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1.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 243-252, 2024.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1005444

ABSTRACT

Platycodonis Radix is the dry root of Platycodon grandiflorum of Campanulaceae, which has a variety of pharmacological effects and is a commonly used bulk Chinese medicine. In this study, the chloroplast genome sequences of six P. grandiflorum from different producing areas has been sequenced with Illumina HiSeq X Ten platform. The specific DNA barcodes were screened, and the germplasm resources and genetic diversity were analyzed according to the specific barcodes. The total length of the chloroplast genome of 6 P. grandiflorum samples was 172 260-172 275 bp, and all chloroplast genomes showed a typical circular tetrad structure and encoded 141 genes. The comparative genomics analysis and results of amplification efficiency demonstrated that trnG-UCC and ndhG_ndhF were the potential specific DNA barcodes for identification the germplasm resources of P. grandiflorum. A total of 305 P. grandiflorum samples were collected from 15 production areas in 9 provinces, for which the fragments of trnG-UCC and ndhG_ndhF were amplificated and the sequences were analyzed. The results showed that trnG-UCC and ndhG_ndhF have 5 and 11 mutation sites, respectively, and 5 and 7 haplotypes were identified, respectively. The combined analysis of the two sequences formed 13 haplotypes (named Hap1-Hap13), and Hap4 is the main genotype, followed by Hap1. The unique haplotypes possessed by the three producing areas can be used as DNA molecular tags in this area to distinguish from the germplasm resources of P. grandiflorum from other areas. The haplotype diversity, nucleotide diversity and genetic distance were 0.94, 4.79×10-3 and 0.000 0-0.020 3, respectively, suggesting that the genetic diversity was abundant and intraspecific kinship was relatively close. This study laid a foundation for the identification of P. grandiflorum, the protection and utilization of germplasm resources, and molecular breeding.

2.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 1693-1704, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-978713

ABSTRACT

italic>Atractylodes chinensis has important medicinal and economic values. In this study, the chloroplast genome sequences of four A. chinensis samples from different producing areas were sequenced using the Illumina platform. The specific DNA barcodes were screened and the germplasm resources of A. chinensis samples from different producing areas and the genetic diversity of the population were analyzed basing on the specific barcodes. The whole chloroplast genomes of the four A. chinensis samples had a typical cyclic tetrad structure, with 112 genes annotated. The comparative genomics results indicated that ccsA and trnC-GCA_petN were potential specific DNA barcodes for intraspecific identification of A. chinensis. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis of ccsA and trnC-GCA_petN was performed on 256 samples from 14 areas in 9 provinces, and the amplification efficiency was 100%. Sequence analysis showed that ccsA and trnC-GCA_petN had 11 and 22 variant positions, which could identify 16 and 22 haplotypes, respectively. The combined sequence analysis identified 39 haplotypes, named Hap1-Hap39, of which the most abundant and widely distributed genotype was Hap9. Haplotype diversity (Hd) = 0.896 and nucleotide diversity (Pi) = 0.002 22 indicated high genetic diversity at the species level in A. chinensis. The genetic distances of the haplotypes were 0.000 00-0.004 88, indicating that there were small genetic differences among the haplotypes. The results of phylogenetic tree analysis showed that 39 haplotypes had very close genetic relationship, and formed two obvious branches with other groups of the same genus except Atractylodes macrocephala. This study plays an important role in the identification of the origin of A. chinensis and the protection and breeding of germplasm resources.

