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1.
J Environ Biol ; 2020 Jul; 41(4): 761-769
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-214540

ABSTRACT

Aim: The present study aimed to assess the phytoextraction potential of plant geranium (CIM BIO-171) to remove metals from sewage sludge and to investigate the growth, yield and quality of essential oil of this aromatic plant grown in contaminated sludge.Methodology: The experiment was conducted at research farm of CSIR-CIMAP, Lucknow during 2017-18 in vertical cemented column pots dug into soil. Six treatment groups of sewage sludge and soil were taken with four replication, i.e., T1-100% sewage sludge, T2-80% sewage sludge + 20% soil, T3-60% sewage sludge + 40% soil, T4-40% sewage sludge + 60% soil, T5-20% sewage sludge + 80% soil and T6-soil (only soil). Experimental soil was analysed at pre-harvest and post-harvest stage for soil characters. All plant attributes were recorded at the time of harvesting. Results: Result of the present study showed reduction in the heavy metals in the soil at harvest in comparison to the contents observed in soil at initial stage. All the parameters of growth, yield, biomass and essential oil were found to increase with the application rate of sewage sludge in geranium (CIM BIO-171). Interpretation: The results of the present study clearly indicate the phytoextraction capability of geranium plant (CIM BIO-171). Furthermore, the plants grown in contaminated sludge has all the beneficial impact on growth, yield and quality of essential oil.

4.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-198719

ABSTRACT

Variations of nerve are not only of anatomic and embryological interest but also of clinical importance. Theiradequate knowledge certainly help in increasing surgical precision and decreasing morbidity. In present studyvariations in mode of origin and level of formation of nerve to medial and lateral head of gastrocnemius wasstudied. The material for the present study comprised of 60 lower extremities belonging to 30 adult humancadavers obtained from Department of Anatomy, PIMS, Jalandhar. Neurectomy of nerve to medial gastrocnemiusmuscle is used to reduce volume of the muscle. For facial reconstruction after total parotidectomy, the facialnerve is being reconstructed by using vascularized sural nerve with free lateral gastrocnemius muscle flap

5.
Indian J Ophthalmol ; 2020 Jan; 68(1): 112-116
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-197719

ABSTRACT

Purpose: To describe the clinical presentation and management of Enterobacter endophthalmitis and compare with previous in-house published literature. Methods: This was a retrospective interventional comparative case series involving 44 cases with culture proven Enterobacter endophthalmitis from April 2006 to August 2018 who underwent vitrectomy/vitreous biopsy, intravitreal antibiotics with or without additional procedures as appropriate. The current outcomes were compared to the outcomes previously reported a decade back from our center. The mean age at presentation, predisposing factor, number of interventions, interval between inciting event and presentation, type of intravitreal antibiotic used, anatomic, and the functional outcomes were analyzed and compared to the previous series. Results: There were 30 males. Mean age was 22.73 � 21.35 years (median 14 years). Inciting event was open globe injury in 34 (77.27%) eyes, 4 (9.09%) eyes following cataract surgery, 3 (6.81%) eyes with endogenous endophthalmitis, 2 (4.54%) eyes following keratoplasty, and 1 eye (2.27%) following trabeculectomy. Presenting visual acuity was favorable (?20/400) in 2 eyes (4.54%), at the final visit it was in 11 eyes (25%). The organisms were most sensitive to ciprofloxacin (95.12%), amikacin (90.47%), and ceftazidime (85.36%). A comparison of the current study with previous in-house study showed that number of eyes with presenting vision ?20/400 as well as final vision ?20/400 were comparable. Susceptibility was highest to ciprofloxacin 39 (95.12%) (previous series) and 33 (92%) (current series). Conclusion: Enterobacter organisms show susceptibility to ciprofloxacin, amikacin, and ceftazidime. Susceptibility profile, clinical presentations, and management remain largely similar over many years. Final outcome is unfavorable.

