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1.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888009

ABSTRACT

Eucommiae Cortex is an authentic medicinal material with broad growing areas( such as Hunan and Sichuan provinces in China. It is well-known for its efficacy in tonifying liver and kidney,strengthening muscles and bones,and stabilizing fetus. It has also been proven in pharmacology to possess the functions such as lowering blood pressure and lipids. Hence,Eucommiae Cortex has attracted increasing attention. The current quality standards of Eucommiae Cortex vary in different countries or regions. The quality of Eucommiae Cortex products on the market is affected by mix-ups of non-medicinal parts and insufficient growth years. In view of these problems,this paper summarizes the current quality standards and research progress of Eucommiae Cortex in China and overseas,aiming to provide a reference for the establishment of the quality standards of Eucommiae Cortex.


Subject(s)
China , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Eucommiaceae , Humans , Reference Standards
2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921707

ABSTRACT

The indirect competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay(ic-ELISA) and direct competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay(dc-ELISA) were performed for the rapid detection of aflatoxin B_1(AFB_1) in Astragali Radix, Zingiberis Rhizoma Recens, Jujubae Fructus, and Nelumbinis Semen with self-made antigens and antibodies. Different extraction methods were investigated to reduce the matrix effects of different medicinal parts in Chinese herbal medicines. The sensitivity of dc-ELISA method was improved by optimizing the molar ratio of AFB_1 to horseradish peroxidase(HRP). In this study, the sensitivity(IC_(50)) of ic-ELISA and dc-ELISA was 0.046 and 0.023 ng·mL~(-1), with the limit of detection(LOD) of 0.007 and 0.004 ng·mL~(-1), respectively. The detection time was 3 h and 50 min for ic-ELISA and dc-ELISA, respectively. The recovery rates were within the range of 62.96%-104.4%, with RSDs of less than 10%. Confirmed by LC-MS/MS, three positive samples of Nelumbinis Semen were detected from 53 samples. Two ELISA methods established in this study were accurate, rapid and sensitive, and can be used for rapid screening of AFB_1 in Chinese herbal medicines such as Astragali Radix, Zingiberis Rhizoma Recens, Jujubae Fructus, and Nelumbinis Semen. In addition, the advantages and limitations of the two methods were compared and discussed, which can provide a reference for the testing institutions to choose the proper method.


Subject(s)
Aflatoxin B1/analysis , China , Chromatography, Liquid , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Tandem Mass Spectrometry
3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828008

ABSTRACT

The WRKY family genes, which play an important role in plant morphogenesis and stress response, were selected based on the data of the full-length transcriptome of Asarum heterotropoides. Using AtWRKY33, which regulates the synthesis of the camalexin in the model plant Arabidopsis to compare homologous genes in A. heterotropoides, primers were designed to amplify the open reading frame(ORF) fragment of AhWRKY33 gene by RT-PCR using total RNA of A. heterotropoides leaves as template. Real-time PCR results showed that there was a significant difference between the aerial part and the underground part of A. heterotropoides, the toxic aristolochic acid content is highly expressed in the leaves higher than the root. After verification, the WRKY33 gene of A. heterotropoides is ORF long 1 686 bp, encoding 561 amino acids.AhWRKY33 had two conserved WRKYGQK domains. According to the classical classification, it belongs to group Ⅰ WRKY transcription factor. A. heterotropoides WRKY33 had some homology with amino acids of other species. The study successfully constructed the plant eukaryotic expression vector PHG-AhWRKY33 and transformed Arabidopsis thaliana, the transgenic Arabidopsis was obtained by PCR detection and hygromycin resistant plate screening. It found that the germination of transgenic Arabidopsis seeds was accelerated and the stress resistance was increased. It laid a foundation for further analysis of WRKY transcription factor in the growth and development of A. heterotropoides and the synthesis of secondary metabolites.


