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1.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 596-607, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970528

ABSTRACT

The tight relationships between microbiome and traditional Chinese medicine(TCM)have been widely recognized. New technologies, results, and theories are emerging in the field of microbiomics in recent years with the advances in high-throughput sequencing and multi-omics technologies. Based on the previous research, the present study has proposed the concept of TCM microbiomics(TCMM), which is an interdisciplinary subject aiming at elucidating the functions and applications of microbiome in the areas of herb resources, herb processing, herb storage, and clinical effects by using modern technology of biology, ecology, and informatics. This subject essentially contains the structures, functions, interactions, molecular mechanisms, and application strategies of the microbiome associated with the quality, safety, and efficacy of TCM. Firstly, the development of the TCMM concept was summarized, with the profound understanding of TCMM on the complexity and entirety of microbiome being emphasized. Then, the research contents and applications of TCMM in promoting the sustainable development of herb resources, improving the standardization and diversification of herb fermentation, strengthening the safety of herb storage, and resolving the scientific connotation of theories and clinical efficacy of TCM are reviewed. Finally, the research strategies and methods of TCM microbiomics were elaborated from basic research, application research, and system research. TCMM is expected to promote the integrative development of TCM with frontier science and technology, thereby expanding the depth and scope of TCM study and facilitating TCM modernization.


Subject(s)
Ecology , Fermentation , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Research Design
2.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 6613-6623, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008860

ABSTRACT

The evaluation of germplasm resources is the prerequisite for the development, utilization, and conservation of Chinese medicinal resources. The selection of excellent germplasm is the key to the breeding and orderly production of Pinellia ternata. In this study, 21 germplasm materials of P. ternata from major production areas in China were collected and analyzed for population diversity after phenotypic preliminary screening. The results have revealed that the P. ternata population has abundant phenotypic variation, and the phenotypic changes could be divided into five phenotypes in terms of organ trait variation. Further analysis of variation in 20 quantitative traits of the population revealed that the coefficient of variation for adenosine content(339.05%) was the largest, while the coefficient of variation for the underground plant height(16.35%) was the smallest. Correlation analysis showed that there was a strong correlation among various traits, with 52 pairs of traits showing highly significant correlation(P<0.01) and 19 pairs of traits showing a significant correlation(P<0.05). The 21 germplasms in the test could be classified into three major clusters by cluster analysis, with Cluster Ⅱ having the highest number and content of nucleosides, making it suitable for the selection and breeding of P. ternata varieties with high content of nucleosides. The yield in Cluster Ⅲ was higher than that in other groups, making it suitable for the selection and breeding of P. ternata varieties with a high yield. All trait indicators could be simplified into five principal component factors through principal component analysis, and the cumulative contribution rate was up to 86.04%. Further, comprehensive analysis using membership function and stepwise regression analysis identified nine traits, such as plant height, main leaf length, and underground plant height as characteristic indicators for the comprehensive evaluation of germplasm resources of P. ternata. BX007, BX008, and BX005 were identified as germplasms with both high yield and high uridine content, with BX007 having the highest uridine content of 479.51 μg·g~(-1). It belonged to the germplasm of P. ternata with double bulbils and could be cultivated as a potential good variety. Based on the phenotypic classification of P. ternata, systematic resource evaluation was carried out in this study, which could lay a foundation for the excavation of genetic resources and the breeding of new varieties of P. ternata.


Subject(s)
Plants, Medicinal , Pinellia/genetics , Plant Breeding , Phenotype , Uridine
3.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 4959-4966, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008665