3.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 1229-1237, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970594

ABSTRACT

Eleutherococcus senticosus is one of the Dao-di herbs in northeast China. In this study, the chloroplast genomes of three E. senticosus samples from different genuine producing areas were sequenced and then used for the screening of specific DNA barcodes. The germplasm resources and genetic diversity of E. senticosus were analyzed basing on the specific DNA barcodes. The chloroplast genomes of E. senticosus from different genuine producing areas showed the total length of 156 779-156 781 bp and a typical tetrad structure. Each of the chloroplast genomes carried 132 genes, including 87 protein-coding genes, 37 tRNAs, and 8 rRNAs. The chloroplast genomes were relatively conserved. Sequence analysis of the three chloroplast genomes indicated that atpI, ndhA, ycf1, atpB-rbcL, ndhF-rpl32, petA-psbJ, psbM-psbD, and rps16-psbK can be used as specific DNA barcodes of E. senticosus. In this study, we selected atpI and atpB-rbcL which were 700-800 bp and easy to be amplified for the identification of 184 E. senticosus samples from 13 genuine producing areas. The results demonstrated that 9 and 10 genotypes were identified based on atpI and atpB-rbcL sequences, respectively. Furthermore, the two barcodes identified 23 genotypes which were named H1-H23. The haplotype with the highest proportion and widest distribution was H10, followed by H2. The haplotype diversity and nucleotide diversity were 0.94 and 1.82×10~(-3), respectively, suggesting the high genetic diversity of E. senticosus. The results of the median-joining network analysis showed that the 23 genotypes could be classified into 4 categories. H2 was the oldest haplotype, and it served as the center of the network characterized by starlike radiation, which suggested that population expansion of E. senticosus occurred in the genuine producing areas. This study lays a foundation for the research on the genetic quality and chloroplast genetic engineering of E. senticosus and further research on the genetic mechanism of its population, providing new ideas for studying the genetic evolution of E. senticosus.


Subject(s)
DNA Barcoding, Taxonomic , Eleutherococcus/genetics , Base Sequence , Chloroplasts/genetics , Genetic Variation , Phylogeny
4.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 681-688, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970537

ABSTRACT

To maintain the precision and stability of the efficacy of classical formulas, this study compared the origins and specifications of Bupleuri Radix and revealed the precise application regularity of Bupleurum chinense(Beichaihu) and Bupleurum scorzonerifolium(Nanchaihu) in classical formulas. The efficacy and indications of formulas with Bupleuri Radix as the sovereign drug in the Treatise on Cold Damage and Miscellaneous Diseases(Shang Han Za Bing Lun) were investigated. The difference in the efficacy of Bupleuri Radix as well as the differences in the chemical composition, and liver-protecting and lipid-lowering effects of the decoctions of Beichaihu and Nanchaihu were analyzed with LC-MS technology based on the CCl_4-induced liver injury model in mice and sodium oleate-induced HepG2 hyperlipidemia cell model. The results showed that seven classical formulas with Bupleuri Radix as the sovereign drug in the Treatise on Cold Damage and Miscellaneous Diseases were mainly used in the treatment of digestive, metabolic, immune, circulatory, and other diseases. Bupleuri Radix mainly played the functions of protecting the liver, benefiting the gallbladder, and lowering the lipid, and had different focuses in different formulas. There were 14 differential components in the decoctions of Beichaihu and Nanchaihu, and the chemical structures of 11 components were identified, including 10 saponins and one flavonoid. The results of the liver-protecting efficacy experiment showed that compared with the Nanchaihu decoction, Beichaihu decoction could reduce the serum aspartate aminotransferase(AST) activity in liver injury model mice(P<0.01). The results of the lipid-lowering efficacy experiment proved that Beichaihu and Nanchaihu decoctions both showed highly significant differences in lowering the total cholesterol(TC) and triglyceride(TG) content in HepG2 cells(P<0.01), and Nanchaihu decoction was superior to Beichaihu decoction in lowering the lipid. The results of this study preliminarily proved that there were differences in chemical composition, and liver-protecting and lipid-lowering effects of Beichaihu and Nanchaihu decoctions, indicating that it was necessary to determine the precise origin of Bupleuri Radix in the clinical formulation of traditional Chinese medicine. The study provides a scientific basis for both precise clinical medication and purpose-based accurate quality evaluation of traditional Chinese medicine in clinical application.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Liver , Aspartate Aminotransferases , Bupleurum
5.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 1814-1823, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928177

