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1.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-204901

ABSTRACT

A study was conducted in mid hill region of Rajouri district, J&K, India to analyze the impact lockdown amid covid-19 pandemic on weather parameters. Day and night temperature readings were recorded fortnightly from 1st March to 30th June 2020 from maximum and minimum thermometer, rainfall values from ordinary rain gauge, and soil temperature at different depth from soil thermometers and values were compared with data from 2017-2019 and normal. After analyzing the data statistically using “Descriptive statistics” in MS-Excel 2010, it was observed that within the period of lockdown, the change in day temperature was -6.66% from normal mean value, however night temperature was least affected as it changes 10.33% and rainfall pattern was 19.27% more from normal mean value. The average change in soil temperature in morning at 5 cm, 10 cm and 20 cm depth in lockdown was -4.65%, 3.74% and 2.65% as compared to year 2019 (1st March to 30th June) mean value and the change in soil temperature in evening at same depths was -5.14%, -11.30% and 0.3% from year 2019 (1st March to 30th June) depicting a slow change in values. With the significant sustainable pattern observed in day and soil temperature parameters and rainfall it can be concluded that lockdown might be an effective tool in reducing speed of climate change in future.

2.
Indian J Ophthalmol ; 2020 Mar; 68(3): 504-509
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-197839

ABSTRACT

Purpose: To evaluate the accuracy of Spot photoscreener (PS) as a noncycloplegic photorefractor in detecting amblyopia risk factors (ARFs) in preschool children in an Indian eye clinic setting. Also, to derive appropriate cutoff values for screening to obtain maximum sensitivity and specificity of the device in detecting ARF. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study conducted in the outpatient pediatric eye clinic at a tertiary eye care institute. A Spot PS was used to screen all the children between the ages of 6 months and 5 years that presented to the eye clinic from August 2018 to October 2018. This screening was followed by a complete eye examination, including cycloplegic refraction by a masked examiner. The 2013 American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus (AAPOS) guidelines were considered the standard cutoff values for clinically significant refractive error in children younger than 5 years of age. Results: The study comprised of 219 children. The Spot PS diagnosed 135 (61.64%) children with ARF as compared with 124 (56.62%) children detected by clinic examination. For ARF detection, the Spot photoscreeneer had 85.48% sensitivity, 69.47% specificity, 78.52% positive predictive value and 78.57% negative predictive value. The sensitivity for detection of strabismus and hypermetropia was very low (42% and 36%, respectively). The 95% limits of agreement ranged from ?5.48 to +5.59 diopters (D) with a bias of 0.06 D for spherical equivalent between noncycloplegic photorefraction and cycloplegic refraction. Conclusion: The Spot PS may be used as a screening tool to detect ARF in children younger than 5 years of age keeping its limitations in consideration. However, the performance can be improved by modifying the cutoff values for the referral.

3.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-204851

ABSTRACT

The impacts of climate change on water quality of water bodies are associated with the climatic extreme events (heavy rainfall and flood, heat, drought, wildfires, cyclones, hurricane, super storms) as the major drivers that require knowledge of understanding. Most research studies present the role of climate change in threatening water quality, risks on drinking water and contributions of catchment in water pollution, but less attention has directed to specific sensitive water quality parameters, appropriate methodologies, risks on ecosystem and managerial practice to reduce the impacts. This review highlight the of effect climate change on surface water bodies based on recent literatures on the impacts of climate change on water quality and promote practical opportunity for better management of these impacts. We conclude that consideration of climate change preparedness plan in catchments is the best option to adopt for minimization of climate change impacts on water quality of water bodies.