ABSTRACT

The suitable habitat for the endangered and valuable medicinal herb Panax ginseng is gradually decreasing. It is crucial to investigate its suitable growing areas in China for global protection and sustainable utilization of P. ginseng. In this study, 371 distribution points of P. ginseng were collected, and 21 environmental factors were used as ecological indicators. The geographic information system for global medicinal plants(GMPGIS) system, MaxEnt model, and Thiessen polygon method were used to analyze the potential suitable areas for P. ginseng globally. The results showed that the key environmental variables affecting P. ginseng were precipitation in the hottest quarter(Bio18) and the coefficient of temperature seasonality(Bio4). The suitable habitats for P. ginseng were mostly located in the "One Belt, One Road" countries such as China, Japan, South Korea, North Korea, and Russia. The highly suitable habitats were mainly distributed along mountain ranges in southeastern Shandong, southern Shanxi and Shaanxi, northern Jiangsu, and northwestern Henan of China. Data analysis indicated that the current P. ginseng planting sites were all in high suitability zones, and the Thiessen polygon results showed that the geographic locations of P. ginseng production companies were unbalanced and urgently needed optimization. This study provides data support for P. ginseng planting site selection, scientific introduction, production layout, and long-term development planning.


Subject(s)
Panax , Ecosystem , China , Geographic Information Systems , Temperature , Plants, Medicinal
4.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 3130-3139, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-999062

ABSTRACT

Analyze the changes in gene expression profiles during the process of Panax ginseng seed dormancy release, and screen for differential genes, providing a basis for analyzing the mechanism of P. ginseng seed dormancy release. Comparative transcriptome analysis was conducted by using RNA-Seq sequencing technology in P. ginseng seeds stored at different low temperature. A total of 80.97 Gb of Raw reads and 80.19 Gb of Clean reads were obtained from the transcriptome. Principal component analysis and correlation analysis showed that there were significant differences in gene expression patterns at different developmental stages. Upset results showed that 46 248 unigenes were co-expressed in four stages, and 414, 445, 400 and 389 unigenes were specifically expressed in 0, 8,14 and 28 days, respectively. Gene Ontology functional annotation showed that the differentially expressed genes were mainly involved in nsaturated fatty acid biosynthetic process, nuclear body and oxidoreductase activity. Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes metabolic pathway showed that differentially expressed genes were mainly involved in peroxisome, mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway-plant, plant hormone signal transduction, ribosome, biosynthesis of unsaturated fatty acid, circadian rhythm-plant and other metabolic pathways. In the process of P. ginseng seed dormancy release, multiple biological processes, such as unsaturated fatty acid biosynthesis and plant hormone signal transduction, are required to coordinate regulation, which constitutes a complex dormancy release regulation network. Transcriptome analysis and differential gene screening of P. ginseng seeds at different sand storage time laid a foundation for the analysis of P. ginseng seed dormancy release mechanism and molecular breeding.

5.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 2528-2542, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-937053

ABSTRACT

The bZIP (basic leucine zipper) gene family is one of the largest transcription factor families in eukaryotes, and its members play important roles in stress response, secondary metabolism, plant growth, seed development and other aspects. To investigate the biological functions of the bZIP (CsbZIP) gene in Cannabis sativa L., we systematically investigated the CsbZIP gene family using bioinformatics methods based on the whole-genome and transcriptome data. The results showed that 55 CsbZIP gene family members (CsbZIP1-CsbZIP55) were identified and distributed on 10 chromosomes, belonging to 12 subfamilies. The gene structure and protein motif distribution of the same subfamily members were similar. Segment repeats were the main reasons for the expansion of CsbZIP gene family. Cis-elements analysis showed that the promoter regions of 73 lipid synthesis genes contained G-box or A-box element. qRT-PCR showed that the relative expression levels of 7 CsbZIP genes and 7 lipid synthesis genes were relatively high in hemp seed. 7 CsbZIP genes had a significant positive correlation with 7 lipid synthesis genes. This study revealed the structural features, evolutionary patterns and expression patterns of CsbZIP, providing important clues for further study on the regulation of CsbZIP on oil metabolism of hemp seed.

