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1.
Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control ; (6): 559-565, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-953832

ABSTRACT

Schistosomiasis has been endemic in China for more than 2 000 years, which causes huge morbidity, social and economic burdens. Guided by the national specific strategic programs and criteria for schistosomiasis, tremendous achievements have been gained for schistosomiasis elimination in China. This paper reviews the progress of schistosomiasis control and endemic status of schistosomiasis in China during the period from 2012 to 2021, analyzes the challenges to achieve the goal of schistosomiasis elimination in China by 2030, and proposes suggestions for future schistosomiasis control programs.

2.
Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control ; (6): 420-428, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-942371

ABSTRACT

Biological category is effective to indicate the evolution of organism populations between past and present. Conventional taxonomy of human parasites mainly depends on important morphological features, which suffers from a problem of categorizing related-genera species with similar morphological characteristics. With recent advances in molecular biological technologies, the effective applications of mitochondrial and ribosomal biomarkers and sequencing greatly improve the development of the taxonomic rank of human parasites. Worldwide, the classification of human parasites have been continuously revised and improved. Hereby, we re-categorize parasitic Protozoa, Trematoda, Cestoda and Nematoda, so as to provide insights into the researches on molecular systematics and genetic evolution of human parasites.

3.
Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control ; (6): 404-406, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-942367

ABSTRACT

Objective To evaluate the molluscicidal effect of 25% wettable powder of pyriclobenzuron sulphate (WPPS) against Oncomelania snails in hilly schistosomiasis-endemic regions and test its toxicity to fish. Methods In October 2020, a snail-infested setting which had been cleared was selected in Nanjian County, Yunnan Province and divided into several blocks, and the natural snail mortality was estimated. 25% WPPS was prepared into solutions at concentrations of 1 and 2 g/L, and 25% wettable powder of niclosamide ethanolamine salt (WPNES) was prepared into solutions at a concentration of 2 g/L. The different concentrations of drugs were sprayed evenly, and the same amount of water was used as blank control. Snails were surveyed using the systematic sampling method 1, 3 and 7 days post-treatment, and snail survival was observed. A fish pond was selected in Nanjian County, and 2 kg 25% WPPS was evenly sprayed on the water surface to allow the effective concentration of 20 g/L. Fish mortality was estimated 8, 24, 48 and 72 h post-treatment. Results One-day treatment with 1 and 2 g/L WPPS and 2 g/L WPNES resulted in 97.99%, 97.99% and 94.11% adjusted snail mortality rates (χ2 = 3.509 and 3.509, both P values > 0.05), and the adjusted snail mortality was all 100% 3 d post-treatment with 1 and 2 g/L WPPS and 2 g/L WPNES, while 7-day treatment with 1 and 2 g/L WPPS and 2 g/L WPNES resulted in 91.75%, 86.57% and 57.76% adjusted snail mortality rates (χ2 = 14.893 and 42.284, both P values < 0.05). Treatment with 2 g/L WPPS for 72 h resulted in a 0.67% cumulative mortality rate of fish. Conclusion 25% WPPS is effective for snail control and highly safe for fish, which is feasible for use in hilly schistosomiasis-endemic regions.

4.
Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control ; (6): 341-351, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-942358

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the morphological variation of Oncomelania hupensis shells in Yunnan Province, so as to provide insights into the understanding of O. hupensis genetic evolution and control. Methods According to the O. hupensis density, geographical location, altitude, water system and environmental type, 12 administrative villages were sampled from 10 schistosomiasis-endemic counties (districts) in 3 prefectures (cities) of Yunnan Province as snail collection sites. From December 2021 to January 2022, about 200 snails were collected from each collection site, among which thirty adult snails (6 to 7 spirals) were randomly selected from each site, and the 11 morphological indexes of snail shells were measured and subjected to cluster analysis and principal component analysis. Results Of O. hupensis snails from 12 localities of Yunnan Province, the longest shell (7.33 mm) was detected in snails from Yongle Village, Eryuan County, with the shortest (4.68 mm) in Dongyuan Village, Gucheng District, and the largest angle of apex (59.47°) was measured in snails from Caizhuang Village, Midu County, with the smallest (41.40°) in Qiandian Village, Eryuan County. The mean coefficient of variation was 9.075% among O. hupensis snails from 12 localities of Yunnan Province, with the largest coefficient of variation seen in the thickness of the labra brim (29.809%). Among O. hupensis snails from 12 localities of Yunnan Province, the mean Euclidean distance was 2.26, with the shortest Euclidean distance seen between O. hupensis snails from Qiandian Village of Eryuan County and Wuxing Village of Dali City (0.26), and the largest found between O. hupensis snails from Caizhuang Village of Midu County and Cangling Village of Chuxiong County (8.17). Cluster analysis and principal component analysis classified O. hupensis snails from 12 localities of Yunnan Province into three categories, including the O. hupensis snail samples from Caizhuang Village of Midu County, O. hupensis snail samples from Cangling Village of Chuxiong County, and O. hupensis snail samples from Qiandian Village of Eryuan County, Wuxing Village of Dali City, Yangwu Village of Yongsheng County, Xiaoqiao Village of Xiangyun County, Yongle Village of Eryuan County, Xiaocen Village of Dali City, Anding Village of Nanjian County, Dongyuan Village of Gucheng District, Lianyi Village of Heqing County, and Dianzhong Village of Weishan County. The variations in these three categories of snail samples were mainly measured in the principal component 2 related to the angle of apex and the thickness of the labra brim. Conclusions The variations in the Euclidean distance and morphological features of shells of O. hupensis from 12 localities of Yunnan Province gradually rise with the decrease in the latitude of the collection sites. The angle of apex is an indicator for the growth of O. hupensis whorl.