4.
J Environ Biol ; 2020 Jan; 41(1): 53-58
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-214472

ABSTRACT

Aim: The present study was performed to evaluate the genotoxic effect of 4-nonylphenol after acute and subchronic exposure in spleen tissue of Channa punctatus, recovery in DNA damage was also ascertained after 30 days of cessation of exposure.Methodology: Tail length (TL), tail intensity (TI), tail moment (TM), Olive tail moment (OTM) was used as biological indicators of DNA damage. The fish were exposed to different sublethal concentrations of 4-NP for 96 hrs (acute exposure) and for 90 days (sub chronic exposure). Results: Exposed groups showed significantly higher DNA damage in both acute and sub chronic exposure as compared to control groups. In the case of acute exposure, the highest damage was observed at 24 hr of exposure followed by a decline in the value of all the parameters, while in the later hours of exposure these value further increased. On the other hand, in the case of sub-chronic exposure, the highest damage was observed after treatment with 0.10 mg l-1 concentration of 4-NP at 90 days of exposure. Recovery experiment showed a decrease in the values of all the parameter’s studied, however, a significant decrease was observed only at the highest concentration. Interpretation: The results conclude the DNA damaging potential of 4-nonylphenol and highlighted the usage of spleen tissue for genotoxicity testing

5.
Indian J Ophthalmol ; 2020 Jan; 68(1): 106-111
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-197718

ABSTRACT

Purpose: To evaluate the potential clinical utility of wide-field swept source optical coherence tomography angiography (SS-OCTA) using a prototype device compared to a wide-field fundus autofluorescence (FAF) for analysis of the disease activity in eyes with tubercular serpiginous-like choroiditis (TBSLC). Methods: Using a prototype SS-OCTA device (PLEX Elite, Carl Zeiss Meditec, Dublin, CA), 17 eyes of 12 consecutive patients with TBSLC were imaged and multiple 12 mm � 12 mm OCTA scans were captured, which were montaged to create wide-field montage OCTA images scans. A wide- FAF (Eidon, CenterVue, Padova, Italy) was performed in the same sitting. Two masked graders independently analyzed OCTA and FAF images for the presence of choroidal lesions, recorded the number of lesions identifiable, and provided a subjective grading for the activity of individual lesion, which were then compared. Results: The total number of lesions identified on FAF were 282 (posterior pole lesions, n = 129 and peripheral lesions n = 153) and on wide-field SS-OCTA were 230 (posterior pole lesions, n = 108 and peripheral lesions n = 122). Active choroidal lesions were comparable on the two machines (n = 28 on FAF and n = 28 on SS-OCTA, respectively); whereas numerous healed lesions were identified on FAF (n = 219) as compared to SS-OCTA (n = 170). There was good correlation among the devices for healed lesions (Pearson correlation, r = 0.82) and active lesions (r = 0.88). Conclusion: There was good correlation between FAF and wide-field SS-OCTA for detection of disease activity in TBSLC; however, FAF depicted greater number of healed lesions compared to wide-field SS-OCTA.

6.
Indian J Ophthalmol ; 2019 Nov; 67(11): 1864-1869
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-197610

ABSTRACT

Purpose: To compare foveal avascular zone (FAZ) area and circularity, ganglion cell layer (GCL) thickness, retinal perfusion density (PD), and vessel density (VD) in eyes with branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO) after resolution of cystoid macular edema (CME) to fellow control eyes and to correlate these parameters with visual acuity (VA). Methods: SD-OCTA scans (Zeiss Angioplex; Carl Zeiss Meditec Version 10) obtained on 32 eyes with BRVO after resolution of the CME with their fellow eyes used as controls were retrospectively evaluated. Parameters analyzed were FAZ size and circularity, PD, and VD in the superficial capillary plexus measured in the Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) grid pattern using the automated algorithm. GCL thickness was generated from the Macular Cube 512 × 218 protocol. VA measured on the same day as OCTA examination was recorded. Results: The mean FAZ area was greater (P = 0.01) in BRVO eyes (0.239 ± 0.108 mm2) when compared with fellow eyes (0.290 ± 0.127 mm2). The FAZ was more irregular in BRVO eyes compared with fellow eyes (circularity index = 64.6 ± 12.8% vs 71.1 ± 10.8%, respectively, P= 0.03). GCL thickness was lower in BRVO eyes compared with control eyes (67.19 ± 27.71 vs 77.79 ± 6.41 respectively, P= 0.006). The mean VD and PD were significantly lower in the ETDRS outer ring in BRVO eyes (P = 0.04 and 0.038, respectively). On comparison of the affected quadrant with the unaffected quadrant in BRVO eyes, the affected quadrant had a lower outer PD (P = 0.04), outer VD (P = 0.04), and GCL thickness (P = 0.02). There was no significant correlation of VA with FAZ, VD, or GCL thickness (P >0.05). Conclusion: FAZ is more irregular and enlarged, and GCL is thinner, in eyes with BRVO after resolution of CME especially in the affected quadrant suggesting neuronal degeneration as a sequela of BRVO. Both perfusion and VD are reduced in the quadrant affected by the BRVO demonstrating regional quantitative differences in the retinal microvasculature. These parameters may prove useful in monitoring the disease progression and treatment response.

