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1.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878954

ABSTRACT

The color characteristic information of Rhei Radix et Rhizoma powder was obtained by spectrophotometer, the feasibility of rapid identification of Rhei Radix et Rhizoma origin based on chromaticity value was studied by statistical analysis. The results of rank correlation analysis showed that a~*(P<0.01), b~*(P<0.01) had significantly correlation with the origin of medicinal herbs, which could be used as two important parameters to distinguish the origin of Rhei Radix et Rhizoma, the larger the a~* value, the more red the powder color,and the greater the b~* value, the more yellow the powder color. Meanwhile, through Fisher discriminant analysis, the linear discriminant functions of different genus Rhei Radix et Rhizoma were established, which was Rheum tanguticum=40.666a~*+0.019b~*-213.303, Rh. palmatum=34.121a~*+0.061b~*-151.770, Rh. officinale=28.071a~*+0.113b~*-104.604 3, the coincidence rate of cross-validation was over 95%, among them, the discriminant rate of Rh. tanguticum and Rh. officinale reached 100%;In addition, using the percentile method to analyze the 90% reference value range of three different origin of Rhei Radix et Rhizoma, as a result, Rh. tanguticum a~*(10.236 5-10.604 7), b~*(32.294 8-34.841 7); Rh. palmatum a~*(8.602 7-8.770 0), b~*(27.534 8-28.968 6), and Rh. officinale a~*(6.825 7-7.464 3),b~*(21.001 6-27.716 4). According to this study, rank correlation analysis and Fisher discriminant analysis are feasible to distinguish the base of Rhei Radix et Rhizoma in a certain range, and provide some theoretical basis for the identification of Rhei Radix et Rhizoma. It also provides a new method and idea for the identification of other multi-base Chinese medicine.


Subject(s)
Animals , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Gastropoda , Plant Roots , Rheum , Rhizome
2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828431

ABSTRACT

In this study, HPLC was used to determine the content of the four isoflavones of Astragalus membranceus var. mongholicus from different regions(calycosin-7-glucoside, ononin, calycosin and formononetin), and gray correlation analysis and path analysis were used to explore the influence of climate factors on the content of isoflavone components in A. membranceus var. mongholicus. The results showed that there were significant differences in the content of the four isoflavones in different areas(P<0.05); grey correlation analysis showed that the highest temperature in July, the lowest temperature in January and the daily average temperature had a greater impact on the content of flavonoid glycosides, meanwhile precipitation and relative humidity were the more important factors for the accumulation of flavonoid aglycones. According to the general analysis, the direct positive effects of the lowest temperature in January and altitude on the contents of four isoflavones in A. membranceus var. mongholicus were significant. High altitude and extreme temperature conditions might be more adverse to the formation and accumulation of isoflavone components. Therefore, the religions of A. membranceus var. mongholicus with high contents of isoflavones should be chosen the low altitude region with higher minimum temperature in January. This study provides a reference basis for the quality evaluation of A. membranceus var. mongholicus, and basic data for the selection of suitable habitat, construction of planting standards and directional cultivation of medicinal materials in A. membranceus var. mongholicus.


Subject(s)
Astragalus Plant , Astragalus propinquus , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Isoflavones , Plant Roots , Chemistry
3.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 1957-1964, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-825168

ABSTRACT

Ethylene-response factors, which are a subfamily of the AP2/ERF family, play an important role in ethylene signal transduction, plant growth and plant resistant. In this study, a full-length cDNA of the AsERF1 gene was cloned from Aquilaria sinensis. Sequence analysis, prokaryotic expression and purification, subcellular localization, tissue-specific analysis and expression analysis under different abiotic stresses was performed. The open reading frame (ORF) of the AsERF1 gene was 691 bp, encoding a protein of 229 amino acids with a predicted molecular mass of 25.36 kD. The AsERF1 protein contained the conserved AP2 sequence of ERF protein. A phylogenetic analysis indicated that the AsERF1 protein showed greatest sequence similarity with ERF2 from Populus trichocarpa. The recombinant AsERF1 protein was expressed in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3) cells using the prokaryotic expression vector pET28a-AsERF1 and the recombinant AsERF1 protein was purified. Agrobacterium-mediated protein expression experiments demonstrated that AsERF1 mainly localized to the nucleus. Expression analysis indicated that AsERF1 was primarily observed in leaves. The AsERF1 expression level was induced by salt, drought, low temperature and CdCl2 treatment, while the abundance of AsERF1 was most significantly induced by drought stress. These results provide valuable insights into the role of AsERF1 in plant defense and the mechanism of agarwood formation.