6.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 659-667, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927948

ABSTRACT

Artemisia Argyi Folium, a traditional Chinese medicine of important medicinal and economic value, sees increasing demand in medicinal and moxibustion product market. Screening stable and reliable reference genes for quantitative real-time PCR(qRT-PCR) is a prerequisite for the analysis of gene expression in Artemisia argyi. In this study, eight commonly used reference genes, Actin, 18s, EF-1α, GAPDH, SAND, PAL, TUA, and TUB, from the transcriptome of A. argyi, were selected as candidate genes. The expression of each gene in different tissues(roots, stems, and leaves) of A. argyi and in leaves of A. argyi after treatment with methyl jasmonate(MeJA) for different time(0, 4, 8, 12 h) was detected by qRT-PCR. Then, geNorm, NormFinder, BestKeeper, ΔCT, and RefFinder were employed to evaluate their expression stability. The results demonstrated that Actin was the most stable reference gene in different tissues and in leaves treated with MeJA, and coming in the second was SAND. Furthermore, the expression of DXS and MCT which are involved in terpenoid backbone biosynthesis was detected in different tissues and after MeJA treatment. The results showed that the expression patterns of DXS and MCT in different tissues and under MeJA treatment calculated with Actin and SAND as internal reference genes were consistent, which validated the screening results. In conclusion, Actin is the most suitable reference gene for the analysis of gene expression in different tissues of A. argyi and after MeJA treatment. This study provides valuable information for gene expression analysis in A. argyi and lays a foundation for further research on molecular mechanism of quality formation of Artemisia Argyi Folium.


Subject(s)
Artemisia/genetics , Gene Expression Profiling , Genes, Plant/genetics , Plant Leaves/genetics , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Reference Standards , Transcriptome
7.
Chinese Journal of Experimental Traditional Medical Formulae ; (24): 1-7, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-940614

ABSTRACT

ObjectiveTo establish the determination for index components in benchmark samples of Erdongtang, and clarify the content and transfer rate rages of index components in 15 batches of benchmark samples, and to explore the quantity transfer of index components of decoction pieces to benchmark samples. MethodFifteen batches of benchmark samples were prepared, the contents of mangiferin, baicalin and glycyrrhizic acid were determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-diode array detector (DAD), the mobile phase was acetonitrile (A)-0.1% formic acid aqueous solution (B) for gradient elution (0-10 min, 10%-17%A; 10-25 min, 17%-19%A; 25-28 min, 19%-25%A; 28-45 min, 25%-33%A; 45-46 min, 33%-45%A; 46-60 min, 45%-55%A), detection wavelength was set at 254 nm. Contents of timosaponin BⅡ and the sum of protoneodioscin and protodioscin were determined by HPLC-evaporative light scattering detector (ELSD), the mobile phase was acetonitrile (A)-water (B) for gradient elution (0-20 min, 24%A; 20-25 min, 24%-27%A; 25-33 min, 27%-28%A; 33-36 min, 28%-90%A; 36-41 min, 90%-24%A). ResultThe methodological verification of the established method was good, which could be used for determination of five index components in benchmark samples. The content ranges of mangiferin, baicalin, glycyrrhizic acid, timosaponin BⅡ, and the sum of protoneodioscin and protodioscin in 15 batches of benchmark samples of Erdongtang were 0.14%-0.23%, 2.40%-3.37%, 0.07%-0.44%, 0.43%-0.95%, and 0.15%-0.47%, the transfer rate ranges of them were 33.90%-52.15%, 84.46%-105.61%, 22.59%-93.86%, 38.07%-61.43%, and 53.28%-96.11%, respectively. ConclusionThe consistencies of transfer rate of mangiferin, baicalin, timosaponin BⅡ and the sum of protoneodioscin and protodioscin (except glycyrrhizic acid) between decoction pieces and benchmark samples of Erdongtang are good, indicates that the transfer rates of 4 index components are stable during the preparation process of benchmark samples, which can provide data support for research and development of the compound preparation of this formula.