7.
Indian J Ophthalmol ; 2019 Aug; 67(8): 1374-1377
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-197458

ABSTRACT

Sweat gland neoplasms are rare adnexal tumors that pose a diagnostic challenge for both, ophthalmologists and pathologists. Endocrine, mucin producing sweat gland carcinoma (EMPSGC), considered to be analogous to the solid papillary mammary carcinoma is one such tumor. It usually affects elderly, is more frequent in women and has a predilection for skin of the eyelid. Although it has an indolent clinical course, EMPSGC is believed to be a precursor of the invasive mucinous carcinoma and has a potential for local recurrence. We report a series of 10 biopsy-proven EMPSGCs with their immunohistochemical features and review the literature.

8.
J Environ Biol ; 2019 Jul; 40(4): 668-673
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-214606

ABSTRACT

Aim: The study was conducted to determine the impact of landuse on soil physical properties and erodibility. Methodology: Representative soil samples were collected from surface and sub-surface soil depths. Soil physical properties and erodibility indices viz suspension percentage, dispersion ratio, clay/moisture equivalent ratio, erosion ratio, percolation ratio, clay ratio, erosion index and modified clay ratio were determined using standard procedures. Interrelationship among soil properties and erodibility indices were evaluated using Pearson correlation analysis (at 95% and 99% significance level). Results: Among landuse systems, the clay was highest in forest while least in soils under barren landuse. Lowest bulk density and highest value of maximum water holding capacity was found in forest soils. According to susceptibility to erosion, the landuse systems were found in the following order barren lands > cultivated systems (agriculture and horticulture) > forest lands. The ‘r’ values showed positive and highly significant correlations between sand content and bulk density with suspension percentage (SP), clay ratio (CR), modified clay ratio (MCR), dispersion ratio (DR), percolation ratio (PR), erosion ratio (ER), erosion index (EI) while negative and significant correlations of these erodibility indices were found with clay and porosity. Among the erodibility indices SP, DR, PR, ER and EI were positively and significantly correlated with each other. Interpretation: Physical quality of soil was higher in forest compared to other landuse systems. Erodibility of different landuse systems could be arranged in order barren lands > cultivated systems (agriculture and horticulture) > forests. The study was useful for suggesting remedial measures and landuse planning for future

9.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-198605

ABSTRACT

Background: The Medical Council of India has visualized the effective outcome based strategy of CompetencyBased Medical Education where the assessment is the essential component of competencies. Formative assessmentis a systematic approach designed for students during a particular period of study to provide motivation forlearning. It helps the student to set the desired but attainable goals and to follow the steps required to achievethose specified goals.Aim: To introduce the feedback to the students during substages and after the theory tests and to assess studentsand teacher’s perspective towards feedback.Material and Method: The project was done in the Department of Anatomy, Punjab Institute of Medical Sciences,Jalandhar involving 1st year batch students and faculty members of Anatomy.Results: A good percentage of students were satisfied with the formative assessment and wanted the process tobe continued in the subsequent years too. All the faculty members had positive response for formative assessment.Conclusion: Formative assessment is the strategy to encourage the students for self directed learning and selfassessment.