6.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-196126

ABSTRACT

Background & objectives: Comprehension and process of consent are important for persons with mental illness as they may not be impaired in considering research participation. The American Psychiatric Association developed a detailed Cultural Formulation Interview (CFI). The present study was a part of field testing of CFI, aimed to standardize cultural information affecting the patients' management in India. This paper describes the process and conclusions from the consent-seeking process of this study. Methods: The purpose and procedures about field trial of the CFI were introduced and the patient and caregiver were requested for participation. Consent process was carried out step by step, by reading out the consent form to the first new patient of the day in the psychiatry outpatients department of a tertiary care hospital in north India, inviting questions followed by the 'comprehension' questions. The entire process was audiotaped without any personal identifiers. The process was repeated if not comprehended. Results: A total of 67 patients consented, 11 refused and majority were educated more than secondary school. Some concerns shown by the patients and caregivers included risk of participation, loss or benefits of participation, privacy, etc. All types of mentally ill patients participated in the study. Interpretation & conclusions: Translations of consent forms used simple words, consonant with understanding of the potential participants. Patients' belief that participating in this long process would improve their care, and serve humanity, influenced their decision to participate. Except for intoxication and severe psychosis, patients could understand and comprehend issues around consent. Main issues were confidentiality and culture. Our experience in the psychiatry OPD refutes the commonly held belief that mentally ill persons lack comprehension and ability to consent.

7.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-203050

ABSTRACT

Visual culture attempts to expose that other facet of the world which almost hitherto remainsconcealed from the majority of the populace. This is because the people across the globe werefed with the visual images that largely went on a par with the interests of the white Europeans. Inother words, Visual culture views the world from a “subaltern” perspective and challenges thenorms set by “a white European Christian male” centric outlook. To put it simply, visual culturestudies and interprets the world, which is made up of visual images, from the point of view ofmarginalized, the suppressed or the disadvantaged. In this connection, the study of visual cultureenjoys a close affiliation with feminism and critical race theory.

8.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-196396

ABSTRACT

Objectives: To study the role of serum procalcitonin as a diagnostic biomarker in sepsis and to compare it with other sepsis markers (IL-6, CRP) in patients of suspected sepsis. Materials and Methods: A total of 80 patients were included in this study from ICU and each patient was investigated for serum Procalcitonin, Interleukin-6 and C-reactive protein levels by ELISA along with blood cultures by BacT/Alert system. Result: Procalcitonin along with CRP is a better diagnostic tool for sepsis.

9.
Indian J Ophthalmol ; 2019 Nov; 67(11): 1886-1888
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-197624

ABSTRACT

Identification of Acanthamoeba cysts and trophozoites in cases of keratitis is traditionally done with microbiological techniques such as smear examination with 10% potassium hydroxide (KOH) and culture. Double walled cyst with hexagonal inner wall is characteristic of Acanthamoeba. We report a unique case of a 9 year old boy who presented with dense anterior corneal stromal infltration, which on smear examination showed atypical double walled spherical cysts, leading to a diagnostic dilemma. An 18S rRNA gene-based PCR done on the growth on culture, subsequently identifed a rarely reported species of Acanthamoeba. The patient was advised combination therapy with polyhexamethylene biguanide (PHMB 0.02%) and chlorhexidine (0.02%) eye drops. Three weeks post treatment, the keratitis resolved with scarring and vascularisation and visual acuity improved to 20/60. At 8 weeks follow up Best corrected visual acuity further improved to 20/30 with contact lens.

10.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-205561

ABSTRACT

Background: Tobacco use is one of the major preventable causes of deaths globally. Although India responded early to combat this global problem by implementing Cigarettes and Other Tobacco Products Act (COTPA), there is a need to evaluate its implementation. Objective: The objective of this study was to assess the compliance and awareness of the tobacco vendors to Section 5 (Point of sale advertisements of Cigarettes and Other Tobacco Products) and Section 6 (Prohibition on sale to minors and within 100 yards of educational institutes) of COTPA. Materials and Methods: The present study was a community-based cross-sectional study. All tobacco selling stores located within 100 yards distance from 58 educational institutes in urban Ludhiana were assessed for compliance to Section 5 and 6 provisions of COTPA. The study also assessed awareness regarding COTPA legislation among the tobacco vendors available in these tobacco selling stores. Data were collected using a semi-structured questionnaire. The questions were asked to determine the level of awareness of COTPA among the tobacco vendors. Results: Around 42.0% of the educational institutes had tobacco stores located within 100 yards and only around 25.0% of educational institutes had mandatory signage prohibiting ban on selling tobacco products displayed outside institutions. Most of the tobacco outlets (77.7%) were permanent, exclusive tobacco sellers (72%) and had displayed the products enabling easy access to minors. Majority (89%) of the vendors knew about an act regarding tobacco products. However, only 19.4% and 25% of vendors were aware of ban on selling tobacco products within the radius of 100 yards of educational institutions and to minors, respectively. Conclusion: Strict enforcement of the provisions of COTPA around educational institutes to reduce easy access of tobacco products to minors and strengthening awareness generation activities by involving key stakeholders is needed.