ABSTRACT

Scutellaria baicalensis is a commonly used Chinese medicinal herb. In this study, we identified the germplasm resources of commercial S. baicalensis samples based on trnH-psbA, petA-psbJ, and ycf4-cemA sequences according to the available chloroplast genome sequencing results, and measured the content of baicalin by HPLC. Through the above means we determined the best DNA barcode that can be used to detect the germplasm resources and evaluate the quality of commercial S. baicalensis samples. A total of 104 samples were collected from 24 provinces, from which DNA was extracted for PCR amplification. The amplification efficiencies of trnH-psbA, petA-psbJ, and ycf4-cemA sequences were 100%, 59.62%, and 25.96%, respectively. The results of sequence analysis showed that 5, 4, and 2 haplotypes were identified based on trnH-psbA, petA-psbJ, and ycf4-cemA sequences, respectively. However, the sequences of haplotypes in commercial samples were different from that of the wild type, and the joint analysis of three fragments of S. baicalensis only identified 6 haplotypes. Furthermore, the phylogenetic analysis and genetic distance analysis indicated that trnH-psbA could be used to identify S. baicalensis from adulterants. The above analysis showed that trnH-psbA was the best fragment for identifying the germplasm resources of commercial S. baicalensis samples. We then analyzed the haplotypes(THap1-THap5) of commercial S. baicalensis samples based on trnH-psbA and found that THap2 was the main circulating haplotype of the commercial samples, accounting for 86.55% of the total samples, which indicated the scarce germplasm resources of commercial S. baicalensis samples. The content of baicalin in all the collected commercial S. baicalensis samples exceeded the standard in Chinese Pharmacopoeia and had significant differences(maximum of 12.21%) among samples, suggesting that the quality of commercial S. baicalensis samples varied considerably. However, there was no significant difference in baicalin content between different provinces or between different haplotypes. This study facilitates the establishment of the standard identification system for S. baicalensis, and can guide the commercial circulation and reasonable medication of S. baicalensis.


Subject(s)
Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , DNA Barcoding, Taxonomic/methods , DNA, Plant/genetics , Phylogeny , Scutellaria baicalensis/genetics
6.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 2200-2210, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928161

ABSTRACT

Dachaihu Decoction is a classical Chinese herbal prescription that is effective in harmonizing lesser yang and purging internal accumulated heat. At present, it has been widely used in clinical practice, and the resulting outcomes are satisfactory. However, its quality indicators and action mechanism are still not clear. Therefore, this paper explored the efficacy markers of Dachaihu Decoction and its action mechanism based on literature mining, molecular biology, and network pharmacology, so as to better control its quality and ensure its clinical efficacy. The efficacy markers of Dachaihu Decoction were predicted and analyzed according to the "five principles" for Q-markers of Chinese herbs. Then the anti-inflammatory activity of the efficacy markers of Dachaihu Decoction was evaluated with Griess reagent after the establishment of RAW264.7 cell inflammation model in vitro with lipopolysaccharide(LPS). The potential targets of efficacy markers were predicted by Traditional Chinese Medicine Systems Pharmacology Database and Analysis Platform(TCMSP), ChEMBL, and SwissTargetPrediction, followed by the construction of the protein-protein interaction(PPI) network of the efficacy markers of Dachaihu Decoction. Topological, GO, and KEGG enrichment analysis was carried out to construct the "key target-signaling pathway-biological process" network, thus elucidating the action mechanism of the efficacy markers of Dachaihu Decoction. Saikosaponin B_2, baicalin, baicalein, wogonoside, neohesperidin, naringin, hesperidin, and paeoniflorin were considered as the potential efficacy markers of Dachaihu Decoction. The anti-inflammatory activity evaluation showed that the potential efficacy markers effectively inhibited the release of NO, exhibiting good anti-inflammatory activities. As demonstrated by network pharmacology, the efficacy markers of Dachaihu Decoction regulated the inflammatory response by acting on MAPK and NF-κB signaling pathways, the carbohydrate metabolism by HIF-1 and PI3 K-AKT signaling pathways, and the lipid metabolism by AMPK and PI3 K-AKT signaling pathways. This study discovered the efficacy markers of Dachaihu Decoction based on literature mining combined with molecular biological experiments and explored its action mechanism at the molecular level based on network pharmacology, which would provide reference for the quality control of Dachaihu Decoction and scientific basis for its clinical application.