8.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 2617-2622, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879168

ABSTRACT

The origins of 9 species of the Chinese medicinal materials in the 2015 edition of the Chinese pharmacopoeia(ChP) has revised in the 2020 edition of ChP. The revision is based on the investigation and textual research on the problems found after screening the original plants, animals or minerals of all the Chinese medicinal materials in the 2015 edition. Among them the Chinese names of Alismatis Rhizoma, Cassiae Semen, Coicis Semen, Corydalis Bungeanae Herba and Echinopsis Radix all do not match to the Latin scientific names, and also do not match the name of the actual medicinal origins. In addition, Alismatis Rhizoma has the omission of original plant. There is confusion about the Chinese name and the family name of the original insect of Cera Chinensis. The original mineral of Gypsum Fibrosum has the wrong group names. Alumstone and melanterite, the original mineral of Alumen and Melanteritum respectively, of which the group names are missing. To solve these problems, field survey and literature research were conducted on the medicinal materials and their origins. The source of these problems are explored. The correct origins and the Chinese names or Latin names are all determined according to the research results to the situation, in which the Chinese and Latin names of the original plants of the medicinal materials do not match. The correct family name and group name are obtained through textual research by taxonomy if the names are confused or mis-sing. The scientific evidence and correct results of revision in the 2020 edition of ChP are determined at last.


Subject(s)
Animals , China , Coix , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Rhizome
9.
Chinese Herbal Medicines ; (4): 301-312, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-953638

ABSTRACT

Chinese herbal medicines (CHMs) are one of the important bioresources of medicine, which works by unlocking nature's ability to prevent diseases and recover from illnesses. Recently, it has ascended to the world stage and become a global icon. Nowadays, a considerable of researches have focused on the quality evaluation of CHMs. However, it is difficult to meet the reasonable needs of human beings for safe drug use to evaluate the quality of a huge number of inferior goods for the CHMs contaminated by pesticides and heavy metals. Hence to explore an eligible medicinal plant cultivation pattern, which can provide high quality CHMs sustainably, is most promising. This review analyzed the situation and characteristics of medicinal plant resources in different periods, including wild-harvested and cultivated resources during different stages, putting forward that ecological cultivation must be the way to develop medicinal plant cultivation and to obtain high quality CHMs.

10.
Chinese Journal of Experimental Traditional Medical Formulae ; (24): 145-151, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-906093

ABSTRACT

Objective:To establish a method for the determination of artemisinin and arteannuin B in different <italic>Artemisia annua</italic> germplasms, compare the differences of the two compounds among different <italic>A. annua</italic> germplasm under the condition of hydroponic homogenization and explore the key factors affecting contents of principal compounds in different<italic> A. annua</italic> germplasms. Method:Seedlings from different <italic>A. annua</italic> germplasms were arranged randomly and fed in a hydroponic cultivation system. Contents of artemisinin and arteannuin B were detected by ultra performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) with multi-reaction monitoring mode and ACQUITY UPLC<sup>®</sup> BEH C<sub>18</sub> column (2.1 mm×100 mm, 1.7 μm), mobile phase was water-acetonitrile (95∶5, containing 0.1% formic acid, A) and acetonitrile-water (95∶5, containing 0.1% formic acid, B) for gradient elution (0-3.5 min, 25%-1%A; 3.5-3.6 min, 1%-25%A; 3.6-5.0 min, 25%A), the flow rate was set at 0.4 mL·min<sup>-1</sup>. The content differences of artemisinin and arteannuin B in different provenances of <italic>A. annua</italic> were detected and analyzed statistically. Result:The established method had high sensitivity and good separation. A significant difference of artemisinin and arteannuin B contents was observed in different germplasms under the same culture conditions, that is, under the constant temperature of 25 ℃ in hydroponics. The provenance with higher artemisinin content was Yunnan, and the content was 3 810.597 μg·g<sup>-1</sup>. The highest strain of arteannuin B was Shanxi provenance germplasm with the content of 1 691.747 μg·g<sup>-1</sup>. According to the content of artemisinin, the provenances were arranged as follows:Yunnan, Hainan, Hubei, Guangxi, Zhejiang, Shanxi, Beijing, Shandong, Heilongjiang, and Gansu province germplasms. Correlation analysis showed that there was a significant negative correlation between artemisinin content and latitude of <italic>A. annua</italic>, but there was no significant correlation between contents of artemisinin and arteannuin B and longitude. Conclusion:The contents of artemisinin and arteannuin B among different <italic>A. annua</italic> germplasms were significantly different under the same culture environment, and the dominant factors affecting biosynthesis and accumulation of artemisinin and arteannuin B in <italic>A. annua</italic> may be the genetic background, suggesting that germplasm improvement is the key factor to improve the medicinal quality of <italic>A. annua</italic> in subsequent cultivation.

