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1.
Chinese Journal of Cardiology ; (12): 26-29, 2011.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-244065

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To evaluate the effects of optimal pharmacotherapy according to guideline on treating chronic heart failure(CHF) in real world clinical practice.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>A total of 231 consecutive outpatients with reduced left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF ≤ 40%) and enlarged left ventricular end diastolic diameter (male > 55 mm, female > 60 mm) were recruited from January 2001 to June 2009. All patients were treated with optimal pharmacotherapy according to guideline recommendations and followed up to December 31, 2009. Mortality, rehospitalization and changes of heart size and cardiac function at baseline and at the end of follow-up period were analyzed.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>(1) 14 patients were lost during follow-up (6.1%), and follow-up was complete in 217 patients (93.9%). 97.2% and 98.2% patients were prescribed angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors and β-blockers (βB). Combined of ACE inhibitors and BB use was applied in 95.3% patients. The target dose of ACE inhibitors and βB were reached in 50.7% and 37.3% patients. (2) Lower mortality and re-hospitalization rates were observed in this cohort: all-cause morality, average annual mortality was 11.5% and 3.9% respectively. Re-hospitalization rate was 27.6%. (3) Left ventricular end-diastolic diameter (LVEDD) decreased from (68.2 ± 7.2) mm to (62.2 ± 9.6) mm. LVEDD value was normal or near normal (male ≤ 60 mm, female ≤ 55 mm) in 43.2% patients. LVEF improved form (29.8 ± 7.5)% to (43.3 ± 11.8)%, LVEF was > 40% in 60.4% patients, LVEF was ≤ 40% but increased ≥ 10% after treatment in 22.9% patients.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Optimal pharmacotherapy according to guideline can improve prognosis of outpatients with CHF.</p>


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Chronic Disease , Drug Therapy, Combination , Female , Guideline Adherence , Heart Failure , Drug Therapy , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Prognosis , Young Adult
2.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 2868-2873, 2011.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-292787

ABSTRACT

<p><b>BACKGROUND</b>Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors and β-blockers (βB) have beneficial effects on left ventricular (LV) remodeling, alleviate symptoms and reduce morbidity and mortality in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF). However the correlation between the d osages of ACE inhibitors, βB, and recovery of LV structure remains controversial. Clinical factors associated with recovery of normal ventricular structure in CHF patients receiving medical therapy are poorly defined. Here we aimed to identify variables associated with recovery of normal or near-normal structure in patients with CHF.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>We recruited 231 consecutive CHF outpatients, left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) ≤ 40% and left ventricular end diastolic diameter (LVEDD) > 55/50 mm (male/female), who were receiving optimal pharmacotherapy between January 2001 and June 2009, and followed them until December 31, 2009. They were divided into three groups according to LVEDD and whether they were still alive at final follow-up: group A, LVEDD ≤ 60/55 mm (male/female); group B, LVEDD > 60/55 mm (male/female); and group C, those who died before final follow-up. Apart from group C, univariate analysis was performed followed by Logistic multivariate analysis to determine the predictors of recovery of LV structure.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>A total of 217 patients completed follow-up, and median follow-up time was 35 months (range 6 - 108). Twenty-five patients died during that period; the all-cause mortality rate was 11.5%. Group A showed clinical characteristics as follows: the shortest duration of disease and shortest QRS width, the lowest N-terminal brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) at baseline, the highest dose of βB usage, the highest systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and the lowest New York Heart Association (NYHA) classification, serum creatinine, uric acid, total bilirubin and NT-proBNP after treatment. Logistic multivariate analysis was performed according to recovery or no recovery of LV structure. Data showed that LVEF at follow-up (P = 0.013), mitral regurgitation at baseline (P = 0.020), LVEDD at baseline (P = 0.031), and βB dosage (P = 0.041) were independently associated with recovery of LV diameter.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Our study suggests that four clinical variables may predict recovery of LV structure to normal or near-normal values with optimal drug therapy alone, and may be used to discriminate between patients who should receive optimal pharmacotherapy and those who require more aggressive therapeutic interventions.</p>


Subject(s)
Adrenergic beta-Antagonists , Therapeutic Uses , Adult , Aged , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors , Therapeutic Uses , Female , Heart Failure , Drug Therapy , Heart Ventricles , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Ventricular Function, Left , Ventricular Remodeling
3.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 3597-3604, 2010.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-336576

ABSTRACT

<p><b>BACKGROUND</b>Neuregulin-1 (NRG-1), the ligand of the myocardial ErbB receptor, is a protein mediator with regulatory actions in the heart. This study investigated whether NRG-1 preconditioning has protective effects on myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury and its potential mechanism.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>We worked with an in vivo rat model with induced myocardial ischemia (45 minutes) followed by reperfusion (3 hours). NRG-1 message was detected in the heart using RT-PCR and the protein levels of NRG-1 and ErbB4 were detected by Western blotting analysis. Infarct size was assessed using the staining agent triphenyltetrazolium chloride and cardiac function was continuously monitored. The levels of creatine kinase and lactate dehydrogenase in plasma were analyzed to assess the degree of cardiac injury. The extent of cardiac apoptosis was evaluated by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay and by Western blotting analysis of cleaved caspase-3. We examined the phosphorylation of Akt in the myocardium and the effect of PI3K/Akt inhibition on NRG-1-induced cardioprotection.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Transcription and expression of NRG-1 and phosphorylation of its ErbB4 receptor were significantly upregulated in the I/R hearts. NRG-1 pretreatment reduced the infarct size following cardiac I/R in a concentration-dependent manner with an optimal concentration of 4 µg/kg in vivo. NRG-1 pretreatment with 4 µg/kg, i.v. markedly reduced the plasma creatine kinase and lactate dehydrogenase levels. Pretreatment with NRG-1 also significantly reduced the percentage of TUNEL positive myocytes and the level of cleaved caspase-3 in the I/R hearts. Pretreatment with NRG-1 significantly increased phosphorylation of Akt following I/R. Furthermore, the cardioprotective effect limiting the infarct size that was induced by NRG-1 was abolished by co-administration of the PI3K inhibitor LY294002.</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>The concentration of NRG-1, a new autacoid, was rapidly upregulated after myocardial I/R. NRG-1 preconditioning has cardioprotective effects against I/R injury through a PI3K/Akt-dependent mechanism in vivo.</p>


Subject(s)
Animals , Apoptosis , Caspase 3 , Metabolism , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Ischemic Preconditioning, Myocardial , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase , Blood , Male , Myocardial Reperfusion Injury , Neuregulin-1 , Pharmacology , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases , Physiology , Phosphorylation , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt , Physiology , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , ErbB Receptors , Receptor, ErbB-4
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