Subject(s)
Arabidopsis , Genetics , Arabidopsis Proteins , Genetics , Asarum , Cloning, Molecular , Gene Expression Regulation, Plant , Plant Leaves , Plant Proteins , Genetics , Transcription Factors , Transformation, Genetic
4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-802119

ABSTRACT

Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is a toxic secondary metabolite produced by toxigenic Aspergillus spp. (such as A. flavus and A. parasiticus) with carcinogenic,teratogenic and mutagenic effects. Studies have shown that AFB1 is widely found in crops,food,feed and traditional Chinese medicine,which poses a serious safety hazards to humans healthy. The establishment of a rapid detection technique that is suitable for AFB1 in different matrices has a great significance in preventing contamination,controlling food and medicines safety and ensuring human health. With the continuous improvement of small-molecule immune technology,various rapid immunoassays of AFB1 have been developed and utilized in recent years. This review systematically summarized current relevant standards for the detection of AFB1 in China and the maximum recommended levels for the application of aflatoxins in Chinese herbal medicines in some regions and countries. These standards are mainly applicable for aflatoxins in food,feed and some easily contaminated samples of Chinese herbal medicines. Some studies have shown that except the Chinese herbal medicines specified with the maximum recommended levels,some medicinal herbs and their products were also contaminated by aflatoxins. In addition,this paper reviewed the preparation technology of antigen and antibody for AFB1,and the rapid detection methods based on the specific recognition ability between antigen and antibody, including enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay,immunochromatographic assay,fluorescence immunoassay,chemiluminescence immunoassay,and novel immunosensor method, were also summarized and compared. This review aims to provide the reference for rapid,accurate,and sensitive technical standards for the detection of AFB1 in traditional Chinese medicine during the agricultural planting,distribution, trade and quality supervision and for the market, pharmacies and hospitals,so as to ensure the quality and safety of the traditional Chinese medicines.

5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-690682

ABSTRACT

Cadmium contamination of environment is a subject of serious international concern. Bioaccumulation of cadmium occurs primarily through ingestion of contaminated water and food. Cadmium poisoning came into prominence with the "itai-itai" disease event in Japan in the 1950s. It could also cause damages to liver, kidney, lung and other organs. Thus, the treatment of cadmium poisoning has become a research hotspot. Researchers are trying their best to explore prophylactic and therapeutic medicines for prevention and treatment of cadmium-induced poisoning. So far, chelation therapy, the conventional treatment for heavy metal toxicity, is reported to have a number of safety and efficacy issues. Natural medicines have a variety of advantages such as extensive sources, high safety, less adverse reactions, and thus have great potentials in treating cadmium poisoning. In this review, the progress in the antagonistic effects of natural drugs in cadmium poisoning and their therapeutic mechanisms were summarized in order to provide certain references for the future development and in-depth study of antagonistic substances.

6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-771567

ABSTRACT

Endogenous toxic components have become an important topic in the field of traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs). Since the endogenous toxic components in TCMs are often used as clinical effective components, the safety and effectiveness of endogenous toxic substances has become an important part of the research of TCMs. In this paper, the classification and evaluation criteria of toxic Chinese medicinal materials are described, and the analytical methods of endogenous components in TCMs are summarized and expounded base on with the techniques of chromatography, spectroscopy, immunoassay, and so on. On this basis, the problems in terms of endogenous toxic components are analyzed and discussed. This paper could provide ideas and methods for the evaluation of the validity and safety of TCMs containing endogenous toxic components.


Subject(s)
Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Medicine, Chinese Traditional
7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-690409

ABSTRACT

With the extensive clinical application of Tripterygium wilfordii, there are many counterfeit products on the market. Traditional technology can not effectively identify the authenticity of the traditional Chinese medicine. Therefore, a strategy of accurate identification and quality evaluation of Tripterygium based on DNA barcode and chemical fingerprint spectrum was established. Based on DNA barcode technology, HMMer annotation method of hidden Markov model and K2P model were used to analyze genetic distance.BLAST1, nearest distance and phylogenetic tree (NJ-tree) methods were used to assess the identification efficiency of the ITS2 barcode. The fingerprint of 27 T. wilfordii was established by UPLC-PDA method, and the similarity of the fingerprint of different sources was evaluated. The main components of T. wilfordii were determined by LC-MS/MS. The results revealed that the intraspecific genetic distances of T. wilfordii were lower than the interspecific genetic distances between T. wilfordii and its adulterants. The results of similarity search showed that ITS2 sequence was used to identify T. wilfordii and its adulterants. The clustering of T. wilfordii and its adulterants was clear in the tree of NJ cluster, and 12 of 27 samples were identified as true T. wilfordii.The chemical fingerprint spectrum research indicates that the feature one region can distinguish the false product of tripterygium glycosides more intuitively. The cluster analysis of HCA-thermal map showed that the contents of six active components of T. wilfordii from different habitats were significantly different, which could be used to evaluate the quality of T. wilfordii. This paper is of guiding significance for the accurate identification and quality evaluation of Tripterygium medicinal plants.