11.
Indian J Ophthalmol ; 2019 Oct; 67(10): 1738-1740
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-197582

ABSTRACT

A 28-year-old man with a prior history of penetrating keratoplasty in the left eye for total corneal melt presented with a 3-day history of a red, painful left eye. On examination, he was found to have graft infiltrates. Microscopic examination of wet mount preparation of corneal scrapings revealed the presence of embryonated eggs of E. vermicularis. Cellophane (scotch) tape preparation from perianal region also revealed embryonated eggs of E. vermicularis as well as live adult worms. Ocular and adnexal involvement by E. vermicularis is extremely rare. Here, we report the first case of infection of a corneal graft with E. vermicularis.

13.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-206258

ABSTRACT

The purpose of our study was to evaluate the preventive effects of supplementation with curcumin (Cur) on Cadmium (Cd) induced testicular damage. Young male Wistar albino rats were divided into five groups; Control, Cd, Cur, Cd+Cur, pre-Cur+Cd. Rats were administered an acute dose of CdCl2 at a concentration of 50 mg/kg bw and Cur at 150 mg/kg bw for 15 days. The activities of the stress indicating enzymes (SOD, CAT) and MDA content as a result of LPO along with the total tissue protein and cholesterol were assessed in the testicular homogenate of rats. A significant reduction in the activities of SOD and CAT with parallel significant upsurge in MDA accompanied by a significant reduction in total tissue protein content and a significant rise in tissue cholesterol was observed in rat testes. Also, the reduction in the testicular weights along with a decline in testosterone concentration was detected. Further, Cur supplementation with Cd significantly upturned the Cd-induced variations in oxidative stress indicating enzymes and amended the testosterone levels, total testicular protein, and cholesterol content. Therefore, it can be concluded that Cur plays a protective role against testicular toxicity produced by a single dose of CdCl2.

14.
Indian J Ophthalmol ; 2019 Jul; 67(7): 1101-1104
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-197348

ABSTRACT

Purpose: To describe clinical presentations and comparative outcomes of primary versus deferred intraocular lens (IOL) explantation in delayed-onset endophthalmitis. Methods: In this retrospective study, a total of 77 eyes of 77 patients that were diagnosed clinically as delayed-onset endophthalmitis and underwent IOL explantation from January 1990 to January 2018 were included undiluted vitreous biopsy and IOL were subjected to microbiologic evaluation. Duration of symptoms, presenting visual acuity, organisms isolated, time to IOL explantation, time to endophthalmitis, resolution after explantation, number of repeat intravitreal injections, and final visual acuity were compared in the primary and the deferred IOL explantation groups. Results: There were primary and deferred IOL explantations. Interval between inciting event and endophthalmitis, between onset of symptoms to presentation, total follow-up, complication rate, and final visual acuity was comparable between the two groups. Median time to IOL explantation in the deferred group was 70 days. Between the primary and deferred IOL explantation groups the number of repeat intravitreal injections was 0.58 ± 0.86 and 2.62 ± 1.78 respectively, (P < 0.0001, 95% confidence interval, CI 2.00–2.22); the number of days to resolution after IOL explantation was 35.16 ± 14.26 and 55.5 ± 8.24 respectively, (P < 0.0001, 95% CI 15.22–25.45). Conclusion: Early IOL explantation in delayed-onset endophthalmitis causes faster clinical resolution and reduces the number of repeat intravitreal injections. Final visual improvement, however, may be unaffected.