10.
Indian J Ophthalmol ; 2019 Jul; 67(7): 1137-1142
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-197358

ABSTRACT

Purpose: To study the clinical presentation, nasal endoscopic features, and outcomes of nasal endoscopy guided (NEG) bicanalicular intubation (BCI) in children with complex persistent congenital nasolacrimal duct obstruction (pCNLDO). Methods: A prospective, interventional study including eligible children (age ? 12 years) having complex pCNLDO. The demographics, number of previous probings, nasal endoscopy findings, and outcomes; were noted in all children who underwent NEG-BCI with Crawford's stents. Matting of eyelashes (MoE, upper, and lower eyelid), tear-film height (TFH), and fluorescein dye disappearance test (FDDT) was assessed pre and postoperatively. The minimum stent in-situ period was 12 weeks, and the minimum follow-up was 6 months (after stent removal). Results: Total 32 children (36 eyes) including 18 females (56.25%) were studied. At a mean age of 4.9 years, all children had epiphora and discharge with MoE (both upper and lower), raised TFH and positive FDDT. Previously, all children underwent conventional probing (s)- once in 12 (33.3%), twice in 18 (50%) and thrice in 6 (16.7%) eyes. The general ophthalmologists performed the majority (n = 21, 58.33%) of those. The BCI was performed under GA in all eyes, and at a mean follow-up of 8.5 months, the “complete” success was noted in 29 eyes (80.5%), 'partial' success in 4 (11.1%) and failure in 3 (8.3%). The stent prolapse was seen in three. Conclusion: NEG-BCI may provide a satisfactory resolution to complex pCNLDO after single or multiple failed probings. NEG provides confident and efficient management of coexistent intranasal complexities related to the inferior turbinate and meatus.

11.
Indian J Ophthalmol ; 2019 Jul; 67(7): 1048-1053
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-197332

ABSTRACT

Purpose: The aim of the study is to identify risk factors, clinical characteristics, causative fungi, and treatment outcome of dematiaceous fungal keratitis in North India. Methods: Consecutive cases of culture-proven dematiaceous fungal keratitis between January 2012 and June 2017 were retrieved from the medical record department. Risk factors, clinical signs, and outcome were registered. Results: Eighty-three patients were included. Identified dematiaceous fungal organism were Curvularia sp. (n = 55/83; 66.3%), Alternaria sp. (n = 12/83; 14.5%), Ulocladium sp. (n = 5/83; 6%), Bipolaris sp. (n = 5/83; 6.1%), Scedosporium sp. (n = 3/83; 3.6%), Acremonium sp. (n = 2/83; 2.4%), and Epicoccum sp. (n = 1/83; 1.2%). Male preponderance was reported. The most common predisposing factor was corneal trauma (67.4%). In cases associated with corneal trauma due to vegetative matter, sugarcane was the most common cause. In all, 89% of the patients were more than 30 years of age. The median infiltrate size was 8 mm2. The median time of antifungal therapy was 4.2 weeks (interquartile range [IQR]: 1-25 weeks). Complications were seen in 14 (n = 14/65; 21.5%) patients. Complete resolution of dematiaceous fungal keratitis was present in 27 (n = 27/65; 41.5%) eyes. Conclusion: Curvularia sp. and Alternaria sp. were the predominant pathogenic genera causing dematiaceous fungal keratitis. Among the causative fungi, infections due to Scedosporium sp. were associated with the worst outcomes. Ulocladium sp. and Epicoccum sp. were also identified. Both the species are not reported previously as a causal organism of dematiaceous fungal keratitis from North India.