4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-774542

ABSTRACT

The qualitative analysis of flavonoids in Coreopsis tinctoria was carried out by a combination of 2 D-TLC and HPLC-IT-TOF-MS. The separation was conducted on 2 D-TLC and a Phenomenex Kinetex Evo C_(18) column(2.1 mm×100 mm, 2.6 μm) with methanol-0.05% aqueous formic acid by gradient elution. Electrospray ionization-(ESI) source was applied and operated in both positive and negative ionization modes. Eighteen flavonoids including three flavonoids, one flavonol, nine flavonones, one flavanonol and four chalcones, were putatively identified from the flavone-enriched fraction of C. tinctoria. 2 D-TLC could separate the flavonoids from C. tinctoria. HPLC-IT-TOF-MS was able to quickly and accurately analyze the flavonoids in C. tinctoria. The results would provide experimental information for the efficacy material basis clarification of C. tinctoria.


Subject(s)
Chalcones , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Coreopsis , Chemistry , Flavonoids , Phytochemicals , Plant Extracts , Spectrometry, Mass, Electrospray Ionization
5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-690503

ABSTRACT

Six kinds of provenance of Rheum tanguticum collected from Qinghai province as the test materials, which were transplanted under 3 different environments by using complete randomized block design with three replicates. The contents of the chemical components was determined by HPLC. This study aimed at analyzing the effect of genotype, environment and their interactions on the 4 kinds of functional components (phenolic acids, bianthrone, free anthraquinones and combined anthraquinones) in 14 kinds of active components of Rh. tanguticum, in order to provide a theoretical basis for the selection of cultivated Rh. tanguticum in high quality producing area and excellent provenance. The provenance trial showed that the genotype and environment influence on the effect of all kinds of functional components in Rh. tanguticum were significant (<0.05). The content of phenolic acids was mainly influenced by environment, and the other three kinds of functional components were affected by environment and their interactions. The proportion of environment was larger. The cultivation quality of Rh. tanguticum should give priority to environment, then choose a provenance. Sichuan may be beneficial in accumulation of combined anthraquinones in Rh. tanguticum, Gansu may facilitate the binding of free anthraquinone, phenolic acids and bianthrone content. Preliminary inference based on the content and proportion of efficacy components, T4 could be potential special medicinal germplasm that have function of heat-clearing and detoxifying drugs and activate blood circulation to dissipate blood stasis; T3 and T6 could all be potential specialmedicinal germplasms that exist diarrhea attack characters. The results of this study have certain guiding significance for the production of rhubarb precision medicinal materials.

6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-687428

ABSTRACT

Eight kinds of provenance of Rheum palmatum collected from 4 provinces Sichuan, Ningxia, Gansu, Shannxi as test materials, which were transplanted under 3 different environments by using complete randomized block design with three replicates. The contents of the chemical components was determined by HPLC. This study aimed at analyzing the effect of genotype, environment and their interactions on the 4 kinds of functional components (phenolic acids, bianthrone, free anthraquinones and combined anthraquinones) in 14 kinds of active components of R. palmatum, in order to provide a theoretical basis for the selection of cultivated R. palmatum in high quality producing area and excellent provenance. The functional components of R. palmatum were influenced by genotype and environment. The content of phenolic acids was mainly influenced by environment, and the other three kinds of functional components were affected by environment and their interactions. The proportion of environment was larger. The cultivation quality of R. palmatum should give priority to environment, then choose a provenance. Sichuan may be beneficial in accumulation of free anthraquinones in R. palmatum, Gansu may facilitate the binding of combined anthraquinone, phenolic acids and bianthrone content. Preliminary inference based on the content and proportion of efficacy components, P2 could be potential special medicinal germplasm that have function of heat-clearing and detoxifying drugs. P6 could be potential special medicinal germplasm that activate blood circulation to dissipate blood stasis. P7 and P1 could all be potential specialmedicinal germplasms that exist diarrhea attack characters. The results of this study have important guiding significance for the production of rhubarb precision medicinal materials.