11.
Chinese Journal of Experimental Traditional Medical Formulae ; (24): 1-6, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-905057

ABSTRACT

Objective:Powders and decocted powders account for about 1/3 in the Catalogue of Ancient Famous Classical Formulas (the First Batch), and have a very important position. Determination of preparation technology and particle size in the pulverization process is the key step in the research and development of powders and decocted powders following the original methods. However, there are many terms describing the preparation technology and particle size of powders and decocted powders in ancient Chinese medical books, and the parameters are not clear. Due to the lack of unified basis of particle size, the existing research results have not formed a uniform consensus. Based on ancient textual researches and experimental results, this article discusses the particle size of decocted powders and powders. Method:Through textual researches of the preparation technology and particle size of powders and decocted powders and powder classification in the 2020 edition of Chinese Pharmacopoeia, the specifications of pulverized particle size were suggested. In addition, Xiebaisan and Danggui Buxuetang were taken as examples to investigate the influence of different particle sizes (4, 10, 24 mesh) on the preparation process of decocted powders and the obtained decoction. Result:The particle size of 4 mesh was equivalent to that of ancient as big as hemp bean. The contents of index components in Xiebaisan and Danggui Buxuetang with particle size of 4 mesh were higher than that of 10 mesh and 24 mesh, but the particle size of 50 mesh was too fine to be filtered. Conclusion:The suggested particle sizes of powders and decocted powders are recommended as Cumo is the power through 10-mesh sieve, Mo is the power through 24-mesh sieve, Ximo is the power through 80-mesh sieve, as big as hemp bean is the power through 4-mesh sieve and not through 10-mesh sieve.

12.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 4307-4313, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888129

ABSTRACT

The development of quality Chinese medicine is an important way to improve the quality of Chinese medicine, and ensure the safety and effectiveness of Chinese medicine. This article systematically elaborates the definition, classification, standard and mana-gement certification strategy of quality Chinese medicine. We present the quality Chinese medicine which is higher quality than that of eligible Chinese medicine based on quality control standards. Quality Chinese medicine is strictly in accordance with management procedures, likely GAP and GMP et al, during the productive process, which quality indicators is higher than that of the current relevant national quality standards, such as Chinese Pharmacopoeia(ChP) et al; its limited indicators such as exogenous pollutants and endogenous toxic substances are lower than that of the current relevant national quality standards, likely ChP et al; meanwhile these Chinese herbal medicine, medicinal pieces, patent medicines, and health products and foods with Chinese medicine raw materials are been certificated by quality Chinese medicine. At the same time, this article systematically expounds the five major management systems of quality Chinese medicine, including technical training management for practitioners, productive process management, standard mana-gement, quality inspection and certification management, and product traceability management. And we put forward strategies to improve the supervision and management system, and promote the standardization and development of quality Chinese medicine by improving the technical management system of quality Chinese medicine, strengthening the quality management system and six sigma(6σ) management in the company. These strategies will provide a reliable basis and effective way to improve the quality of Chinese medicine.


Subject(s)
Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Food , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Quality Control , Reference Standards
13.
Chinese Journal of Experimental Traditional Medical Formulae ; (24): 228-240, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-873304

ABSTRACT

Non-psychoactive medicinal cannabis is the cannabis that contain less than 0.3% of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and high content of cannabidiol (CBD) (more than 2.0% is reasonable), and mainly used for medicinal purpose. Cannabis have a long medical history, in this review, we retrospected the medicinal history of cannabis in China and the world. We summarized the cannabinoid especially CBD application of medicine in epilepsy, mental disease, tumor, analgesic and inflammatory, also the widely application in food, healthy products, cosmetics and other fields. Based on the problems like shortage of high CBD cultivars, weakness of fundamental research existed in non-psychoactive medicinal cannabis industry. We should fully utilize the genetic information of medicinal cannabis, establish the comprehensive identification system of non-psychoactive medicinal cannabis varieties, accelerate the breeding process of non-psychoactive medicinal cannabis cultivars, to ensure the safety and effectiveness of non-psychoactive medicinal cannabis. Strengthen the basic research on CBD and other cannabinoids to promote the application of non-psychoactive medicinal cannabis products and sustainable development of medical cannabis industry.