5.
Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control ; (6): 329-336, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-942356

ABSTRACT

This report presented the endemic status of schistosomiasis and analyzed the data collected from the national schistosomiasis prevention and control system and national schistosomiasis surveillance sites in the People’s Republic of China at a national level in 2021. Among the 12 provinces (municipality and autonomous region) endemic for schistosomiasis in China, Shanghai Municipality, Zhejiang Province, Fujian Province, Guangdong Province and Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region continued to consolidate the achievements of schistosomiasis elimination, and Sichuan and Jiangsu provinces maintained the criteria of transmission interruption, while Yunnan, Hubei, Anhui, Jiangxi and Hunan provinces maintained the criteria of transmission control by the end of 2021. A total of 451 counties (cites, districts) were found to be endemic for schistosomiasis in China in 2021, with 27 571 endemic villages covering 73 250 600 people at risk of infections. Among the 451 endemic counties (cities, districts), 75.17% (339/451), 22.17% (100/451) and 2.66% (12/451) achieved the criteria of elimination, transmission interruption and transmission control of schistosomiasis, respectively. By the end of 2021, 29 037 cases with advanced schistosomiasis were documented in China. In 2021, 4 405 056 individuals received serological tests and 72 937 were sero-positive. A total of 220 629 individuals received stool examinations and 3 were positive. In 2021, snail survey was performed in 19 291 endemic villages in China and Oncomelania snails were found in 7 026 villages, accounting for 36.42% of all surveyed villages, with 12 villages identified with emerging snail habitats. Snail survey was performed at an area of 686 574.46 hm2 and 191 159.91 hm2 snail habitats were found, including 1 063.08 hm2 emerging snail habitats and 5 113.87 hm2 reemerging snail habitats. In 2021, 525 878 bovines were raised in the schistosomiasis endemic areas of China, and 115 437 received serological examinations, with 231 positives detected. Among the 128 719 bovines received stool examinations, no positives were identified. In 2021, there were 19 927 schistosomiasis patients receiving praziquantel chemotherapy, and 729 113 person-time individuals and 256 913 herd-time bovines were given expanded chemotherapy. In 2021, snail control with chemicals was performed in 117 372.74 hm2 snail habitats, and the actual area of chemical treatment was 65 640.50 hm2, while environmental improvements were performed in snail habitats covering an area of 1 244.25 hm2. Data from the national schistosomiasis surveillance sites of China showed that the mean prevalence of Schistosoma japonicum infections were both zero in humans and bovines in 2021, and no S. japonicum infection was detected in snails. The results demonstrate that the overall endemic status of schistosomiasis remained at a low level in China in 2021; however, the progress towards schistosomiasis elimination was slowed and the areas of snail habitats rebounded mildly. Strengthening researches on snail diffusion and control, and improving schistosomiasis surveillance and forecast are recommended to prevent reemerging schistosomiasis.

