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1.
National Journal of Andrology ; (12): 1121-1124, 2015.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-304763

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To introduce the framework of evidence-based practice with a case of castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) as an example.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>A clinical question was formulated according the clinical scenario. A systematic search was conducted for the published literature in the databases of PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, Clinical Trial Registries, and Web of Knowledge up to Dec 2014. The identified literature was reviewed for quality appraisal before the evidence was applied to clinical practice.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>The treatment was effective and the patient achieved disease remission.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Evidence-based practice should be integrated with clinical scenario, current evidence, and patients' willingness, and follow a systematic framework.</p>


Subject(s)
Evidence-Based Medicine , Humans , Male , Orchiectomy , Prostatic Neoplasms, Castration-Resistant , Therapeutics
2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-256846

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To compare the clinical value of narrow band imaging (NBI) and iodine staining for margin determination of early esophageal cancer during endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD).</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Clinical data of 87 patients with early esophageal cancers undergoing endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) were analyzed retrospectively. Patients were assigned to NBI group and iodine staining group according to the staining method before ESD operation. Clinicopathological features, esophageal spasm ratio, operation time, en bloc resection rate, complications, local recurrence, and distant metastases were compared between the two groups.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>There were 37 patients in NBI group while 50 patients in iodine staining group. Location and size of the lesions between two groups were not significantly different. The ratio of moderate-severe esophageal spasm in NBI group was significantly lower as compared to iodine staining group [10.8%(4/37) vs. 32.0%(16/50), P<0.05]. The average operation time in NBI group was significantly shorter than that in iodine staining group [(42.2±19.5) min vs. (53.3±30.9) min, P<0.05). All the tumors were resected in an en bloc fashion and the R0 resection rate was 100%. Perforations in 2 patients and delayed bleeding in 1 patient were successfully treated by endoscopic methods. Esophageal strictures occurred in 3 patients of NBI group and 4 patients of iodine staining group, who were treated by endoscopic dilation and retrievable stents. During mean 13.2 months (range 4 to 20 months) follow-up periods, local recurrence occurred in 2 patients of NBI group and 2 patients of iodine staining group. These patients received ESD or other surgery.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Compared with iodine staining, using NBI for margin determination of early esophageal cancer during ESD is more convenient and fast because of distinctly lower degree of esophageal spasm.</p>


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Esophageal Neoplasms , Pathology , General Surgery , Esophagoscopy , Methods , Female , Humans , Iodine , Male , Middle Aged , Narrow Band Imaging , Retrospective Studies , Staining and Labeling
3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-321557

ABSTRACT

The diagnosis and treatment of gastric varices is a clinically concerned issue. With the development of endoscopic technology. The success rate of controlling bleeding from gastric and esophageal varices has been improved a lot. It is efficacious and safe to treat gastric and esophageal varices by endoscopic injection of tissue adhesives and to prevent re-bleeding. There is few acute and long-term complications of this modality. It has been the first line treatment for gastric varices.


Subject(s)
Endoscopy , Esophageal and Gastric Varices , Therapeutics , Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage , Therapeutics , Humans , Injections, Intralesional , Ligation , Sclerotherapy , Tissue Adhesives , Therapeutic Uses
4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-321551

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To assess the clinical value of endoscopic submucosal dissection(ESD) for duodenal lesion.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>A total of 78 patients with duodenal lesion were treated with ESD from November 2006 to August 2010. The clinical data were retrospectively analyzed.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>There were 46 male and 14 female patients. The mean age was(54±9) years. The lesion location included the duodenal bulb(n=39, 50%), the junction of bulb and descending part(n=19, 24.4%), and the descending part(n=20, 25.8%). The mean diameter of the lesions was(2.1±1.7) cm. Fifty-one(65.4%) lesions originated from the mucosa, including inflammatory/ hyperplastic polyps(n=22, 28.2%), villous/tubular adenoma(n=26, 33.3%), and hamartomas polyps(n=3, 3.8%). Twenty-five(32.1%) lesions originated from the submucosa, including Brunner's glands adenoma(n=15, 19.2%), ectopic pancreas(n=3, 3.8%), carcinoid tumor(n=3, 3.8%), lipoma(n=2, 2.6%), myxoinoma(n=1, 1.3%), and angio-lymphangioma(n=1, 1.3%). There were two lesions originated from the muscularis propria(n=2, 2.5%), and both were ectopic pancreas. All cases received ESD successfully. The mean operative time was(37±41) min and the mean blood loss was(23±15) ml. The perioperative complication rate was 35.9%(28/78), including intraoperative perforation(n=6), delayed perforation(n=3), intraoperative hemorrhage(n=10), delayed bleeding(n=7), and transient elevation of serum amylase(n=2). Postoperative pathological examination showed vascular invasion with tumor cells in one patient, who received extended resection later. The remaining 77 patients showed no recurrence during the followed up(rang, 3-23 months) using endoscopy.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>ESD is an effective, safe, minimally invasive method for the management of duodenal lesions.</p>