8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-275174

ABSTRACT

Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a toxic secondary metabolite mainly produced by Aspergillus and Penicillium species, with strong renal toxicity, teratogenic, carcinogenic, mutagenic effect. Studies have shown that OTA is not only widely contaminated in food and feed crops, but also has been widely contaminated in Chinese herbal medicines such as spices, licorice and so on. In view of OTA's universality and harmfulness, this paper summarizes the flow visualization test strip, microsphere, electrochemical sensor, surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy technology in OTA rapid detection, which provides reference for the research and application of high throughout detection instrument miniaturization in order to achieve OTA quick detection and simple operation.

9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-258499

ABSTRACT

Natural plant pigment is rich in resources, with the features of natural color and environment friendly, which has a broad space for development and market prospects. In order to further develop and utilize of natural plant pigment, this paper mainly introduces the natural plant dyes in the domains of food, cosmetics and health care products on the historical development process and their application. In addition,this paper summarizes the application of representative natural plant pigment, dyes, and prospects the market of natural plant pigment, so as to provide reference for the development of natural plant pigment in the enlarged health industry of China.

10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-284749

ABSTRACT

Mosquitoes are seriously harmful to human health for transmitting some mortal diseases. Among the methods of mosquito control, synthetical insecticides are the most popular. However, as a result of longterm use of these insecticides, high resistant mosquitos and heavy environmental pollution appear. Thus, eco-friendly prevention measures are taken into the agenda. Essential oils extracted from medicinal plants have repellent and smoked killing effects on mosquitoes. With abundant medical plants resources and low toxicity, they have the potential of being developed as a new type of mosquito and insect repellent agent. The recent application advances of essential oils of medicinal plants in insect repellent and its application limitations are overviewed. This review will provide references for the future development and in-depth study of essential oils.

11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-307173

ABSTRACT

With the development of living condition, more and more people tend to show unique personality, thus hair dyes as hair cosmetics are highly favored. By the year 2012, the global sales of hair dye had exceeded $15 billion, with a sustained growth at a rate of 8%-10% annually. However, the harm caused by long-term use of hair dyes has aroused widespread public concern, so people begin to seek non-toxic or low toxic natural plant hair dyes. The types of commonly used hair dyes and the corresponding dyeing mechanisms were summarized in this manuscript, and the representative natural botanic dyes were listed. Thereafter, their effective fractions, constituents and application status were described. In addition, the values of botanic hair dyes and their broad market prospect were discussed. Finally, the problems that exist in the research and development of plant hair dyes were issued. This review may help to provide thought for developing novel, green and ecological natural plant hair dyes.

12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-231024

ABSTRACT

Cinnabars are widely used in the clinic and shows unique efficacy, and it has been used in treating diseases for thousands of years either single-use or combination with other traditional Chinese medicines. Cinnabar mainly contains mercury, which displays obvious hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity. The safety of cinnabar and its rational use caused extensive attention. However, there are some misunderstanding that cinnabar shows equivalent toxicity to the toxicity of mercury compounds such as mercuric chloride and methylmercury in safety evaluation of cinnabar, which in our view exaggerates the toxicity. For traditional Chinese medicine containing cinnabar, some researchers questioned the medicinal value of cinnabar, and even proposed to remove cinnabar in order to avoid possible poisoning. This review reported adverse events, summarized its toxicity characteristics, mechanism and the medicinal value in preparations of traditional Chinese medicine. The significance of this paper is to further understand the toxicity of cinnabar and reduce its side effect in clinical application, and to provide a scientific basis for reasonable clinical application and a scientific understanding of cinnabar.

13.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-320814

ABSTRACT

Advocating green, nature, environmental protection, safety and the pursuit of efficacy are the trends of cosmetics in the world. In recent years, more and more Chinese herbal extracts with mild, high safety and small irritation are applied to cosmetics as the natural additives. This has become a new hot spot. The recent application advances of Chinese medicine raw materials in cosmetics are overviewed according to their main functions. This review will provide useful references for the future development and application of Chinese medicinal herbs cosmetics.