Subject(s)
Biomarkers , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacology , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Molecular Docking Simulation , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt , Signal Transduction
7.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 514-524, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922928

ABSTRACT

Rhei Rhizoma is commonly used as a traditional Chinese medicine with multiple botanical origins. Different botanical sources may have different pharmacological activities. The germplasm resources of commercial Rhei Rhizoma were determined based on the chloroplast gene matK, and the anthraquinone and free anthraquinone content was determined by UPLC to analyze quality of commercial Rhei Rhizoma. Eighty-nine commercial Rhei Rhizoma samples were collected from 40 cities in 27 provinces. DNA was extracted and the matK gene was amplified by PCR. Results indicated that the collected samples were from the same botanical origin, Rheum palmatum, and 8 genotypes were identified, including Rp1, Rp2, Rp3, Rp4, Rp5, Rp6, Rp10 and Rp12. Rp4 and Rp6, cultivated in Gansu, Sichuan and Yunnan provinces were the main circulating genotypes, representing 40.45% and 37.08% of the total samples, respectively. Phylogenetic tree analysis showed that the eight genotypes were mainly divided into two branches, of which the main genotypes Rp4 and Rp6 were in one branch. Genetic distance analysis indicated that the genetic separation of the eight genotypes was between 0.001 and 0.010. UPLC analysis indicated that 93.26% of the samples met the Pharmacopoeia standards. There were significant differences in the content of total anthraquinone and free anthraquinone among the samples, in which the difference in free anthraquinone was 1.01% and the difference in total anthraquinone content was 3.79%, indicating that the quality of commercial Rhei Rhizoma samples varies considerably. There was no significant difference in the content of total anthraquinone and free anthraquinone in commercial Rhei Rhizoma among different collection provinces and genotypes. This study will help guide the circulation of Rhei Rhizoma in the market and provides valuable insights for molecular identification and quality analysis of other traditional Chinese medicines.

8.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 1477-1485, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-924760

ABSTRACT

Da Chaihu decoction is a classic prescription for the treatment of cholecystitis that is widely used in clinical practice, and has a definite curative effect. However, due to its diverse components and complex functions, the traditional indexes fail to capture its overall efficacy. Therefore, this study analyzed and predicted the quality markers (Q-markers) of Da Chaihu decoction based on specific chromatogram and network pharmacology to provide a reference for the comprehensive control of the quality. The study obtained 35 potential practical components of Da Chaihu decoction through virtual screening. The specific chromatogram of 15 batches of Da Chaihu decoction was established by HPLC-DAD with neohesperidin as a reference. Compared with the chromatographic peaks and the reference substance, the chemical components were assigned to predict the nine components of albiflorin, paeoniflorin, naringin, hesperidin, neohesperidin, baicalin, wogonoside, saikosaponin b2, saikosaponin b1 as Q-markers of Da Chaihu decoction. Finally, the network of the "components-key targets-signal pathways-biological processes" was constructed by network pharmacology to explore the mechanism of Da Chaihu decoction in treating cholecystitis to clarify the accuracy of Q-markers. The results indicated that potential Q-markers could act on multiple targets to regulate inflammatory and metabolism, and then combine to treat cholecystitis. Q-markers could combine with the pharmacologic action of Da Chaihu decoction, which could elucidate the overall efficacy of Da Chaihu decoction. This study explored the Q-markers of Da Chaihu decoction combined with the specific chromatogram and network pharmacology, which provided a basis for the quality control and evaluation of Da Chaihu decoction.