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Duodenal Diseases , General Surgery , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Gastroscopy , Methods , Humans , Intestinal Mucosa , General Surgery , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies
5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-321547

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To evaluate the long-term efficacy and safety of endoscopic tissue adhesive(N-octyl-α-cyanoacrylate) injection for the treatment of gastric varices.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>A retrospective study was performed to review the clinical and follow up data of 169 patients with gastric variceal who received tissue adhesive injection at the Fudan University Affiliated Zhongshan Hospital between April 2004 and December 2011.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>There were 128 males and 41 females with a mean age of 56.8(37-85) years old. One hundred and thirty-one patients received one injection, 38 received two injections or more with a mean of 1.12 per patient. Volume of injection ranged from 1 to 3 ml(mean, 1.7 ml). Eighty-three patients received adhesive injection alone, 231 received injection combined with ligation, 50 received combined sclerotic agent injection. All the patients had follow up ranging from 1 to 78 months(mean, 3.4 months). The treatment outcome was satisfactory in 130 patients(76.9%), good in 36(21.3%), and ineffective in 3(1.8%). The rate of ectopic embolization was 3.0%, and the rate of early re-bleeding was 1.2%. Postoperatively there were no septic complications or esophageal stricture. There were no deaths within 2 weeks.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Injection of tissue adhesive under endoscopic guidance for treatment of gastric varices is convenient, safe and effective.</p>


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Esophageal and Gastric Varices , Therapeutics , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Gastroscopy , Humans , Injections, Intralesional , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Tissue Adhesives , Therapeutic Uses , Treatment Outcome
6.
Chinese Journal of Epidemiology ; (12): 433-436, 2006.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-233931

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To compare and evaluate the cost and effectiveness of endoscopic variceal ligation (EVL) at emergency plus octreotide versus octreotide alone in the treatment of acute esophageal variceal bleeding in cirrhotic patients.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Seventy-eight patients with active variceal bleeding under emergency endoscope, were assigned to two groups receiving either combined therapy of EVL at emergency and octreotide ('EVL' group) or a continuous infusion of octreotide alone ('octreotide' group). Both efficacy and cost-effectiveness were observed.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>There were no significant differences between the two groups in patients' characteristics, supporting treatment or general treatment. In group EVL, there appeared a significantly higher rate in controlling bleeding and lower complication rate than that of octreotide group(94.4% vs.78.6%, P = 0.045 and 19.4% vs. 42.9%, P = 0.027, respectively). Early rebleeding and mortality rate were also lower in group EVL, but with no significant differences between them (2.9% vs. 7.7%, P = 0.358 and 5.6% vs. 14.3%, P = 0.205, respectively). The combined therapy had a significantly shorter time of hemostasis, less administration of octreoid, fewer units of blood transfusion and shorter hospital stay (P < 0.001). The median costs of the combined therapy and octreotide alone were RMB 9046.5 Yuan and 13 743.6 Yuan,respectively (P = 0.045). The cost-effective ratio of group EVL seemed superior to that of octreoid group.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>The therapeutic scheme of emergency EVL plus octreotide was a more cost-effective one for controlling acute esophageal variceal bleeding.</p>


Subject(s)
Combined Modality Therapy , Cost-Benefit Analysis , Emergency Medical Services , Endoscopy, Gastrointestinal , Esophageal and Gastric Varices , Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage , Therapeutics , Humans , Ligation , Economics , Liver Cirrhosis , Octreotide , Economics , Therapeutic Uses , Treatment Outcome
7.
Chinese Journal of Hepatology ; (12): 83-88, 2005.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-233602