Subject(s)
Animals , Biomedical Research , Consumer Product Safety , Cosmetics , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Humans
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-812467

ABSTRACT

In the present study, we investigated anti-inflammatory effects of Sangxingtang (SXT) on acute lung injury using a lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute lung injury (ALI) mouse model. The cell counting in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) was performed. The degree of lung edema was evaluated by measuring the wet/dry weight (W/D) ratio. The superoxidase dismutase (SOD) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activities were assayed by SOD and MPO kits, respectively. The levels of inflammatory mediators, including tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6), were assayed by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay methods. Pathological changes of lung tissues were observed by Hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining. The inflammatory signaling pathway-related proteins nuclear factor mitogen activated protein kinases (P38MAPK), extracellular regulated protein kinases (Erk), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (Jnk) and nuclear transcription factor (NF-κB) p65 expressions were measured by Western blotting. Our results showed that the treatment with the SXT markedly attenuated the inflammatory cell numbers in the BALF, decreased the levels of P-P38MAPK, P-Erk, P-Jnk and P-NF-κB p65 and the total protein levels in lungs, improved the SOD activity and inhibited the MPO activity. Histological studies demonstrated that SXT substantially reduced the LPS-induced neutrophils in lung tissues, compared with the untreated LPS group. In conclusion, our results indicated that SXT had protective effects on LPS-induced ALI in mice.


Subject(s)
Acute Lung Injury , Drug Therapy , Genetics , Allergy and Immunology , Animals , Anti-Inflammatory Agents , Down-Regulation , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Female , Humans , Lipopolysaccharides , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases , Genetics , Allergy and Immunology , Signal Transduction , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha , Genetics , Allergy and Immunology
15.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-237740

ABSTRACT

During the process of growth, harvesting, transportation, processing and storage, Chinese herbal medicines (CHMs) can be easily contaminated by fungi and their metabolites like mycotoxins, which not only express negative effects on the quality and safety of CHMs and their processed products, but also pose great threats to human health. Now, some chemical synthetic fungicides have been frequently used to control the growth of fungi and accumulation of mycotoxins in the preservation of CHMs. However, the concentration and type of chemical fungicides allowed for postharvest application are restricted due to the disadvantages of their high residual toxicity, long degradation period and pollution to the environment and so on. Therefore, it is critical to research and develop some highly effective, safe and non-toxic, natural, environment-friendly fungistatic agents from plants to prevent CHMs from being contaminated by fungi and mycotoxins. The paper reviews mycotoxins and their harmfulness, the effective compounds of fungistatic plants as well as the antifungal mechanism to provide scientific evidences for developing novel and effective fungistatic agents plants. Then, the application prospect of fungistatic agents from plants in the preservation of CHMs was discussed.


Subject(s)
Animals , Fungi , Metabolism , Fungicides, Industrial , Pharmacology , Humans , Mycotoxins , Metabolism , Toxicity , Plant Diseases , Microbiology , Plant Extracts , Pharmacology , Plants, Medicinal , Chemistry , Microbiology , Preservation, Biological , Methods
16.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-250453

ABSTRACT

As an important part of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), mineral medicine plays an irreplaceable role. However, little has been reported on its species and valence state of heavy metals and deleterious elements, and also the relevance to pharmacological effect and toxicology. The present paper, in a new perspective, summarized the determination of the species and valence state of heavy metals and deleterious elements in recent years, discussed the progress of the pharmacological effect and toxicology, and prospected for future study which might provide reference for mineral medicine.


Subject(s)
Animals , Drug Contamination , Drug Therapy , Humans , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Metals, Heavy , Toxicity , Minerals , Pharmacology
17.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-299842

ABSTRACT

This research uses six Agrobacterium rhizogenes R1601, R15384, R1000, A4, R1025 and R1 to infect silymarin explants to induce hairy roots and silibin. All of the six A. rhizogenes can induce Silybum marianum to generate hairy roots and the A. rhizogene A4 shows comparatively high infection on the plant. This research determines the condition to induce silymarin hairy roots by the factors of infection time, pre-culturing, co-culturing and pH value. The fact that MS liquid medium fits the proliferation of silymarin hairy roots is determined. Through PCR molecular identification, it can be seen that the DNA plasmids in the A. rhizogenes are successfully integrated into the genome of transformed roots. Using liquid chromatography, it is determined that the silibin content in silymarin hairy roots is 2.5 times that in the plant In this research, the silymarin hairy roots culturing system is established, which lays a foundation for the study of culturing silymarin hairy roots and producing silibin.