9.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 1506-1515, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-924748

ABSTRACT

MYB transcription factors, one of the largest transcription factor families in plants, play an important role in signal transduction, plant growth and plant resistance. In this study a full-length cDNA of the PnMYB1R1 gene was cloned from Panax notoginseng. Sequence analysis, prokaryotic expression and purification, subcellular location, transcriptional activity analysis, tissue-specific analysis and expression analysis under different abiotic stresses was performed. The open reading frame (ORF) of PnMYB1R gene was 738 bp, encoding a protein of 245 amino acids with a predicted molecular mass (MW) of 27.0 kD. The sequence analysis and polygenetic analysis indicated that the PnMYB1R1 protein contains a conserved R3 domain, belonging to TRF-like protein in 1R-MYB-type transcription factors. The recombinant PnMYB1R1 protein was expressed in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3) cells using the prokaryotic expression vector pET28a-PnMYB1R1 and was purified. Subcellular localization analysis showed that PnMYB1R1 was localized in the nucleus. Transcriptional activity analysis indicated that the PnMYB1R1 transcription factor has transcriptional activation activity. Expression analysis indicated that PnMYB1R1 was primarily expressed in roots, followed by stems and leaves, and then rootlets. The expression level of PnMYB1R1 in root, stems, leaves and rootlets was influenced by salt, low temperature and drought treatment, while the abundance of PnMYB1R1 was significantly induced by salt stress in these tissues. These results provide valuable insights into the role of 1R-MYB transcription factors in plant defense.

10.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 902-906, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878954

ABSTRACT

The color characteristic information of Rhei Radix et Rhizoma powder was obtained by spectrophotometer, the feasibility of rapid identification of Rhei Radix et Rhizoma origin based on chromaticity value was studied by statistical analysis. The results of rank correlation analysis showed that a~*(P<0.01), b~*(P<0.01) had significantly correlation with the origin of medicinal herbs, which could be used as two important parameters to distinguish the origin of Rhei Radix et Rhizoma, the larger the a~* value, the more red the powder color,and the greater the b~* value, the more yellow the powder color. Meanwhile, through Fisher discriminant analysis, the linear discriminant functions of different genus Rhei Radix et Rhizoma were established, which was Rheum tanguticum=40.666a~*+0.019b~*-213.303, Rh. palmatum=34.121a~*+0.061b~*-151.770, Rh. officinale=28.071a~*+0.113b~*-104.604 3, the coincidence rate of cross-validation was over 95%, among them, the discriminant rate of Rh. tanguticum and Rh. officinale reached 100%;In addition, using the percentile method to analyze the 90% reference value range of three different origin of Rhei Radix et Rhizoma, as a result, Rh. tanguticum a~*(10.236 5-10.604 7), b~*(32.294 8-34.841 7); Rh. palmatum a~*(8.602 7-8.770 0), b~*(27.534 8-28.968 6), and Rh. officinale a~*(6.825 7-7.464 3),b~*(21.001 6-27.716 4). According to this study, rank correlation analysis and Fisher discriminant analysis are feasible to distinguish the base of Rhei Radix et Rhizoma in a certain range, and provide some theoretical basis for the identification of Rhei Radix et Rhizoma. It also provides a new method and idea for the identification of other multi-base Chinese medicine.


