risk populations would scare other patients away, and 6% openly expressed their dislike of people belonging to high-risk populations. Staff who would offer HIV testing were younger (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 0.97 per year increase in age, 95% confidence interval (CI):0.97-0.98); trained as a doctor compared to a nurse (aOR 1.79, 95%CI:1.46-2.15); held a bachelor degree or above (aOR 1.34, 95%CI:1.11-1.62); and had previous HIV training (aOR 1.55, 95%CI:1.27-1.89). CONCLUSIONS: Improving HIV training of CHC staff, including addressing stigmatizing attitudes, and improving financial reimbursement may help increase HIV testing coverage in China.

Community Health Centers , HIV Infections/diagnosis , HIV/immunology , Mass Screening/methods , Adult , Attitude of Health Personnel , China , Cross-Sectional Studies , Diagnostic Tests, Routine/economics , Diagnostic Tests, Routine/psychology , Education, Medical , Education, Nursing , Female , HIV/isolation & purification , Humans , Insurance, Health, Reimbursement/economics , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , Nurses/psychology , Physicians/psychology , Primary Health Care , Risk Factors , Serologic Tests/economics , Serologic Tests/psychology , Surveys and Questionnaires
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30621099


Background: Community pharmacies are an integrated part of healthcare systems worldwide. In low and middle income countries like Pakistan, the paradigm of pharmacy practice is shifting from dispensing medicines to clinical activities. There are disparities in these practices according to location. Pharmacies in urban localities are better than those in rural areas. This qualitative study was conducted to explore patients' expectations and current practices in rural pharmacies. Methods: A cohort of adult pharmacy visitors (aged > 18 years) that reside in rural community was selected. Consenting participants were recruited by purposive sampling technique until thematic saturation level was achieved. A total of 34 patients were interviewed. Face-to-face interviews were conducted using a semi structured interview guide. All the data were transcribed and used to originate the themes. Results: On analysis, a total of 20 themes were obtained. Sixteen themes pronounced the current provided services. Four themes provided some suggestions for the development of better pharmacies. On call services to provide medicines, limited free extended pharmacy services, interest in patients' wellbeing, appropriate referral, vaccination, free medical camp, medical services at home, first aid, and counseling were appreciated by patients. Patients stated that medicines are inappropriately stored in unhygienic conditions, prices of medicines are comparatively high, and medicines are substandard. Unavailability of medicines, inept dispensing, limited staffing with poor knowledge, limited working hours, and quackery promotion are challenges in rural pharmacy practice. Patients say that non marginal pricing, informative services, new legislation, and proper vigilance by officials can improve the pharmacy services in rural communities. Conclusions: Patients alleged that rural pharmacies perform deprived practices. To improve service, new legislation and the proper implementation of existing law is needed.

Community Pharmacy Services/organization & administration , Professional Role , Rural Population , Adolescent , Adult , Counseling/methods , Female , First Aid/methods , Humans , Interviews as Topic , Male , Middle Aged , Pakistan , Qualitative Research , Quality of Health Care , Young Adult