14.
Chinese Journal of Experimental Traditional Medical Formulae ; (24): 156-162, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-873294

ABSTRACT

Objective::Because traditional methods are difficult to identify the fermentation mycelium, DNA barcoding technology was used to quickly identify the raw material strain Paecilomyces hepiali of Jinshuibao capsules and related products. Method::A total of 168 samples of 8 species of P. hepiali and its confusable species were identified by internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences, and based on the ITS sequences, P. hepiali specific primers were designed to quickly identify the related products. Result::The length of ITS sequences in 44 P. hepiali samples from different sources was 499 bp and there was no mutation site. It was shown that P. hepiali could be distinguished from 7 confusable species based on ITS sequences. The specific primer (ITS-BF/ITS-BR) of P. hepiali designed by ITS sequences could be amplified to obtain a short fragment of 102 bp in length, which could be used to rapidly identify P. hepiali from other confusable species, and to distinguish relevant products in the market. Conclusion::The rapid identification of P. hepiali and its related products can be achieved through the ITS sequences and specific primers, which provides a reference for the production and quality control of Jinshuibao capsules.

15.
Chinese Journal of Experimental Traditional Medical Formulae ; (24): 183-194, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-873038

ABSTRACT

The famous classical formulas (FCF), which occupy the most important position in the prescription theory, had been brought out following the progress of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). Its formation and exploitation, essentially the ingredient constitution and preparation technology, is an objective trend of TCM. The development of related product under the guidance of relevant national policies has its historical inevitability, as the development of formula granules in recent decades had laid a solid foundation for it. The key to exploit these FCF is to refine and standardize the clinical applications through the ages with the guidance of TCM theory, for the process design of massive industrial production. As a result of the analysis of its definition and connotation, it is clear that the core connotation of FCF is the medicinal substances with fixed formula compatibility and stable preparation process. Furthermore, the screening strategy, the exploitation value, and the applicability between ancient prescriptions and nowadays diseases, had also been discussed based on the current policy situation and research status.

16.
Chinese Journal of Experimental Traditional Medical Formulae ; (24): 1-11, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-872977

ABSTRACT

As the essential part of tratidional Chinese medicine(TCM), the research and development of classic formula have become a hot spot in TCM industry. However, with the change of the age, the species, medical part and origin of TCM have more or less changed. It is of great significance for the safety and effectiveness of the classical prescription to clarify the varieties and medicinal parts of TCM. In this paper, based on the discussion of the methods of textual research on the Chinese herbs, the species and medical parts, origin of Chinese herbs in a list of 100 famous classical formulas which promulgated by the state administration of TCM were analyzed. The textual research of Chinese herbs shows that most of the herbs involved in the classical formula have the problems of species, medical part, and origin. Therefore, it is of great significance for the selection of the species and medical parts, origin of the Chinese herbs in the research and development process of the classical formula.

17.
Chinese Journal of Experimental Traditional Medical Formulae ; (24): 164-174, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-872807

ABSTRACT

The inheritance of traditional clinical value of famous classical formulae is an important direction for the development of traditional Chinese medicine industry.Compared with the previous research and development of new drugs, the management requirement of " material reference" was introduced into the famous classical formulae research, which is used as the reference of process optimization and quality control.The characteristics of compound preparation of famous classical formulae are also reflected in the core concept of " quality inheritance of classics" in the road of industrial development.How to implement the above requirements and concepts into product development and industrial production? There are many specific common problems to be solved in practical research.How to effectively establish the " material reference" of famous classical formulae of different dosage forms? How to use " material reference" to guide the process optimization of compound preparation of famous classical formulae? How to determine the daily dose of famous classical formulae? How to take effective measures in the selection of raw material to reduce quality fluctuation range? This paper discusses the key issues such as production process and quality evaluation from the following aspects.Firstly, the management regulations and research and development guidelines are analyzed, and the specific implementation methods are given.Then, the possible problems in the Requirements for Declaration Documents (Draft for Opinions) are pointed out, and relevant suggestions are given.Finally, based on the research experience of standard decoction and famous classical formulae in the laboratory, an example is given to provide reference for the development of compound preparation of famous classical formulae.