6.
Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control ; (6): 241-251, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-940944

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To predict the trends for fine-scale spread of Oncomelania hupensis based on supervised machine learning models in Shanghai Municipality, so as to provide insights into precision O. hupensis snail control.@*METHODS@#Based on 2016 O. hupensis snail survey data in Shanghai Municipality and climatic, geographical, vegetation and socioeconomic data relating to O. hupensis snail distribution, seven supervised machine learning models were created to predict the risk of snail spread in Shanghai, including decision tree, random forest, generalized boosted model, support vector machine, naive Bayes, k-nearest neighbor and C5.0. The performance of seven models for predicting snail spread was evaluated with the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC), F1-score and accuracy, and optimal models were selected to identify the environmental variables affecting snail spread and predict the areas at risk of snail spread in Shanghai Municipality.@*RESULTS@#Seven supervised machine learning models were successfully created to predict the risk of snail spread in Shanghai Municipality, and random forest (AUC = 0.901, F1-score = 0.840, ACC = 0.797) and generalized boosted model (AUC= 0.889, F1-score = 0.869, ACC = 0.835) showed higher predictive performance than other models. Random forest analysis showed that the three most important climatic variables contributing to snail spread in Shanghai included aridity (11.87%), ≥ 0 °C annual accumulated temperature (10.19%), moisture index (10.18%) and average annual precipitation (9.86%), the two most important vegetation variables included the vegetation index of the first quarter (8.30%) and vegetation index of the second quarter (7.69%). Snails were more likely to spread at aridity of < 0.87, ≥ 0 °C annual accumulated temperature of 5 550 to 5 675 °C, moisture index of > 39% and average annual precipitation of > 1 180 mm, and with the vegetation index of the first quarter of > 0.4 and the vegetation index of the first quarter of > 0.6. According to the water resource developments and township administrative maps, the areas at risk of snail spread were mainly predicted in 10 townships/subdistricts, covering the Xipian, Dongpian and Tainan sections of southern Shanghai.@*CONCLUSIONS@#Supervised machine learning models are effective to predict the risk of fine-scale O. hupensis snail spread and identify the environmental determinants relating to snail spread. The areas at risk of O. hupensis snail spread are mainly located in southwestern Songjiang District, northwestern Jinshan District and southeastern Qingpu District of Shanghai Municipality.


Subject(s)
Animals , Bayes Theorem , China/epidemiology , Ecosystem , Gastropoda , Supervised Machine Learning
7.
Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control ; (6): 235-240, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-940943

ABSTRACT

Currently, the national schistosomiasis control program of China is moving from transmission interruption to elimination, and there are multiple challenges during the stage moving towards the progression of schistosomiasis elimination, including a high difficulty in shrinking snail-infested areas, unstable achievements for infectious source control, imperfect surveillance system and a reduction in schistosomiasis control and administration. Based on the core suggestions proposed in the 2022 WHO guideline on control and elimination of human schistosomiasis, recommendations on schistosomiasis surveillance system building, development of novel diagnostics, adjustment of the schistosomiasis control strategy and maintaining and improvements of the schistosomiasis control capability are proposed for the national schistosomiasis control program of China in the new era according to the actual status of schistosomiasis control in China. Formulation of the national schistosomiasis control strategy and goal from One Health perspective, verification of transmission interruption and elimination of schistosomiasis, precision implementation of schistosomiasis control interventions with adaptations to local circumstances, development and application of highly sensitive and specific diagnostics are recommended for elimination of schistosomiasis in China. In addition, the implementation of the 2022 WHO guideline on control and elimination of human schistosomiasis may guide the elimination of schistosomiasis in China.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , China/epidemiology , Goals , Schistosomiasis/prevention & control , Snails , World Health Organization
8.
Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control ; (6): 230-234, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-940942

ABSTRACT

Schistosomiasis is a parasitic disease that seriously hinders socioeconomic developments and threatens public health security. To achieve the global elimination of schistosomiasis as a public health problem by 2030, WHO released the guideline on control and elimination of human schistosomiasis on February, 2022, with aims to provide evidence-based recommendations for schistosomiasis morbidity control, elimination of schistosomiasis as a public health problem, and ultimate interruption of schistosomiasis transmission in disease-endemic countries. Following concerted efforts for decades, great achievements have been obtained for schistosomiasis control in China where the disease was historically highly prevalent, and the country is moving towards schistosomiasis elimination. This article reviews the successful experiences from the national schistosmiasis control program in China, and summarizes their contributions to the formulation and implementation of the WHO guideline on control and elimination of human schistosomiasis. With the progress of the "Belt and Road" initiative, the world is looking forward to more China's solutions on schistosomiasis control.