12.
Indian J Med Microbiol ; 2019 Jun; 37(2): 203-209
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-198885

ABSTRACT

Background: Cystic fibrosis (CF) is now a recognised entity in India, with prevalence rates between 1/10,000 and 1/50,000. However, no data were available with regard to the profile of respiratory pathogens in the Indian setting. Materials and Methods: The records of respiratory secretion bacterial cultures of children with CF in a tertiary care hospital in North India from January 2010 to December 2016 were reviewed. Culture data were evaluated; the organisms were noted and their antimicrobial susceptibilities were analysed. The microbiological profile and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of CF patients were evaluated. Results: A total of 445 samples from 146 children were processed, of which 246 (55%) samples showed bacterial growth. Mixed infections 48 (19.5%) were common in older children. Children aged 3–6 months (62.5%) showed the highest culture positivity. The most commonly isolated organisms were Pseudomonas aeruginosa (52.6%) and Staphylococcus aureus. Children with initial cultures positive for P. aeruginosa had 55% of their subsequent cultures showing polymicrobial infections. P. aeruginosa was most susceptible to ciprofloxacin (89%) and piperacillin-tazobactum (88%). Among the staphylococcal isolates, 38% were methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). The percentage of MRSA increased from 66% in 2010 to 75% in 2012, followed by a decline to 24% in 2016. Conclusions: The pattern of airway colonisation in the Indian setting is different from the Caucasian population, and P. aeruginosa and Burkholderia cepacia complex appear early. Colonisation with P. aeruginosa benefits from therapy. In case of infection, care must be taken while initiating empiric therapy. It should be based on local antibiograms to prevent the emergence of resistant microbes.

13.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-195900

ABSTRACT

Background & objectives: High-altitude pulmonary oedema (HAPE) continues to challenge the healthcare providers at remote, resource-constrained settings. High-altitude terrain itself precludes convenience of resources. This study was conducted to evaluate the rise in peripheral capillary saturation of oxygen (SpO2) by the use of a partial rebreathing mask (PRM) in comparison to Hudson's mask among patients with HAPE. Methods: This was a single-centre, randomized crossover study to determine the efficiency of PRM in comparison to Hudson's mask. A total of 88 patients with HAPE referred to a secondary healthcare facility at an altitude of 11,500 feet from January to October 2013 were studied. A crossover after adequate wash-out on both modalities was conducted for first two days of hospital admission. All patients with HAPE were managed with bed rest and stand-alone oxygen supplementation with no adjuvant pharmacotherapy. Results: The mean SpO2on ambient air on arrival was 66.92�.8 per cent for all patients with HAPE. Higher SpO2values were achieved with PRM in comparison to Hudson's mask on day one (86.08�15 vs. 77.23�09%) and day two (89.94�96 vs. 83.39�93%). The difference was more pronounced on day one as compared to day two. Interpretation & conclusions: Mean SpO2values were found to be significantly higher among HAPE patients using PRM compared to those on Hudson's mask. Further studies to understand the translation of this incremental response in SpO2to clinical benefits (recovery times, mortality rates and hospital stay) need to be undertaken.

14.
Indian J Lepr ; 2019 Jun; 91(2): 79-89
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-195062

ABSTRACT

In the post elimination era for leprosy in India, with changing disease epidemiology and controlled incidence rates, now the focus must shift to rehabilitative strategies for leprosy affected persons (LAP) residing in leprosy rehabilitation colonies. For this, firstly it is important to reassess their socioeconomic and health status before making any recommendations. This study has been conducted among 137 LAP residing in 7 such colonies in Uttarakhand, who were interviewed on a predesigned, pretested questionnaire with aims to study the overall health status of LAPs, to assess their awareness about the disease and to assess their access to various health facilities and make recommendation for their rehabilitation. Out of 137 participants, 72% belonged to 41-80 years' age group. 85% of study participants were either illiterate or had less than or equal to primary education. More than half of the participants were engaged in begging. 87% LAPs had disabilities in hands and feet, 28.3% had disability in eyes. 24% participants had BMI <18.5. 13.9% participants had diabetes, 28.5% - Hypertension, and 13.1% had history of Tuberculosis. NGO's hospital/ private clinic is the nearest health facility for 62.8% of LAPs. Although all inhabitants (100%) are getting support from the government in form of land for rehabilitation colonies, disability cards etc., however, 44.53% had not been visited by any government functionary in the last month indicating need for proper supervision. Socioeconomic and health status of LAPs was found to be poor with most being illiterate, disabled, having comorbidities like diabetes mellitus. Strategies should be considered to improve the access to government services and developing collaboration with certain NGO's for strengthening of health infrastructure and administration, disability care and rehabilitation.