Subject(s)
Animals , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Gastropoda , Plant Roots , Rheum , Rhizome
11.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 1957-1964, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-825168

ABSTRACT

Ethylene-response factors, which are a subfamily of the AP2/ERF family, play an important role in ethylene signal transduction, plant growth and plant resistant. In this study, a full-length cDNA of the AsERF1 gene was cloned from Aquilaria sinensis. Sequence analysis, prokaryotic expression and purification, subcellular localization, tissue-specific analysis and expression analysis under different abiotic stresses was performed. The open reading frame (ORF) of the AsERF1 gene was 691 bp, encoding a protein of 229 amino acids with a predicted molecular mass of 25.36 kD. The AsERF1 protein contained the conserved AP2 sequence of ERF protein. A phylogenetic analysis indicated that the AsERF1 protein showed greatest sequence similarity with ERF2 from Populus trichocarpa. The recombinant AsERF1 protein was expressed in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3) cells using the prokaryotic expression vector pET28a-AsERF1 and the recombinant AsERF1 protein was purified. Agrobacterium-mediated protein expression experiments demonstrated that AsERF1 mainly localized to the nucleus. Expression analysis indicated that AsERF1 was primarily observed in leaves. The AsERF1 expression level was induced by salt, drought, low temperature and CdCl2 treatment, while the abundance of AsERF1 was most significantly induced by drought stress. These results provide valuable insights into the role of AsERF1 in plant defense and the mechanism of agarwood formation.

12.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 3407-3413, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828431

ABSTRACT

In this study, HPLC was used to determine the content of the four isoflavones of Astragalus membranceus var. mongholicus from different regions(calycosin-7-glucoside, ononin, calycosin and formononetin), and gray correlation analysis and path analysis were used to explore the influence of climate factors on the content of isoflavone components in A. membranceus var. mongholicus. The results showed that there were significant differences in the content of the four isoflavones in different areas(P<0.05); grey correlation analysis showed that the highest temperature in July, the lowest temperature in January and the daily average temperature had a greater impact on the content of flavonoid glycosides, meanwhile precipitation and relative humidity were the more important factors for the accumulation of flavonoid aglycones. According to the general analysis, the direct positive effects of the lowest temperature in January and altitude on the contents of four isoflavones in A. membranceus var. mongholicus were significant. High altitude and extreme temperature conditions might be more adverse to the formation and accumulation of isoflavone components. Therefore, the religions of A. membranceus var. mongholicus with high contents of isoflavones should be chosen the low altitude region with higher minimum temperature in January. This study provides a reference basis for the quality evaluation of A. membranceus var. mongholicus, and basic data for the selection of suitable habitat, construction of planting standards and directional cultivation of medicinal materials in A. membranceus var. mongholicus.


Subject(s)
Astragalus Plant , Astragalus propinquus , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Isoflavones , Plant Roots , Chemistry
13.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 1403-1409, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-774542

ABSTRACT

The qualitative analysis of flavonoids in Coreopsis tinctoria was carried out by a combination of 2 D-TLC and HPLC-IT-TOF-MS. The separation was conducted on 2 D-TLC and a Phenomenex Kinetex Evo C_(18) column(2.1 mm×100 mm, 2.6 μm) with methanol-0.05% aqueous formic acid by gradient elution. Electrospray ionization-(ESI) source was applied and operated in both positive and negative ionization modes. Eighteen flavonoids including three flavonoids, one flavonol, nine flavonones, one flavanonol and four chalcones, were putatively identified from the flavone-enriched fraction of C. tinctoria. 2 D-TLC could separate the flavonoids from C. tinctoria. HPLC-IT-TOF-MS was able to quickly and accurately analyze the flavonoids in C. tinctoria. The results would provide experimental information for the efficacy material basis clarification of C. tinctoria.