7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-687402

ABSTRACT

In order to investigate the genetic difference on medicinal components of Scutellaria baicalensis from different provenances on the genetic difference, the S. baicalensis provenance tests were arranged by randomized block design.Excavating the crude drugs that have been growing for three years, with the same drying process, the content of baicalin, baicalein, wogonoside, wogonin and laminarin A in S. baicalensis were detected by HPLC, and then the data were analyzed. The results indicated that the content of baicalin in different provenances of S. baicalensis was significantly different (<0.05), while the variation of baicalein reached extremely significant level (<0.01). Cluster analysis showed that if the distance was divided by 5.0, the provenances in Chengde, Hebei province were divided into two independent populations, while the other two populations had large geographic spans. The results show that the significant geographical variations exist in the content of medicinal components in S. baicalensis. The study laid a theoretical foundation of provenance selection of S. baicalensis.

8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-812130

ABSTRACT

As an important herbaceous plant, Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi (Chinese skullcap) is geographically widespread and commonly used throughout the world. In the Chinese medicine market, S. baicalensis has been divided into two primary types, "Ku Qin" (WXR) and "Tiao Qin" (TST). Moreover, TST is also divided into different grades according to the diameter of roots. To explore the distribution patterns of the contents of five biologically activate ingredients (FBAI), we used six-year-old cultivated S. baicalensis and analyzed its growth characteristics as well as the quality difference among different types and diameters in roots. Throughout the entire root, we discovered that contents of the FBAI all initially increased and subsequently decreased from the top to the bottom of the roots. The baicalin content of WXR was less than that of TST. On the contrary, the contents of baicalein, wogonin, and oroxylin A in WXR were up to about two times higher than that in TST. We also found that the 0 to 40 cm part of the S. baicalensis root possessed about 87% of the root biomass and about 92% of the contents of the active ingredients.


Subject(s)
Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Chemistry , Flavanones , Flavonoids , Plant Roots , Chemistry , Scutellaria baicalensis , Chemistry
9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-236071

ABSTRACT

By measuring the growth data of Scutellaria baicalensis in different cutting-seedling and determined active ingredient contents by HPLC and ultraviolet spectrophotometric determination. such as flavonoids. baicalin. wogonoside. baicalein. wogonin. oroxylin A. scutellarin. luteolin. and apigenin in the whole plant. Under circumstances of guaranteeing the quality and yield of medicinal materials. the yield of medicinal materials. and stems and leaves reached 193.60,63.21 kg/mu after twice cutting seedling. Not only yield but also active ingredient contents have been improved to some extent. the contents of flavonoids. baicalin. wogonoside. baicalein. wogonin. oroxylin A reached 18.52%. 15.13%. 4.03%. 1.04%. 1.04%. 0.12%. respectively in roots. Luteolin was not detected in young stems and leaves of S. baicalensis,the contents of other active ingredients such as scutellarin. luteolin and apigenin reached 7.00%. 0.96%. 0.04% respectively under twice cutting seedling. Therefore. regular cutting seedling could be regard as a new cultivation technique for wider range of promotion. And gaining high quality and yield of medicinal materials and tea with the purpose of rational utilization of natural resources and promoting the development of integration of herbal combination.

10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-275197

ABSTRACT

Rheum tanguticum from the same area was divided into 8 types of variation according to the plant morphology, content differences of free anthraquinones, combined anthraquinones, double anthrone were studied. The results showed that the functional components of different variation types were significantly different. The average content of free anthraquinone combined anthraquinone was 2.10-6.71 and 15.43-22.04 mg•g⁻¹, respectively. The average content of sennoside A plus sennoside B was 32.88-42.36 mg•g⁻¹. There were significant differences among the difference of 10 kinds of active components, except for sennoside B and physcion glycoside. Interred with the content and proportion of functional components, type B and type E might be potential special medicinal germplasm for diarrhea attack product, type G and type H might be a potential special medicinal germplasm for clearing heat and detoxifing, type C and type F might be potential special medicinal germplasm for activating blood circulation to dissipate blood stasis, type A and type D might be potential special medicinal germplasm with anastaltic funtion. The conclusion laid the foundation for the directional cultivation of fine varieties of special purpose of rhubarb.

11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-321314

ABSTRACT

The acquisition and storage of the image data are important in the Chinese medicine resources survey, and it is important data and evidence for the process and the results. The image data of the Chinese medicinal materials' habitat, original plant or animal, processing in habitat, commodity form, the relative contents and workshop scenarios in the investigation are important for the compiling of the Color Atlas of National Chinese Medicine Resources, mapping the digital scattergram of the Chinese medicine resources, establishing the digital Chinese medicine plant herbarium and acquiring the documentary of the Chinese medicine resource survey. The content, procedures and methods of the video data collecting have been related and analyzed in this article to provide reference for the Chinese medicine resources survey.