15.
Indian J Ophthalmol ; 2019 May; 67(5): 630-633
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-197220

ABSTRACT

Purpose: To report a series of central retinal artery occlusions (CRAO) following cataract surgery complicated by posterior capsular rupture (PCR). Methods: Data from 14 patients with acute CRAO following cataract surgery was collected for this study including subject demographics, initial and final best-corrected visual acuity, systemic investigations, optical coherence tomography (OCT) and fundus fluorescein angiography (FFA) findings. Results: Mean subject age was 59.9 ± 12.1 years. Male: Female ratio was 1:1. All patients were operated between October and November 2015 and presented with acute vision loss 1 to 4 days after surgery. All the patients underwent cataract surgery under peribulbar anesthesia and had PCR for which anterior vitrectomy (AV) was done. In all the cases Ethylene oxide (ETO) sterilized vitrectomy probe was used for AV. Clinical picture of CRAO was noted in all the cases during the immediate postoperative period. OCT showed inner retinal layer hyperreflectivity while FFA was normal in all the cases. The final visual acuity was poor in all the eyes. This paper discusses the possible mechanisms of CRAO in these cases. Conclusion: CRAO is a potential complication of peribulbar anesthesia for intraocular surgery in patients with vascular risk factors and hence any substance that can aggravate the vasospasm in such patients should be used cautiously. Vasospasm could be caused by ETO as residual ETO could be present in the vitrectomy machine tubing causing toxicity. It is recommended to be cautious while using ETO sterilized instruments for cataract surgery.

16.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-195848

ABSTRACT

Background & objectives: To support recent political commitments to end tuberculosis (TB) in the World Health Organization South-East Asian Region (SEAR), there is a need to understand by what measures, and with what investment, these goals could be reached. These questions were addressed by using mathematical models of TB transmission by doing the analysis on a country-by-country basis in SEAR. Methods: A dynamical model of TB transmission was developed, in consultation with each of the 11 countries in the SEAR. Three intervention scenarios were examined: (i) strengthening basic TB services (including private sector engagement), (ii) accelerating TB case-finding and notification, and (iii) deployment of a prognostic biomarker test by 2025, to guide mass preventive therapy of latent TB infection. Each scenario was built on the preceding ones, in successive combination. Results: Comprehensive improvements in basic TB services by 2020, in combination with accelerated case-finding to increase TB detection by at least two-fold by 2020, could lead to a reduction in TB incidence rates in SEAR by 67.3 per cent [95% credible intervals (CrI) 65.3-69.8] and TB deaths by 80.9 per cent (95% CrI 77.9-84.7) in 2035, relative to 2015. These interventions alone would require an additional investment of at least US$ 25 billion. However, their combined effect is insufficient to reach the end TB targets of 80 per cent by 2030 and 90 per cent by 2035. Model projections show how additionally, deployment of a biomarker test by 2025 could end TB in the region by 2035. Targeting specific risk groups, such as slum dwellers, could mitigate the coverage needed in the general population, to end TB in the Region. Interpretation & conclusions: While the scale-up of currently available strategies may play an important role in averting TB cases and deaths in the Region, there will ultimately be a need for novel, mass preventive measures, to meet the end TB goals. Achieving these impacts will require a substantial escalation in funding for TB control in the Region.