15.
Indian J Ophthalmol ; 2019 Jul; 67(7): 1040-1046
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-197330

ABSTRACT

Purpose: To determine the presence of herpes simplex virus and varicella zoster virus (HSV 1 and 2, VZV) in the cornea of normal subjects by multiplex real time quantitative (qPCR) assay and evaluate its utility in the diagnosis of viral keratitis. Methods: Corneal epithelial cells from 33 eyes of 22 patients undergoing photorefractive keratectomy surgery (controls) and 50 corneal scrapings from 50 patients with suspected HSV keratitis were analyzed for the presence of HSV1 by conventional PCR and for presence of HSV1 and 2 and/or VZV by multiplex real-time PCR. Corneal scrapings of patients were also tested for HSV1 antigen by immunofluorescence assay (IFA). The results were compared and clinical records reviewed. Results: HSV1 and VZV DNA were detected in 8/33 controls (mean-14.3 ± 7.96, range: 3-29.1 copies/mL) and 2/33 controls (mean-10.7 ± 10.9, range 3-18.5 copies/ml) respectively. HSV2 was not detected in any of the controls. Copy numbers above the mean + 1SD of controls were considered significant for viral load in patient samples. Significantly higher number of corneal scrapings (39/50, 78%) from patients were positive for HSV1 (1.2 × 106 copies/mL ± 3.7 × 106 copies/mL) by real time qPCR compared to IFA (11/48, 23%, P value 0.0001) and conventional PCR (20/50, 40%, P value 0.0002). Double infection with HSV-1 (1.5 × 107 copies/ml) and HSV-2 (3.57 × 104 copies/ml) in one case and VZV infection (1.03 × 102 copies/ml) in another was also detected by the multiplex real-time PCR. Conclusion: Multiplex real-time PCR reliably detects HSV1 and 2 and VZV DNA and is ideal for the diagnosis of HSV and VZV keratitis in an ocular microbiology laboratory.

16.
J Environ Biol ; 2019 Jul; 40(4): 725-730
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-214614

ABSTRACT

Aim: The aim of the present study was to identify biosurfactant produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa and to determine the effectiveness of biosurfactants (rhamnolipid) against P. infestans causing late blight of potato. Methodology: Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains were isolated from soil samples and the potential strain PA 1, selected because of its antagonistic ability, was used to optimize anti-metabolite production and its characterization using HPLC-Mass spectrometry. Rhamnolipid based formulation was developed and its efficacy was tested against late blight disease. Results: The results revealed that four rhamnolipids congeners were identified, among them three were mono-rhamno-di-lipidic congeners and one was di-rhamno-di-lipdic congeners, abundantly present in the crude biosurfactant obtained from P. aeruginosa PA1. The mass spectra of mono-rhamno-di-lipidic Rha-C12-C14 peak value (m/z 584), Rha-C12.1-C10.CH3 peak value (m/z 545), Rha-C12-C-12-CH3 peak value (m/z 575) and di-rhamno-di-lipidic. Rha-Rha-C10-C10 peak value (m/z 651) were also detected. Rhamnolipid-based formulation was developed and evaluated at different concentration ranging from 0.012 and 0.3% in detached leaf test. Significant reduction in lesion area was recorded at 0.2% concentration (lesion area 0.06 cm2 as against 9.8 cm2 on 5th day of inoculation). Interpretation: Microbial produced rhamnolipid based formulation at 0.2% concentration was found effective against late blight of potato in detached leaf test. Further, it could be used in field study as green chemical which would help in replacing application of chemicals in agriculture.

17.
Indian J Lepr ; 2019 Jun; 91(2): 105-116
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-195039

ABSTRACT

Clinically leprosy can have varied presentations ranging from an insignificant skin lesion to extensive disease causing profound disability and disfigurement by damaging peripheral nerves, eyes, bones and other tissues. Peripheral nerve involvement occurs sooner or later in the disease course leading to gross deformities and disabilities. Deformities in leprosy are secondary to nerve damage. However, by the time it clinically manifests, the nerve damage may already be quite advanced. If the preclinical damage is detected early, it can be prevented largely. The study was conducted in the Department of Dermatology, Venereology & Leprosy and Department of Neurology, Indira Gandhi Medical College, Shimla over a period of one year. This electrophysiological study included 20 patients with clinical manifestations of leprosy. 15/20 (75%) belonged to BL/LL types. 18 patients (90%) were multibacillary and 2(10%) were paucibacillary types. Nerve conduction velocity, amplitude and latency of greater auricular and ulnar sensory nerves were done. We found reduced conduction velocities, changes in latency and amplitude in the affected nerves. Ulnar nerve was more commonly involved than the greater auricular nerve. Out of 32 thickened ulnar nerves clinically, only 12 nerves (37.5%) had nerve function impairment. Two non-thickened nerves (2.5%) also had sensory impairment; in contrast 24 thickened nerves had normal functions. Thus, Nerve Conduction Studies can help in detection of early nerve impairment in some cases which otherwise may not be detected clinically. While overall these investigations appear to have limited value in diagnosis of disease and their prognostic value in monitoring the disease progression/response to intervention should be determined by follow-up studies. Valid conclusions with wider application value can only be drawn after carrying out follow up studies on a significant number of leprosy cases.