Subject(s)
Humans , China/epidemiology , Disease Eradication , Public Health , Schistosomiasis/prevention & control , World Health Organization
9.
Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control ; (6): 223-229, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-940941

ABSTRACT

Preventive chemotherapy is one of the pivotal interventions for the control and elimination of schistosomiasis, which is effective to reduce the morbidity and prevalence of schistosomiasis. In order to promote the United Nations' sustainable development goals and the targets set for schistosomiasis control in the Ending the neglect to attain the Sustainable Development Goals: a road map for neglected tropical diseases 2021-2030, WHO released the guideline on control and elimination of human schistosomiasis in 2022, with major evidence-based updates of the current preventive chemotherapy strategy for schistosomiasis. In China where great success has been achieved in schistosomiasis control, the preventive chemotherapy strategy for schistosomiasis has been updated several times during the past seven decades. This article reviews the evolution of the WHO guidelines on preventive chemotherapy and Chinese national preventive chemotherapy schemes, compares the current Chinese national preventive chemotherapy scheme and the recommendations for preventive chemotherapy proposed in the 2022 WHO guideline on control and elimination of human schistosomiasis, and proposes recommendations for preventive chemotherapy during the future implementation of the 2022 WHO guideline, so as to provide insights into schistosomiasis control among public health professionals engaging in healthcare foreign aid.


Subject(s)
Humans , China/epidemiology , Prevalence , Public Health , Schistosomiasis/prevention & control , World Health Organization
10.
Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control ; (6): 217-222, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-940940

ABSTRACT

On February 2022, WHO released the evidence-based guideline on control and elimination of human schistosomiasis, with aims to guide the elimination of schistosomiasis as a public health problem in disease-endemic countries by 2030 and promote the interruption of schistosomiasis transmission across the world. Based on the One Health concept, six evidence-based recommendations were proposed in this guideline. This article aims to analyze the feasibility of key aspects of this guideline in Chinese national schistosomiasis control program and illustrate the significance to guide the future actions for Chinese national schistosomiasis control program. Currently, the One Health concept has been embodied in the Chinese national schistosomiasis control program. Based on this new WHO guideline, the following recommendations are proposed for the national schistosomiasis control program of China: (1) improving the systematic framework building, facilitating the agreement of the cross-sectoral consensus, and building a high-level leadership group; (2) optimizing the current human and livestock treatments in the national schistosomiasis control program of China; (3) developing highly sensitive and specific diagnostics and the framework for verifying elimination of schistosomiasis; (4) accelerating the progress towards elimination of schistosomiasis and other parasitic diseases through integrating the national control programs for other parasitic diseases.


Subject(s)
Humans , China/epidemiology , Disease Eradication , Public Health , Schistosomiasis/prevention & control , World Health Organization
11.
Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control ; (6): 10-14, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-873741

ABSTRACT

Since 2015 when the transmission of schistosomiasis was controlled in China, the country has been moving towards elimination of schistosomiasis, with the surveillance-response as the main interventions for schistosomiasis control. During the period of the 13th Five-Year Plan, the transmission of schistosomiasis had been interrupted in four provinces of Sichuan, Jiangsu, Yunnan and Hubei and the prevalence of schistosomiasis has been at the historically lowest level in China. As a consequence, the goal set in The 13th Five-Year National Schistosomiasis Control Program in China is almost achieved. However, there are multiple challenges during the stage moving towards elimination of schistosomiasis in China, including the widespread distribution of intermediate host snails and complicated snail habitats, many types of sources of Schistosoma japonicum infections and difficulty in management of bovines and sheep, unmet requirements for the current schistosomiasis control program with the currently available tools, and vulnerable control achievements. During the 14th Five-Year period, it is crucial to consolidate the schistosomiasis control achievements and gradually solve the above difficulties, and critical to provide the basis for achieving the ultimate goal of elimination of schistosomiasis in China. Based on the past experiences from the national schistosomiasis control program and the challenges for schistosomiasis elimination in China, an expert consensus has been reached pertaining to the objectives, control strategy and measures for The 14th Five-Year National Schistosomiasis Control Program in China, so as to provide insights in to the development of The 14th Five-Year National Schistosomiasis Control Program in China.

12.
Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control ; (6): 1-6, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-873739

ABSTRACT

Schistosomiasis was once endemic in 12 provinces (municipalities, autonomous regions) along and south of the Yangtze River basin, which seriously damages human health and hinders socioeconomic developments in China. Following the concerted efforts for 70 years, remarkable achievements have been gained in the national schistosomiasis control program of China. However, there are still multiple challenges for elimination of schistosomiasis in the country. This paper describes the current status of schistosomiasis and the challenges during the progress towards the elimination of schistosomiasis, and proposes the goals, key points and research priorities of schistosomiasis control in China during the 14th Five-Year Plan Period.