17.
Indian J Ophthalmol ; 2019 Mar; 67(3): 335-339
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-197177

ABSTRACT

Purpose: The aim of this study is to know practice pattern of cataract surgeons when operating on patients, positive for blood-borne viral infections (BBVIs), namely, hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus, and human immunodeficiency virus. We also studied their awareness, knowledge, and attitude toward universal precautions and guidelines. Methods: The telephonic survey enrolled practicing cataract surgeons, who were interviewed to record responses pertaining to their practice using an open-ended questionnaire. We studied statistical significance of difference of frequency of prick injuries in topical versus peribulbar anesthesia, and phacoemulsification versus manual small incision cataract surgery by employing Chi-square test. Significance of proportion was calculated using z-test. For all statistical calculations, significance level was set at 0.05%. Results: Of 623 ophthalmologists contacted, responses of 479 (79%) ophthalmologists were analyzed. Maximum participants were in private practice (48%). During whole practicing carrier, 313 (65%; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 61–70) participants admitted having suffered injury with needle or sharp instruments; of these, 204 (65%; 95% CI: 60–70) participants did not report their injury. Wearing “double gloves” during cataract surgery was the most common barrier adopted by participants. Conclusion: We found high prevalence of occupational-related sharp injuries among ophthalmologists in this survey. Majority of them were aware of universal precautions, but adherence to postexposure prophylaxis was lacking.

18.
Indian J Ophthalmol ; 2019 Feb; 67(2): 282-285
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-197126

ABSTRACT

An 80-year-old male reported to the clinic with complaints of diminished vision, foreign body sensation, and occasionally some black object moving in front of the right eye. Detailed ocular examination revealed three slender creamy white live worms in the conjunctival sac of the right eye. Total three worms were retrieved and sent to the pathology department for detailed examination. The worm was identified as gravid Thelazia callipaeda. As per the search results in PubMed and Cochrane search engine, this is the first report of human case of gravid Thelazia infestation with simultaneous existence of embryonated or ensheathed eggs and primary-stage larvae in the same worm.

19.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-195814

ABSTRACT

Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) continues to pose a significant public health problem in terms of mortality and economic loss. Health authorities of several countries including India have formulated action plans for its containment. In this fight against AMR, it is important to realize the contribution by all the following four spheres: humans, animals, food and environment. This review incorporates all the spheres of One Health concept from the Indian perspective. India has one of the highest rates of resistance to antimicrobial agents used both in humans and food animals. The environment, especially the water bodies, have also reported the presence of resistant organisms or their genes. Specific socio-economic and cultural factors prevalent in India make the containment of resistance more challenging. Injudicious use of antimicrobials and inadequate treatment of waste waters are important drivers of AMR in India. Use of sludge in agriculture, improper discard of livestock animals and aquaculture industry are considered AMR contributors in other countries but Indian data regarding these are lacking. Efforts to combat AMR have been initiated by the Indian health authorities but are still at preliminary stages. Keeping in view the challenges unique to India, future directions are proposed.

20.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-195813

ABSTRACT

The looming concern of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) has prompted the government of many countries of the world to act upon and come up with the guidelines, comprehensive recommendations and policies concerning prudent use of antibiotics and containment of AMR. However, such initiatives from countries with high incidence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in food animals are still in infancy. This review highlights the existing global policies on antibiotics use in food animals along with details of the various Indian policies and guidelines. In India, in spite of availability of integrated policies for livestock, poultry and aquaculture sector, uniform regulations with coordinated initiative are needed to formulate strict policies regarding antimicrobial use both in humans and animals. In an attempt to create effective framework to tackle the AMR, the Indian Council of Medical Research initiated a series of dialogues with various stakeholders and suggested various action points for urgent implementation. This review summarizes the recommendations made during the various consultations. The overarching aim of this review is to clearly delineate the action points which need to be carried out urgently to regulate the antibiotic use in animals.

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