Subject(s)
Chalcones , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Coreopsis , Chemistry , Flavonoids , Phytochemicals , Plant Extracts , Spectrometry, Mass, Electrospray Ionization
14.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 2495-2502, 2018.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-687428

ABSTRACT

Eight kinds of provenance of Rheum palmatum collected from 4 provinces Sichuan, Ningxia, Gansu, Shannxi as test materials, which were transplanted under 3 different environments by using complete randomized block design with three replicates. The contents of the chemical components was determined by HPLC. This study aimed at analyzing the effect of genotype, environment and their interactions on the 4 kinds of functional components (phenolic acids, bianthrone, free anthraquinones and combined anthraquinones) in 14 kinds of active components of R. palmatum, in order to provide a theoretical basis for the selection of cultivated R. palmatum in high quality producing area and excellent provenance. The functional components of R. palmatum were influenced by genotype and environment. The content of phenolic acids was mainly influenced by environment, and the other three kinds of functional components were affected by environment and their interactions. The proportion of environment was larger. The cultivation quality of R. palmatum should give priority to environment, then choose a provenance. Sichuan may be beneficial in accumulation of free anthraquinones in R. palmatum, Gansu may facilitate the binding of combined anthraquinone, phenolic acids and bianthrone content. Preliminary inference based on the content and proportion of efficacy components, P2 could be potential special medicinal germplasm that have function of heat-clearing and detoxifying drugs. P6 could be potential special medicinal germplasm that activate blood circulation to dissipate blood stasis. P7 and P1 could all be potential specialmedicinal germplasms that exist diarrhea attack characters. The results of this study have important guiding significance for the production of rhubarb precision medicinal materials.

15.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 2664-2669, 2018.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-687402

ABSTRACT

In order to investigate the genetic difference on medicinal components of Scutellaria baicalensis from different provenances on the genetic difference, the S. baicalensis provenance tests were arranged by randomized block design.Excavating the crude drugs that have been growing for three years, with the same drying process, the content of baicalin, baicalein, wogonoside, wogonin and laminarin A in S. baicalensis were detected by HPLC, and then the data were analyzed. The results indicated that the content of baicalin in different provenances of S. baicalensis was significantly different (<0.05), while the variation of baicalein reached extremely significant level (<0.01). Cluster analysis showed that if the distance was divided by 5.0, the provenances in Chengde, Hebei province were divided into two independent populations, while the other two populations had large geographic spans. The results show that the significant geographical variations exist in the content of medicinal components in S. baicalensis. The study laid a theoretical foundation of provenance selection of S. baicalensis.

16.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 2246-2253, 2018.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-690503

ABSTRACT

Six kinds of provenance of Rheum tanguticum collected from Qinghai province as the test materials, which were transplanted under 3 different environments by using complete randomized block design with three replicates. The contents of the chemical components was determined by HPLC. This study aimed at analyzing the effect of genotype, environment and their interactions on the 4 kinds of functional components (phenolic acids, bianthrone, free anthraquinones and combined anthraquinones) in 14 kinds of active components of Rh. tanguticum, in order to provide a theoretical basis for the selection of cultivated Rh. tanguticum in high quality producing area and excellent provenance. The provenance trial showed that the genotype and environment influence on the effect of all kinds of functional components in Rh. tanguticum were significant (<0.05). The content of phenolic acids was mainly influenced by environment, and the other three kinds of functional components were affected by environment and their interactions. The proportion of environment was larger. The cultivation quality of Rh. tanguticum should give priority to environment, then choose a provenance. Sichuan may be beneficial in accumulation of combined anthraquinones in Rh. tanguticum, Gansu may facilitate the binding of free anthraquinone, phenolic acids and bianthrone content. Preliminary inference based on the content and proportion of efficacy components, T4 could be potential special medicinal germplasm that have function of heat-clearing and detoxifying drugs and activate blood circulation to dissipate blood stasis; T3 and T6 could all be potential specialmedicinal germplasms that exist diarrhea attack characters. The results of this study have certain guiding significance for the production of rhubarb precision medicinal materials.