13.
Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control ; (6): 563-569, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-913061

ABSTRACT

In the WHO new road map for neglected tropical diseases 2021—2030, the disease-specific targets are classified into control, elimination as a public health problem, elimination and eradication, and taeniasis and cysticercosis are targeted for control. The overall prevalence of taeniasis and cysticercosis is low in China, and varies remarkably in regions and populations; however, there are many challenges for elimination of taeniasis and cysticercosis in China. Based on previous taeniasis and cysticercosis control programs, developing a sensitive taeniasis and cysticercosis surveillance-response system, updating criteria for diagnosis of taeniasis and cysticercosis, proposing a national guideline for treatment of taeniasis and cysticercosis, and strengthening interdisciplinary and intersectoral communications and collaborations are urgently needed under the One Health concept.

14.
Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control ; (6): 234-239, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-882026

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the epidemiological characteristics of current advanced schistosomiasis cases in China, so as to provide the scientific evidence for the precision management and medical care of advanced schistosomiasis. Methods The baseline data pertaining to the current advanced schistosomiasis cases in China were collected from the Epidemiological Dynamic Data Collection Platform (EDDC) operated by the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention. The demographic characteristics, population and regional distribution and medical care of advanced schistosomiasis cases were analyzed with a descriptive method. Results A total of 31 889 cases with advanced schistosomiasis were reported in China by the end of June, 2019, and these cases were mainly identified in Hubei Province (7 737 cases) followed by in Jiangxi Province (7 256 cases), Hunan Province (5 615 cases), Anhui Province (5 236 cases) and Jiangsu Province (2 908 cases), accounting for 90.2% (28 752/31 889) of total cases in China. The current advanced schistosomiasis cases had a male/female ratio of 1.5∶1, and a mean age of (67.0 ± 11.2) years, with 92.6% (29 521/31 889) detected in individuals at ages of over 50 years. There were 97.6% (31 109/31 889) of the cases with an educational level of junior high school and lower, and 95.2% (30 359/31 889) with an occupation of farmers. Ascites (72.6%, 23 164/31 889) and splenomegaly types (26.3%, 8 386/31 889) were predominant in current advanced schistosomiasis cases in China, and there was a significant difference in the constituent ratio of disease types among current advanced schistosomiasis cases with different age groups (χ2 = 362.31, P < 0.01), with the ascites type as the predominant type of advanced schistosomiasis. Among the current advanced schistosomiasis cases, 88.9% (28 358/31 889) and 18.7% (5 973/31 889) had received medical treatment and surgical treatment, respectively. Conclusions The current advanced schistosomiasis cases are predominantly reported in five marshland and lake endemic provinces of China where schistosomiasis is not eliminated, and are mostly categorized as the ascites and megalosplenia types, with minor differences seen in gender and disease-type distributions. Precision medical care should be reinforced according to the epidemiological features of the current advanced schistosomiasis cases, and early screening and standard management and follow-up is required.

15.
Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control ; (6): 225-233, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-882025