Subject(s)
Conservation of Natural Resources , Databases, Factual , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Ecosystem , Information Storage and Retrieval , Methods , Photography , Plants, Medicinal , Chemistry
12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-321301

ABSTRACT

This study was conducted to investigate the wild and cultivated resource situation of Rheum tanguticum in main production area of China, estimate its reserves, and put forward the feasible approach for the sustainable utilization of R. tanguticum. On the basis of the literature data about R. tanguticum, conbined with interview, investigation and sampling investigation, the total reserve of resources is estimated using the route-quadrat method and the vegetation and soil-type map area method proposed by our research group. The results indicate that there is no obvious change between the present distribution ranges of the wild R. tanguticum and its historical records, but its population density has changed clearly. The reserve of the wild R. tanguticum has seriously declined in lots of place, even faced the exhaustion in some regions. According to the investigation, the resource reserve of the wild R. tanguticum is no more than 5 000 t, and the cultivated is about 1 607 t. The resource reserve of the wild R. tanguticum is nearly depleted, and this suggests that the wild R. tanguticum should be enrolled in the protection plant list, and the cultivated will become the main resource of Rhubarb in the future. So it is extremely neccessary to collect and protect the germplasm resource of R. tanguticum, establish the germplasm nursery and repository, and conduct breeding research on those bases.


Subject(s)
China , Conservation of Natural Resources , Rheum
13.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-327877

ABSTRACT

This research aimed at studying the effects of irrigation and rhizome length on the survival of ratio, yield and quality of Glycyrrhiza uralensis in wild tending condition. Employed the split-block design to carry out the field experiment, sampled with the quadrat method to measured the relative growth indexes and to estimate the yield, used the HPLC (high performance liquid chromatog- raphy ) method to measure the glycyrrhizin in the rhizome and adventitious root of the G. uralensis in this study. The quantity of the adventitious roots and the survival ratio were increased significantly as the length of the rhizome increased (P < 0.01), but the length of the rhizome had no remarkable effect on the content of glycyrrhizin. The average content of the glycyrrhizin in the adventitious root and rhizome could reach 3.03% and 2.12% after 3-year wild tending, respectively, and this results indicated that the quality of the glycyrrhiza using this method was much better than that from cultured glycyrrhiza with the reproducing method of seeding. so using the rhizome as reproductive material to produce the glycyrrhiza under the wild tending condition could get the high quality glycyrrhiza quick- ly and steadily, this phenomenon could be explained by the Hypothesis of synthetic inertia of the medicinal components from the wild material of G. uralensis. But the maximum yield with this method was just more than 945 kg x hm(-2) in this study. So the further work of how to increase the yield in the practical application with the method found in this study need to be done in the next research.


Subject(s)
Agricultural Irrigation , Culture Techniques , Methods , Glycyrrhiza uralensis , Metabolism , Glycyrrhizic Acid , Metabolism , Rhizome , Survival Analysis
14.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 1722-1728, 2013.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-298019

ABSTRACT

Rhei Rhizoma is a Chinese medicine with multiple botanical origins. There is a problem to identify it with conventional methods. To compare the characteristics of chloroplast matK gene sequences of different Rheum species and authenticate inspected species, the matK gene sequences of different species from different origins were amplified, cloned, and sequenced. Genomic DNA of Rheum plants was extracted using modified DNA extracted Kit and matK gene sequences were analyzed by ContingExpress, DNAman and MEGA5.0. The length of matK gene sequences of Rheum palmatum, R. tanguticum and R. officinale were 1 518 bp containing 57 variable loci. According to the mutation sites, R. palmatum, R. tanguticum and R. officinale were divided into different genotypes separately. Based on the established method according to the loci 587, 707, 838, we successfully identified the genuine Rheum species from its adulterants.