Subject(s)
Agrobacterium , Genetics , Physiology , Cell Culture Techniques , Methods , Milk Thistle , Chemistry , Genetics , Microbiology , Plant Roots , Chemistry , Genetics , Microbiology , Silymarin , Transformation, Genetic
18.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-324282

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To study the callus induction and plant regeneration of Ixeridium sonchifolium.</p><p><b>METHOD</b>By using the orthogonal experiment design, the medium for callus induction and plant regeneration was optimized.</p><p><b>RESULT</b>The optimal medium for callus induction was MS + 2, 4-D 1.5 mg x L(-1) +6-BA 1.5 mg x L(-1) +NAA 1.0 mg x L(-1) + IBA 1.5 mg x L(-1) + KT1.5 mg x L(-1), the optimal medium for inducing adventitious bud was MS +2, 4-D 0.2 mg x L(-1) +6-BA 0.5 mg x L(-1) + NAA 0.5 mg x L(-1) + IBA 0.5 mg x L(-1) + KT 0.5 mg x L(-1). Plantlets were rooted on 1/4MS medium supplemented with different concentrations of IBA, and high rooting and survival was achieved when the IBA concentration was 0.1 mg L(-1).</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>An efficient system for plant regeneration of I. sonchifolium was established.</p>


Subject(s)
Asteraceae , Physiology , Plants, Medicinal , Physiology , Regeneration , Physiology , Tissue Culture Techniques , Methods
19.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-350970

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To study the chemical constituents in hairy roots of Cassia obtusifolia.</p><p><b>METHOD</b>The hairy roots of C. obtusifolia were induced with Agrobacterium rhizogenes LBA9402 from cotyledons and cultured in MSO liquid medium. The compounds were isolated by silica gel, polyamide and Sephadex LH-20 column chromatography, and the structures were elucidated by employing chemical and spectral methods</p><p><b>RESULT</b>Eight compounds were isolated from the ethyl acetate fraction of 95% EtOH extract of the transformed roots of C. obtusifolia. They are betulinic acid, chrysophanol, physcion, stigmasterol, 1-hydroxy-7-methoxy-3-methyl-anthraquinone, 8-O-methylchrysophanol, 1-O-methylchrysophanol and aloe-emodin, and aloe-emodin was isolated from the hairy roots of C. obtusifolia for the first time.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>The hairy roots of C. obtusifolia have the ability to synthesize the similar chemical constituents as the original plants.</p>


Subject(s)
Anthraquinones , Chemistry , Cassia , Chemistry , Microbiology , Cotyledon , Microbiology , Culture Media , Emodin , Chemistry , Plant Roots , Chemistry , Microbiology , Plants, Medicinal , Chemistry , Microbiology , Rhizobium , Tissue Culture Techniques , Methods , Triterpenes , Chemistry
20.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-316017

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To study the induction of hairy roots and anthraquinone production in Rheum palmatum.</p><p><b>METHOD</b>Leaf blades, hypocotyls and petioles of R. palmatum were infected by Agrobacterium rhizogenes LBA9402 and A. rhizogenes R1601, respectively.</p><p><b>RESULT</b>Hairy roots were induced by two strains of A. rhizogenes, and LBA9402 showed stronger infective ability than R1601. Three clones of hairy roots were cultured. DH7a was induced by R1601, DH5a and DH5c were induced by LBA9402. DH7a grew faster than DH5a and DH5c, and all of them grew faster obviously than normal root (NOR). There were significant differences in anthraquinone composition and content among four kinds of roots. Emodin physcion and chrysophanol were predominant anthraquinone in DH5a, DH5c and NOR respectivly. Aloe-emodin content was the lowest in all root cultures compared with other four anthraquinones.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>The in vitro culture system of the established hairy roots laid a foundation for mass production of anthraquinone by hairy root culture.</p>


Subject(s)
Anthraquinones , Emodin , Plant Roots , Chemistry , Microbiology , Plants, Medicinal , Chemistry , Microbiology , Rheum , Chemistry , Microbiology , Rhizobium , Physiology , Tissue Culture Techniques , Methods
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