ABSTRACT

This report presented the endemic status of schistosomiasis in the People’s Republic of China at a national level in 2020, and analyzed the data collected from the national schistosomiasis prevention and control system and national schistosomiasis surveillance sites. Among the 12 provinces (municipality and autonomous region) endemic for schistosomiasis in China, Shanghai Municipality, Zhejiang Province, Fujian Province, Guangdong Province and Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region continued to consolidate the achievements of schistosomiasis elimination, and Sichuan and Jiangsu provinces maintained the criteria of transmission interruption, while Yunnan, Hubei, Anhui, Jiangxi and Hunan provinces maintained the criteria of transmission control by the end of 2020. A total of 450 counties (cites, districts) were found to be endemic for schistosomiasis in China, with 28 376 endemic villages covering 71 370 400 people at risk of infections. Among the 450 endemic counties (cities, districts), 74.89% (337/450), 21.87% (98/450) and 3.33% (15/450) achieved the criteria of elimination, transmission interruption and transmission control of schistosomiasis, respectively. By the end of 2020, 29 517 cases with advanced schistosomiasis were documented in China. In 2020, 11 117 655 individuals received inquiry examinations and 1 798 580 were positive; 5 263 082 individuals received serological tests and 83 179 were sero-positive. A total of 273 712 individuals received stool examinations and 3 were positive, including one case of acute schistosomiasis. In 2020, snail survey was performed in 19 733 endemic villages in China and Oncomelania snails were found in 7 309 villages, accounting for 37.04% of all surveyed villages, with 15 villages identified with emerging snail habitats. Snail survey covered an area of 736 984.13 hm2 and 206 125.22 hm2 snail habitats were found, including 1 174.67 hm2 emerging snail habitats and 1.96 hm2 habitats with infected snails. In 2020, 544 424 bovines were raised in the schistosomiasis-endemic areas of China, and 147 887 received serological examinations, with 326 positives detected, while 130 673 bovines received stool examinations, with no positives identified. In 2020, there were 19 214 patients with schistosomiasis receiving praziquantel chemotherapy, and 964 103 person-time individuals and 266 280 herd-time bovines were given expanded chemotherapy. In 2020, molluscicide treatment was performed in 136 141.92 hm2 snail habitats, and the actual area of chemical treatment was 71 980.22 hm2, while environmental improvements were performed in snail habitats covering an area of 1 464.03 hm2. Data from the national schistosomiasis surveillance sites of China showed that the mean prevalence of Schistosoma japonicum infections were both zero in humans and bovines in 2020, and no S. japonicum infection was detected in snails. The results demonstrate that the overall endemic status of schistosomiasis remains at a low level in China and the goal of the National Thirteenth Five-Year Plan for Schistosomiasis Control was achieved as scheduled; however, the endemic situation of schistosomiasis rebounded in local areas. Precision schistosomiasis control and intensified monitoring of the endemic situation and transmission risk of schistosomiasis are required to be performed to facilitate the progress towards elimination of schistosomiasis steadily.

16.
Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control ; (6): 127-132, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-876703

ABSTRACT

Objective To analyze the monitoring data of Oncomelania hupensis in the national schistosomiasis surveillance sites of China from 2015 to 2019, so as to understand the changes of Oncomelania snail status in the schistosomiasis-endemic areas of China and to provide the scientific evidence for Oncomelania snail control. Methods According to the requirements of National Scheme for Schistosomiasis Surveillance in China (2014 Edition), national schistosomiasis surveillance sites were assigned in all schistosomiasis-endemic counties (cities, districts) and the potential endemic counties (cities, districts) in the Three Gorges Reservoir areas, and Oncomelania snail status was monitored according to different epidemic types. In endemic areas, Oncomelania snail survey was performed by means of systematic sampling and environmental sampling, and the occurrence of frames with Oncomelania snails and the prevalence of Schistosoma japonicum infections in Oncomelania snails were calculated, while in potential endemic areas, the risk of imported Oncomelania snails and Oncomelania snails in floating debris were monitored. Results Oncomelania snail survey was performed covering an area of 116 834.16 hm2 in the national schistosomiasis surveillance of China from 2015 to 2019, with 35 007.62 hm2 Oncomelania snail habitats identified. A total of 6 908 292 frames were surveyed during the 5-year period, and there were 364 555 frames detected with Oncomelania snails, with a 5.28% mean occurrence of frames with Oncomelania snails. Among 997 508 living Oncomelania snails captured, no S. japonicum infections were detected, and loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay detected 18 positive mixed Oncomelania snail samples. During the period from 2015 to 2019, 147.20 hm2 emerging Oncomelania snail habitats were identified, with an overall tendency towards a rise seen in the proportion of emerging Oncomelania snail habitats in plain regions with waterway networks (0.12% to 92.00%), a tendency towards a rise followed by decline seen in marshland and lake regions (0 to 96.72%), and a large fluctuation in hilly regions (0 to 88.49%). A total of 831.10 hm2 re-emerging Oncomelania snail habitats were found in the national schistosomiasis surveillance sites of China from 2015 to 2019, with an overall tendency towards a rise seen in the proportion of re-emerging Oncomelania snail habitats in marshland and lake regions (16.05% to 79.66%), an overall tendency towards a decline seen in hilly regions (19.25% to 81.00%), and a minor fluctuation in plain regions with waterway networks (1.10% to 10.14%). During the 5-year period from 2015 to 2019, a total of 48 656 kg floating debris were captured in 4 surveillance sites in the Three Gorges Reservoir areas, and 2 204 snails were found, with no Oncomelania snails identified. Conclusions The areas of Oncomelania snail habitats tended to be stable in the national schistosomiasis surveillance sites of China during the period from 2015 to 2019, however, there was a gradual rise in the area of Oncomelania snail habitats year by year, and LAMP assay identified positive Oncomelania snail samples, suggesting Oncomelania snail control is far from optimistic in China.