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To investigate the prevalence and major risk factors of fatty liver among adult residents in Shanghai.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>A cross-sectional survey with multiple-stage stratified cluster and random sampling was performed. All residents aged 16 and above were invited to participate in the survey; they came from four communities of Yangpu District and Pudong New District. Questionnaire, physical examination, serum lipid-profile, and 75 gram oral glucose tolerance test and ultrasonographic examination of liver were undertaken. Analysis of data was performed through SPSS 11.0 for Windows statistical package.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>A total of 3175 residents took part in the survey, which was 75% of adult residents of the investigated communities and 2.26/10 000 of Shanghai municipal residents. Of the 3175, 1218 were males and 1957 were females. The mean age of the participants was 52.4+/-15.1 years and ranged from 16 to 88 years. Fatty liver was detected with ultrasound examination in 661 participants (20.82%), among which 3.48% had alcoholic fatty liver, 4.08% had suspected alcoholic fatty liver, and 92.43% had nonalcoholic fatty liver. The age-adjusted, sex-adjusted prevalence of fatty liver in Shanghai adult residents was 17.29%, the prevalence of alcoholic fatty liver, suspicious alcoholic fatty liver, and nonalcoholic fatty liver in Shanghai adult residents were 0.79%, 1.15%, and 15.35%, respectively. The prevalence of fatty liver was increased with aging in males and in females. Among participants younger than 50 years old, the prevalence of fatty liver in males was significantly higher than that in females, but in participants older than 50 years the case was just the opposite, higher in females. The mean age (years), body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, blood pressure, fasting and two hour serum glucose level, triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and the presence of obesity, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and gallstones in the fatty liver group was significantly higher than those in the group without fatty liver, but the high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) level and the educational level were both lower in the fatty liver group. Logistic regression analysis demonstrated that the prevalence of fatty liver was only positively correlated to nine risk factors, including male sex, educational level, waist circumference, BMI, fasting glucose level, HDL-C, TG, hypertension and diabetes mellitus. In heavy drinkers, obesity increased the risk for fatty liver by 4.8-fold, but heavy drinking only increased the risk for fatty liver 1.5-fold (95% CI 0.9-2.6, P=0.1685).</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>There is a high prevalence of fatty liver among adult residents in Shanghai, and nonalcoholic fatty liver is the major type. Metabolic disorders such as obesity and diabetes mellitus, hypertension and hyperlipidemia are more closely associated with fatty liver than heavy drinking in Shanghai.</p>


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , China , Epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Fatty Liver , Epidemiology , Female , Humans , Hypertension , Male , Middle Aged , Obesity , Prevalence , Risk Factors , Surveys and Questionnaires
8.
Chinese Journal of Oncology ; (12): 116-118, 2004.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-271053

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To evaluate the effect of postoperative adjuvant transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) on hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients with residual tumor.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>The patients were classified into intervention group (with adjuvant TACE) and control group (without adjuvant TACE) who were further stratified to those with high risk (patients with single tumor > 5 cm in diameter, or with multiple tumors, invasion to blood vessels), and low risk factors. Univariate analysis and Cox model were used to analyse prognostic factors.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>In low risk patients with residual tumor, the 1-, 2-, 3-, 4-year survival rate was 97.2%, 78.0%, 66.5% and 66.5% in the intervention group, and 91.2%, 81.4%, 70.3% and 54.4% in the control group, respectively. There was no statistical difference between the two groups in survival (log-rank P = 0.7667). Comparing with the control group, the 1-, 2-, 3-, 4-year survival rate was 89.5%, 73.4%, 59.2% and 53.8% in the intervention group, and 70.5%, 61.9%, 46.8% and 46.8% in the control group, respectively. Postoperative adjuvant TACE significantly prolonged the survival in high risk patients with residual tumor (P = 0.0029). Cox model revealed that the benefit of adjuvant TACE was significantly increased by the high risk factors in HCC patients with residual tumor.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>The beneficial effect of postoperative TACE was only observed in high risk patients with residual tumor but not in the low risk patients with residual tumor.</p>


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular , Mortality , Therapeutics , Chemoembolization, Therapeutic , Combined Modality Therapy , Female , Hepatic Artery , Humans , Liver Neoplasms , Mortality , Therapeutics , Male , Middle Aged , Neoplasm, Residual , Survival Rate
9.
Chinese Journal of Epidemiology ; (12): 165-168, 2004.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-342361