18.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-191965

ABSTRACT

Background: Visceral fat or intra-abdominal fat is the adipose tissue surrounding mesenteries and omentum. This has been linked to lifestyle diseases like heart diseases, arthritis, stroke and even cancer. At present we have three tools to measure visceral fat area (VFA) – Bio impedance analysis, Magnetic resonance analyser and DEXA scan. Neck circumference measurement is a simple, easy to do and a quantifiable method of measuring visceral fat. Aim & Objective: This study aims to find correlation of visceral body fat with Neck Circumference (NC) and Body Mass Index. Methodology: A cross sectional study was carried out in a medical college of western Maharashtra, wherein 290 healthy males (>18 years) were selected by simple random sampling over a period of 7 months from (February 2018 – August 2018). Data was analyzed using SPSS version 20.0. Visceral body fat was measured using Body Space 720 and neck circumference using measuring tape. Results: We found a significant association between neck circumference and VFA. There is a strong association between NC of >35cm and VFA >100cm2. NC can be useful in field settings as it can be used easily by health care workers in predicting risk of lifestyle diseases.

19.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-211344

ABSTRACT

Background: Ovarian cancers represent the 6th most common cancer among females and are the most common cause of death from gynaecological cancers in the world. The aim is to do clinicopathologic study of ovarian tumours along with evaluation of the expression of estrogen receptor (ER) and human epidermal growth factor receptor (HER2/neu).Methods: A total of 85 cases of ovarian tumors were studied and immunohistochemistry was performed with specific antibodies against ER and HER2/neu as per standard protocol.Results: In present study, surface epithelial tumours were the commonest type comprising 64 cases (75.2%), followed by Germ cell tumours, 17cases (20%) and sex cord stromal tumours, 04 cases (4.8%).Among the surface epithelial tumours , ER‑positive cases were higher in malignant (71.4%) tumours as compared to borderline tumours (33.3%) and benign tumours (7.7%) while Her2/neu positive cases were higher in borderline (66.7%) tumours as compared to malignant tumours (42.9%) and benign tumours (15.3%).Among the germ cell tumours, ER expression was positive in 62.5% cases of mature teratoma while HER2/neu expression was positive in only 12.5% cases of mature teratoma. None of the sex cord stromal tumours showed positive expression of ER and HER2/neu.Conclusions: Positive expression of estrogen receptors is seen predominantly in surface epithelial malignancies and in mature teratoma. It proves the mitogenic role of estrogen in ovarian tumours. Her-2 neu was expressed mainly in malignant tumours. This suggests their carcinogenic role. This also helps in differentiating borderline and malignant tumours.

20.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-202327

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Recurrent tonsillitis is a major cause of morbidity and may require surgical intervention when medical treatment has failed. Reasons suggested for treatment failure include the use of inappropriate antibiotics aimed at pathogens present on the tonsil surface rather than those present in the tonsil core. Material and Methods: A total of 60 cases of chronic and recurrent tonsillitis which were not responding to medical treatment and are fit and willing for surgery were included in the study. Results: The culture results of tonsillar surface and core tissue revealed that the majority of samples showed pathogens. Out of 120 cultures of tonsillar tissue,14 results showed the growth of commensal flora. Single pathogen was isolated from 86 samples from surface and core of the tonsil. However, 14 cultures of core tissue revealed growth of two pathogens as compared to 6 cultures from the tonsillar surface. Conclusion: Staphylococcus is the most common pathogen isolated from the tosillar surface as well as core followed by GABHS

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