17.
Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control ; (6): 120-126, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-876702

ABSTRACT

Objective To understand the morbidity due to Schistosoma japonicum in national schistosomiasis surveillance sites of China from 2015 to 2019, so as to provide insights into schistosomiasis control and elimination and provide the scientific evidence for formulating the new scheme for schistosomiasis surveillance in China. Methods According to the requirements of National Scheme for Schistosomiasis Surveillance in China (2014 Edition), national schistosomiasis surveillance sites were assigned in all schistosomiasis-endemic counties (cities, districts) and the potential endemic counties (cities, districts) in the Three Gorges Reservoir areas, and S. japonicum infections were monitored in local residents, mobile populations and livestock according to different epidemic types. The sero-prevalence of S. japonicum infections, adjusted prevalence of human S. japonicum infections, characteristics of egg-positive individuals and prevalence of S. japonicum infections livestock were analyzed. Results S. japonicum infections were monitored in 453 schistosomiasis-endemic counties (cities, districts) from 13 provinces (municipalities, autonomous regions) and 4 potential endemic counties (cities, districts) from the Three Gorges Reservoir areas in China from 2015 to 2019. During the 5-year period from 2015 to 2019, the sero-prevalence of S. japonicum infections reduced from 3.35% to 1.63% among local residents and from 1.15% to 0.75% among mobile populations, while the adjusted prevalence of infections reduced from 0.05% to 0 among local residents and from 0.20% to 0.001 03% among mobile populations. There were significant differences in the sero-prevalence of S. japonicum infections among local residents and mobile populations in terms of province, occupation and age (all P values < 0.05). A total of 132 egg-positives were identified during the 5-year period, including 97 local residents (inter-quartile range for ages, 47 to 61 years), and 35 mobile populations (inter-quartile range for ages, 26 to 48 years), and there was a significant difference in the age distribution between local residents and mobile populations (P < 0.05). There were totally 6 bovines (5 in 2015 and 1 in 2016) identified with S. japonicum infections in national schistosomiasis surveillance sites of China, with no S. japonicum infections detected in bovines from 2017 to 2019. Conclusions The prevalence of schistosomiasis is very low in China. Further surveillance including more mobile surveillance sites seems justified to identify the risk of schistosomiasis as soon as possible and interrupt the transmission route, so as to facilitate the elimination of schistosomiasis in China.

18.
Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control ; (6): 584-590, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-837614

ABSTRACT

ObjectiveTo characterize Torso-like (tsl) gene and investigate its expression characteristics in Anopheles dirus, so as to provide a theoretical basis for subsequent functional studies of the tsl gene. MethodsAccording to the coding sequences of Drosophila melanogaster and An. gambiae tsl genes, the complete genome of An. dirus was retrieved and the An. dirus tsl gene was characterized. Specific primers were designed and the target gene was amplified using PCR and reverse-transcription PCR assays. The physicochemical properties, signal peptide, transmembrane structure, secondary structure and tertiary structure of the encoded protein TSL were analyzed using bioinformatics tools, and a phylogenetic analysis was performed. In addition, the specific expression of the tls gene was detected in various tissues of An. dirus using a quantitative real-time PCR assay. Results The An. dirus tsl gene was 16 751 bp in length with a CDS region of 1 134 bp, encoding 377 amino acids, and the encoded TSL protein was a stably hydrophilic protein. The TSL protein was predicted to be a secretory protein that was located in extra-membrane regions containing signal peptides. The secondary structure of the TSL protein contained α-helix (51.72%), extended strand (12.20%), β-bridge (4.78%) and random coil (31.30%) in the secondary structure, and a 3D homology model was generated using 5cj9.1.A as a template. Phylogenetic analysis revealed a close genetic relationship in the TSL protein between An. dirus and An. farauti. In addition, quantitative real-time PCR assay detected the tsl gene expression in the head, chest, abdomen and foot of An. dirus, with the highest expression in the head and low expression in the foot. Conclusions The tsl gene is characterized in An. dirus at a genomic level, and the prediction of the TSL protein structure and the elucidation of the tissue-specific tsl gene expression in An. dirus provide a basis for the further studies on the gene functions.