18.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 2714-2719, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828026

ABSTRACT

To breed new varieties of medicinal plants with high resistance is the premise to ensure the production of high-quality medicinal materials. Molecular breeding using modern molecular biology and genetic technology can save time and effort and realize rapid and accurate breeding. Here we are trying to summarize the difference of breeding characteristics between medicinal plants and crops such as genetic background and breeding purpose. The strategy of molecular breeding of medicinal plants was summarized, and the four-phases breeding based on high-throughput sequencing and target gene mining was emphasized. We put forward the current molecular breeding of medicinal plants in the condition of four phases breeding is the optimal technological way of breeding, and gene editing breeding is the direction of medicinal plants breeding.


Subject(s)
Breeding , DNA Shuffling , Gene Editing , Plant Breeding , Plants, Medicinal , Genetics
19.
Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines (English Ed.) ; (6): 563-572, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-827212

ABSTRACT

Salvia plebeia has been in use as traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) for more than 500 years. In this study, the complete chloroplast (cp) genome of S. plebeia was sequenced, assembled and compared to those of other five published Salvia cp genomes. It was found that the cp genome structure of S. plebeia was well conserved and had a total size of 151 062 bp. Four parameters were used to display the usage conditions of the codons of the amino acids in Salvia genus. Although the number of protein-coding genes in each species was the same, the total number of codons was different. Except for amino acids Trp and Met whose Relative Synonymous Codon Usage (RSCU) value of one condon was equal to 1, the remaining 19 amino acids had 1-3 preferred codons. The preferred codon names of each amino acid were coincident. The period size for the tandem repeats of six species ranged from 9 to 410 bp. Salvia cp genomes mainly possessed tandem repeats with a copy number less than or equal to 3. The sequence length of tandem repeats of the six species ranged from 25 to 824 bp. Highly viarable regions including four intergenic spacers and six partial genes were discovered as potential specific barcodes for Salvia species through cp genome-wide comparison. Finally, we performed phylogenetic analyses based on the complete cp genome and coding sequences respectively. These results provide information to help construct the cp genome library for Salvia, which may support studies of phylogenetics, DNA barcoding, population and transplastomics.

20.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 5577-5588, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878817

ABSTRACT

Unraveling the genetic basis of medicinal plant metabolism and developmental traits is a long-standing goal for pharmacologists and plant biologists. This paper discusses the definition of molecular genetics of medicinal plants, which is an integrative discipline with medicinal plants as the research object. This discipline focuses on the heredity and variation of medicinal plants, and elucidates the relationship between the key traits of medicinal plants(active compounds, yield, resistance, etc.) and genotype, studies the structure and function, heredity and variation of medicinal plant genes mainly at molecular level, so as to reveal the molecular mechanisms of transmission, expression and regulation of genetic information of medicinal plants. Specifically, we emphasize on three major aspects of this discipline.(1)Individual and population genetics of medicinal plants, this part mainly highlights the genetic mechanism of the domestication, the individual genomics at the species level, and the formation of genetic diversity of medicinal plants.(2)Elucidation of biosynthetic pathways of active compounds and their evolutionary significance. This part summarizes the biosynthesis, diversity and molecular evolution of active compounds in medicinal plants.(3) Molecular mechanisms that shaping the key agronomic traits by internal and external factors. This part focuses on the accumulation and distribution of active compounds within plants and the regulation of metabolic network by environmental factors. Finally, we prospect the future direction of molecular genetics of medicinal plants based on the rapid development of multi-omics technology, as well as the application of molecular genetics in the future strategies to achieve conservation and breeding of medicinal plants and efficient biosynthesis of active compounds.


Subject(s)
Biosynthetic Pathways , Genomics , Molecular Biology , Plant Breeding , Plants, Medicinal
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