17.
Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines (English Ed.) ; (6): 152-160, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-812130

ABSTRACT

As an important herbaceous plant, Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi (Chinese skullcap) is geographically widespread and commonly used throughout the world. In the Chinese medicine market, S. baicalensis has been divided into two primary types, "Ku Qin" (WXR) and "Tiao Qin" (TST). Moreover, TST is also divided into different grades according to the diameter of roots. To explore the distribution patterns of the contents of five biologically activate ingredients (FBAI), we used six-year-old cultivated S. baicalensis and analyzed its growth characteristics as well as the quality difference among different types and diameters in roots. Throughout the entire root, we discovered that contents of the FBAI all initially increased and subsequently decreased from the top to the bottom of the roots. The baicalin content of WXR was less than that of TST. On the contrary, the contents of baicalein, wogonin, and oroxylin A in WXR were up to about two times higher than that in TST. We also found that the 0 to 40 cm part of the S. baicalensis root possessed about 87% of the root biomass and about 92% of the contents of the active ingredients.


Subject(s)
Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Chemistry , Flavanones , Flavonoids , Plant Roots , Chemistry , Scutellaria baicalensis , Chemistry
18.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 2049-2054, 2016.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-236071

ABSTRACT

By measuring the growth data of Scutellaria baicalensis in different cutting-seedling and determined active ingredient contents by HPLC and ultraviolet spectrophotometric determination. such as flavonoids. baicalin. wogonoside. baicalein. wogonin. oroxylin A. scutellarin. luteolin. and apigenin in the whole plant. Under circumstances of guaranteeing the quality and yield of medicinal materials. the yield of medicinal materials. and stems and leaves reached 193.60,63.21 kg/mu after twice cutting seedling. Not only yield but also active ingredient contents have been improved to some extent. the contents of flavonoids. baicalin. wogonoside. baicalein. wogonin. oroxylin A reached 18.52%. 15.13%. 4.03%. 1.04%. 1.04%. 0.12%. respectively in roots. Luteolin was not detected in young stems and leaves of S. baicalensis,the contents of other active ingredients such as scutellarin. luteolin and apigenin reached 7.00%. 0.96%. 0.04% respectively under twice cutting seedling. Therefore. regular cutting seedling could be regard as a new cultivation technique for wider range of promotion. And gaining high quality and yield of medicinal materials and tea with the purpose of rational utilization of natural resources and promoting the development of integration of herbal combination.

19.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 2607-2611, 2016.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-275197

ABSTRACT

Rheum tanguticum from the same area was divided into 8 types of variation according to the plant morphology, content differences of free anthraquinones, combined anthraquinones, double anthrone were studied. The results showed that the functional components of different variation types were significantly different. The average content of free anthraquinone combined anthraquinone was 2.10-6.71 and 15.43-22.04 mg•g⁻¹, respectively. The average content of sennoside A plus sennoside B was 32.88-42.36 mg•g⁻¹. There were significant differences among the difference of 10 kinds of active components, except for sennoside B and physcion glycoside. Interred with the content and proportion of functional components, type B and type E might be potential special medicinal germplasm for diarrhea attack product, type G and type H might be a potential special medicinal germplasm for clearing heat and detoxifing, type C and type F might be potential special medicinal germplasm for activating blood circulation to dissipate blood stasis, type A and type D might be potential special medicinal germplasm with anastaltic funtion. The conclusion laid the foundation for the directional cultivation of fine varieties of special purpose of rhubarb.

20.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 1326-1328, 2014.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-321314

ABSTRACT

The acquisition and storage of the image data are important in the Chinese medicine resources survey, and it is important data and evidence for the process and the results. The image data of the Chinese medicinal materials' habitat, original plant or animal, processing in habitat, commodity form, the relative contents and workshop scenarios in the investigation are important for the compiling of the Color Atlas of National Chinese Medicine Resources, mapping the digital scattergram of the Chinese medicine resources, establishing the digital Chinese medicine plant herbarium and acquiring the documentary of the Chinese medicine resource survey. The content, procedures and methods of the video data collecting have been related and analyzed in this article to provide reference for the Chinese medicine resources survey.


Subject(s)
Conservation of Natural Resources , Databases, Factual , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Ecosystem , Information Storage and Retrieval , Methods , Photography , Plants, Medicinal , Chemistry
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