19.
Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control ; (6): 551-558, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-837609

ABSTRACT

This report presented the endemic status of schistosomiasis in the People’s Republic of China at a national level in 2019, and analyzed the data collected from the national schistosomiasis prevention and control system and 455 national schistosomiasis surveillance sites. Among the 12 provinces (municipality and autonomous region) endemic for schistosomiasis in China, Shanghai, Zhejiang, Fujian, Guangdong and Guangxi continued to consolidate the achievements of schistosomiasis elimination, Sichuan Province achieved transmission interruption, Jiangsu newly achieved the standard of transmission interruption and 5 provinces of Yunnan, Hubei, Anhui, Jiangxi and Hunan maintained transmission control by the end of 2019. There were 450 endemic counties (cities, districts) endemic for schistosomiasis, including 28 500 endemic villages covering 70 667 800 people at risk of infections. Among the 450 endemic counties (citis, districts), 66.89% (301/450), 28.44% (128/450) and 4.67% (21/450) kept the criteria of elimination, transmission interruption and transmission control of schistosomiasis, respectively. By the end of 2019, a total of 30 170 advanced schistosomiasis cases were documented in China. In 2019, a total of 12 090 712 individuals received inquiry examinations and 1 740 764 were positive; 5 158 369 individuals received serological tests and 89 753 were seropositive. A total of 327 475 individuals received stool examinations and 5 were positive, including one case of acute schistosomiasis. In 2019, snail survey was performed in 19 726 endemic villages in China and Oncomelania snails were found in 7 322 villages, accounting for 37.12% of all surveyed villages, with 6 villages with emerging snail habitats. Snail survey covered an area of 585 286.24 hm2 and 174 270.42 hm2 snail habitats were found, including emerging snail habitats of 64.20 hm2; however, no infected snails were identified. In 2019, a total of 605 965 bovines were raised in the schistosomiasis endemic areas of China, and 183 313 received serological examinations, with 1 176 positives detected, while 134 978 bovines received stool examinations, with 7 positives identified. In 2019, there were 28 557 patients with schistosomiasis receiving praziquantel chemotherapy, and expanded chemotherapy was given to 1 008 083 person-times; there were 7 bovines with schistosomiasis receiving praziquantel chemotherapy, and 296 053 herd-times expanded chemotherapy was given to bovines. In 2019, snail habitats at an area of 128 754.26 hm2 were given chemical treatment, and the actual area of chemical treatment was 69 605.55 hm2, while environmental improvements were performed in snail habitats covering an area of 2 847.00 hm2. Data from the 455 national schistosomiasis surveillance sites of China showed that the mean Schistosoma japonicum infection rates were both zero in humans and bovines in 2019, and no infected snails were found. The results demonstrate that the overall endemic situation of schistosomiasis remains at a lower infection level in China; however, there is still a risk of schistosomiasis transmission. To achieve the target set in the National Thirteenth Five-Year Plan for Schistosomiasis Control and consolidate the achievements of schistosomiasis control, precision control on schistosomiasis still needs to be reinforced in China.

20.
Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control ; (6): 159-167, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-821627

ABSTRACT

Objective To characterize a species of the genus Tricula and parasitized trematodes in schistosomiasis-endemic areas of Yunnan Province using a molecular analysis, so as to understand their taxonomic positions. Methods Tricula spp. and Oncomelania snails were collected from Xiangyun County, Yunnan Province, and cercaria parasitizing snails were observed using crushing followed by microscopy. Cercaria parasitizing Tricula snails at various morphologies were sampled using a shedding method. Genomic DNA was extracted from snail soft tissues and cercariae, and the 16S rRNA, COI, 28S rDNA genes in snails and the ND1 and 28S rDNA genes in cercariae were amplified using a PCR assay and sequenced. The species of Tricula snails and their parasitized trematodes was characterized using sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis. Results Among 382 Tricula snails detected, there were three types of trematode cercariae found, including the non-forked (20.94%, 80/382), double-forked (3.40%, 13/382) and swallow shapes (7.07%, 27/382). Sequence and phylogenetic analyses showed that the 16S rRNA, COI and 28S rDNA gene sequences of this species of Tricula had high homology to those in Delavaya dianchiensis, and were clustered in a branch. Sequencing analysis of the ND1 and 28S rDNA genes revealed that the non-forked cercariae belonged to the family Pleu- rogenidae, the swallow-shaped cercariae belonged to the family Opecoelidae, and the double-forked cercariae belonged to another species of the genus Schistosoma that was different from S. sinensium and S. ovuncatum. Conclusion The species and taxonomy of Triculla spp. and their parasitized trematodes are preliminarily determined in schistosomiasis-endemic areas of Yunnan Province; however, further studies are required to investigate the more definite taxonomy and pathogenicity.

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