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Autops. Case Rep ; 7(4): 8-17, Oct.-Dec. 2017. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-905366


Gelatinous transformation of the bone marrow (GTBM) is a rare hematologic entity, which was first described by Paul Michael in 1930. GTBM is mostly associated with caloric intake/anorexia nervosa, although it also has been described accompanying other pathologic conditions, such as malignancy, systemic lupus erythematosus and HIV infections. Even though the diagnostic features of the hematopoietic tissue, such as hypoplasia, adipose cell atrophy, and deposition of a gelatinous substance in the bone marrow (which stains with Alcian blue at pH 2.5) are quite specific, the underlying pathogenic mechanisms remain poorly understood. Considering the evidence of reversibility­notably in cases of malnutrition and anorexia­this entity should be kept high on cards as a possible differential diagnosis of patients presenting with cytopenias and associated weight loss or starvation, especially in developing countries with nutritionally deprived populations. On an extensive review of the literature aimed at comprehensively addressing the evolution of the GTBM from the past century until now, we conclude that the lack of clinical suspicion and awareness regarding this pathologic entity has led to misdiagnosis and delayed diagnosis.

Humans , Bone Marrow Diseases/diagnosis , Delayed Diagnosis/prevention & control , Rare Diseases/diagnosis
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-184224


Black hairy tongue (BHT) also known as Lingua villosa nigra is an acquired, benign condition which is characterized by abnormally hypertrophied and elongated papilliform papillae on the dorsal surface of the tongue. Apart from black; it may also appear brown, yellow, green or blue. BHT typically causes aesthetic concerns to the patient. Gagging, nausea, dysgeusia, xerostomia, burning mouth syndrome and halitosis can be the very rare presenting complaints in some patients. In India, however, black tongue is believed to associate with witches and unfortunate doom spellers. We are reporting a case of olanzapine induced BHT who became a victim of very popular but irrational myth in Indian society.

Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-181944


Background: Olfactory dysfunctions albeit commonly studied in research study are rarely tested in clinical practice and commonly overlooked in elderly. With ageing, rate of decline in olfactory and cognitive functions increases. Diabetic patients are more prone to develop these olfactory and cognitive dysfunctions. Elderly diabetic patients with olfactory dysfunction were found to have increased incidence of cognitive impairment as compared to patients without olfactory dysfunction. So olfactory function testing can be used as screening tool to detect cognitive impairment at earliest and can halt the progression of cognitive impairment by appropriate measures. Methods: A cross-sectional study done on 200 elderly diabetic patients. Olfactory dysfunctions were detected by open essence test and cognitive testing was done with MMSE. Patients with psychosis, apparent dementia, any nasal disease were excluded. Results: Out of 200 patients total number of patients with MMSE <23, 24-26 and >26 were 19, 51 and 150 with average Open Essence (OE) score 6.05±, 6.74±0.92 and 8.5±0.54 respectively indicating that patients with lower OE score were found to have lower MMSE score. Conclusion: With ageing, olfactory as well as cognitive dysfunction increases. Diabetes accelerates these processes substantially. Olfactory dysfunction precedes the development of cognitive impairment. So elderly patients with diabetes should be screened for olfactory functions so that proper measures could be taken to decrease the incidence or severity of cognitive dysfunction.

Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-181939


Background: HIV continues to be a major global public health issue. In 2014 an estimated 36.9 million people were living with HIV, a global prevalence of 0.8 %. The clinical spectrum of HIV infection encompasses a spectrum ranging from an acute syndrome associated with primary infection to a prolonged symptomatic state to an advanced cardiac disease in HIV affected patients is becoming more prevalent as therapy and longevity improve Infection HIV is one of the causes of acquired heart disease in these patients. With advances in the management of patients living with HIV and AIDS (PLHA), not only survival has increased but manifestations of late stage HIV infection are encountered more often including cardiovascular complications. Aims and Objectives: To determine the prevalence and characteristics of cardiac manifestations in patients with HIV infection and to evaluate their correlation with CD4 count. Methods: During the period of 1 year from July 2015 to September 2016, total 100 cases of HIV/AIDS were included. The occurrence of cardiac involvement in HIV/AIDS cases was determined based on cardiac enzymes, ECG findings & 2D Echocardiography findings. An attempt was made to correlate various cardiac findings with CD4 T cell count. Results: Male to female ratio was 3:1. Common clinical symptoms were fever (68%), cough (44%) & extertional breathlessness (33%) Echocardiographic abnormalities were seen in 54.3% of patients. Reduced ejection fraction (below 50%) and fractional shortening below 30% were the most common cardiac abnormality (46.3%) followed by pericardial effusion (16.66%), pulmonary artery hypertension (11.11%), dilated cardiomyopathy (9.25%), diastolic dysfunction (9.25%), regional wall motion abnormality (1.85%) and valvular regurgitation (5.55%) respectively. Significant statistical positive correlation was observed between low CD4 count and echocardiographic abnormalities (p < 0.001). Pericardial effusion was seen more in patients with CD4 count below 200 (p < 0.05). Maximum number of echocardiographic abnormalities was seen in WHO clinical stage IV. Conclusion: Echocardiographic abnormalities are more prevalent in HIV/AIDS patients and their prevalence increases as the CD4 count falls andoccur more in advanced stage of the disease. So we should aim at starting ART early in HIV infected patients so as to improve the quality of life of people living with HIV/AIDS.

Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-177779


Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE I) and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) are commonly prescribed as antihypertensive drugs and they also show similar side effects. However ARBs are well tolerated than ACE I with low incidence of side effects. Both these classes of drugs can rarely cause angioedema but it is extremely rare with ARBs. The exact pathogenesis of angioedema with ARBs is not known but it has been postulated to be due to activation of complement system and or other pro inflammatory cytokines like prostaglandins and histamine. We report a case of 30 year old male patient who was taking losartan for control of blood pressure but presented with facial swelling and submandibular edema thus suggestive of losartan induced angioedema.