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of mosapride on treatment of functional dyspepsia.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Randomized controlled clinical trial was conducted and patients suffered from functional dyspepsia were included. 5 mg mosapride was given three times daily for 4 weeks in the treatment group. 10 mg domperidone was given three times daily for 4 weeks as control. Changes on symptom score, gastric empty or new occurring events were included as outcomes.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>231 patients suffered from functional dyspepsia were selected by inclusion and exclusion criteria from August 15 to Oct 22, 1999. Of these, 108 (46.8%) were males, versus 123 (53.2%) females and 118 (51.2%) in the treatment group and 113 (48.9%) as controls. 222 (96.1%) patients were followed up. Results showed that the total efficacy rates in early satiety and abdominal distension were 84.5% and 90.1% in mosapride after the 2 weeks of treatment. Mosapride seemed to be more effective in improving symptoms of belching and heartburn than that in controls (P < 0.05). In 4 weeks, the total efficacy in improving symptoms of abdominal distention and belching showed more effective in mosapride than that in controls (P < 0.05). Decrease of symptoms score was more in mosapride than that in controls (P < 0.05). Mosapride was less effective in controls in improving the gastric empty in terms of proportion (46.2% vs. 25.9%, P = 0.020) and range (46.2% vs. 24.0%, P = 0.003). Side effects would include diarrhea, constipation, headache, dizziness, insomnia, skin scare and the like. There was no significant difference between the two groups (9.6% in mosapride vs. 14.0% in controls).</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Mosapride was safe and effective in improving the symptoms and gastric empty of functional dyspepsia.</p>


Subject(s)
Adult , Benzamides , Therapeutic Uses , Dyspepsia , Drug Therapy , Female , Gastrointestinal Agents , Therapeutic Uses , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Morpholines , Therapeutic Uses , Treatment Outcome
10.
Chinese Journal of Epidemiology ; (12): 431-434, 2004.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-342291

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of preventive treatment on diabetes, using metformin or acarbose among patients with impaired glucose tolerance.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Using data from diabetes prevention program (DPP) and STOP-NIDDM study, we evaluated the cost of preventing one new onset of diabetes in Shanghai, and to compare its cost with the current treatment cost.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>If metformin was used for preventive treatment as in DPP study, a total cost of 69 122.95RMB was needed for preventing one new onset of diabetes in three years period. If acarbose was used for preventive treatment as in STOP-NIDDM, then 154 116.05RMB was the cost to prevent one diabetes in 3.3 years of treatment. However, if the generic metformin was used, the total cost was only 21 666.63RMB for the 3-years treatment. Data showed that the average cost for treating diabetes per year was 9143.70RMB in Shanghai.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>The total cost of diabetes prevention was formidable, although generic metformin showed the trend of cost-effective. The cost of drugs took the biggest part of the total cost. To choose the cheap but effective drug for treatment might save a large part of the cost. Further clinical research concerning the prevention of complications might provide us with more information on the cost-effectiveness of preventive treatment on diabetes.</p>


Subject(s)
Acarbose , Therapeutic Uses , Attitude to Health , Cost-Benefit Analysis , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Economics , Follow-Up Studies , Glucose Intolerance , Drug Therapy , Economics , Glucose Tolerance Test , Humans , Hypoglycemic Agents , Economics , Therapeutic Uses , Metformin , Therapeutic Uses , Preventive Health Services , Economics , Risk Reduction Behavior , Surveys and Questionnaires
11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-683436

ABSTRACT

Objective To explore the effects of down regulation of osteopontin(OPN)on the bio- logical behavior of MKN28 and SGC7901 cell lines.Methods OPN siRNA was designed according to the relevant literature and was transfected into the two cell lines.Fluorescent labeling was used to test the transfected efficiency.The down-regulation of OPN protein was measured by Western blot.Real- time PCR was used to test the ratio and time difference of down-regulation of OPN mRNA after siRNA transfection.The biological changes before and after OPN siRNA transfected into these two cell lines were tested by flow cytometry(to test cell cycle and apoptosis)and MTT method(to test the prolifera- tion for the consecutive seven days)and the difference between OPN siRNA transfected or non-transfect- ed cells was compared using mixed model.The capability of moving and invasion of cancer cells were tested by Transwell method and analyzed by t-test.Results The transfected efficiency of OPN siRNA were more than 90% in the two cell lines.OPN mRNA down-regulated to 47% at the 72th hour in SGC7901,while 40% at the 48th hour in MKN28.The expression of OPN protein was both down- regulated after siRNA transfection in the two cell lines.The proliferation decreased after transfected with OPN siRNA both in MKN28 andSGC7901(P

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