Subject(s)
Amino Acid Sequence , Base Sequence , DNA, Plant , Genetics , Drug Contamination , Genes, Chloroplast , Genes, Plant , Genotype , Molecular Sequence Data , Mutation , Phylogeny , Plants, Medicinal , Genetics , Proto-Oncogene Proteins pp60(c-src) , Genetics , Rheum , Classification , Genetics , Rhizome , Genetics , Sequence Analysis, DNA , Species Specificity
15.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-295452

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To study the geographical variation of morphologic and germination characteristic of different Glycyrrhiza uralensis provenance seeds, approach the geographical variation mode and ecology mechanism, and laid theoretical foundation for districting and allocating of G. uralensis seeds.</p><p><b>METHOD</b>Field investigation and laboratory analysis were applied. Seed shape and kilosseed weight were sampled randomly, germination rate germination force by general methods.</p><p><b>RESULT</b>The morphologic characteristic of G. uralensis seeds showed roughly longitude variation tendency that the seeds increased gradually from west to east. While the germination characteristic showed roughly altitude variation tendency that the seeds germination rate and germination force increased with the increase of the altitude, and the average germination rate was the same with the seeds morphologic characteristic. The results of analysis correlated with the climatic factors show that the morphologic characteristic of G. uralensis was positive correlated with annual rain-fall of the habitat, and the germination rate was quickened by drought, high temperature and strong sunshine.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>The morphologic and germination characteristic and of G. uralensis seeds present distinguished geographical variation, and the formation of the variation was related to the ecological environment in which the seed provenance adapted.</p>


Subject(s)
Altitude , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Geography , Germination , Glycyrrhiza uralensis , Classification , Rain , Seeds
16.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-264875

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To screen and isolate secondary metabolite biosynthesis-related gene for establishing the foundation of functional gene research, we construct a cDNA library of Glycyrrhiza uralensis.</p><p><b>METHOD</b>Total RNA was isolated from G. uralensis using the method of lithium chloride sedimentation. Double strand cDNA was joined into pBlueScript II vector. The number of clones, recombinant rate and length of insert fragments were determined.</p><p><b>RESULT</b>The capacity of the original library was 1.15 x 10(7) with a recombinant rate of 98.2% and the inserted cDNA fragments ranged from 0.5 to 4.8 kb. 126 ESTs through random sequencing were obtained. The most homological proteins came from leguminous plants, including Arabidopsis thaliana, Oryza sativa, and so on. Most of the proteins were related to genes linking cell matabolism, resistance, growth retardation and dormancy.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>The library has enough capacity, high recombinant rate and long insert fragment for the further study.</p>


Subject(s)
Computational Biology , DNA, Recombinant , Genetics , Electrophoresis, Agar Gel , Expressed Sequence Tags , Gene Library , Glycyrrhiza uralensis , Genetics , RNA, Messenger , Genetics , RNA, Plant , Genetics , Sequence Analysis, DNA
17.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-276639

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To study the shade-endurance property of Glycyrrhiza uralensis and provide rationale for the practice of inter-cropping G. uralensis with trees.</p><p><b>METHOD</b>Black shading nets were used to provide five different environments of light intensities (light penetration rates of 100%, 75%, 65%, 50% and 25%, respectively). To assess the shade-endurance capacity of G. uralensis, several aspects were evaluated, including growth characters, physiological and ecological characters, biomass, and chemical contents.</p><p><b>RESULT AND CONCLUSION</b>G. uralensis is a light-favored plant. The growth indices such as plant height, stem diameter, leaves number, root diameter, biomass, and daily average photosynthetic rate (Pn) are highest when light permeation rate is 100%. All these indices decrease when light intensity decreases. However, G. uralensis possesses shade-endurance capacity to some degree; it adapts to the shading environment by increasing the leaf area and chlorophyll contents. Shading has no obvious effect on the absolute light energy utilization rate (Eu) or Fv/Fm ratio. The influence of shading on the chemical contents of G. uralensis is obvious.</p>


Subject(s)
Adaptation, Physiological , Chlorophyll , Glycyrrhetinic Acid , Glycyrrhiza uralensis , Chemistry , Physiology , Photosynthesis , Plant Components, Aerial , Plant Leaves , Chemistry , Physiology , Plant Roots , Chemistry , Plants, Medicinal , Chemistry , Physiology , Sunlight , Trees
18.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-266788

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To investigate the latest wild and cultivated licorice resource status; bring forward the licorice resource protection and sustainable utilization countermeasures in the center and western area of China.</p><p><b>METHOD</b>With study both in interview survey and field survey.</p><p><b>RESULT</b>All samples investigated were the species of Glycyrrhiza uralensis. Human actions is concerned with the community status, reserves per unit and quality. Excessive exploitation made the licorice quality lower and reserves decrease.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Enforcing the wild licorice resource protection and improving licorice cultivated technique are brought forward to act as the sustaining countermeasures.</p>


Subject(s)
China , Conservation of Natural Resources , Ecosystem , Glycyrrhiza uralensis , Pharmacognosy , Plants, Medicinal , Quality Control
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