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1.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-920747

ABSTRACT

Objective To evaluate the effectiveness of the integrated schistosomiasis control measures in Changzhou City from 2015 to 2020, so as to provide insights into the formulation of the strategy used to consolidate the schistosomiasis elimination achievements. Methods The annual schistosomiasis control working report and integrated schistosomiasis control data were collected in Changzhou City from 2015 to 2020, and the prevalence of Schistosoma japonicum infections in humans and livestock and snail status were analyzed to evaluate the effectiveness of the integrated schistosomiasis control measures. Results During the period from 2015 to 2020, a total of 112 061 person-time individuals received serological tests for S. japonicum infections in Changzhou City, and the sero-prevalence was 0.15% to 1.09% during the 6-year period, with a significant difference seen among years (χ2 = 288.11, P < 0.05). From 2015 to 2020, a total of 13 435 person-time individuals received stool examinations, with no egg-positives identified; among 5 840 herd-time livestock receiving schistosomiasis examinations, no positives were detected, while a 100% coverage of fencing livestock was seen each year. During the 6-year period, a total of 38.40 hm2 snail habitats were found, including 8.97 hm2 emerging snail habitats, and among the 2 344 snails dissected, no S. japonicum infection was found. Chemical treatment covered an area of 385.71 hm2, and environmental improvements covered an area of 200.39 hm2. The mean density of living snails was less than 0.1 snails/0.1 m2 in snail habitats found in Changzhou City each year from 2015 to 2020, and the coverage of harmless toilets was 100% in 2020. During the 6-year period, a total of 3.740 6 million person-time individuals were given schistosomiasis health education in Changzhou City. Conclusions Changzhou City is now at the post-elimination surveillance stage; however, there are still factors affecting schistosomiasis transmission. The schistosomiasis surveillance system remains to be improved to consolidate the schistosomiasis elimination achievements in Changzhou City.

2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-818845

ABSTRACT

Objective To evaluate the effect of malaria elimination monitoring in Liyang City, so as to provide the evidence for formulating control strategies and measures of malaria elimination. Methods The monitoring data about the epidemic situation, blood tests of feverish patients and epidemiology investigation of individual malaria patients in Liyang City from 2010 to 2016 were collected and analyzed by the descriptive epidemiology method. Results From 2010 to 2016, there were 67 malaria cases in total. Totally 39 196 feverish patients had blood tests for Plasmodium, and 65 of them showed positive and the positive rate was 0.17%. The other 2 cases of microscopy negative were treated with anti-malarial drugs by themselves after the onset of fever, and no Plasmodium was detected in the microscopy, but the tests with malaria rapid diagnostic kit (RDTs) were positive. Among all the 67 cases, there were 49 falciparum malaria cases, 13 ovale malaria cases and 5 vivax malaria cases. All the 67 malaria cases were imported, and the number of cases from Africa was 63 (94.03%). Totally 97.01% (65/67) of the malaria patients were male and most of them were young adults. The patients aged 30 to 49 years accounted for 73.13% (49/67) and 80.60% (54/67) of them were farmers. There were malaria cases in all the 10 towns of the city, and the time of onset had no obvious seasonal characteristics. The timely rate of case report, timely rate of blood film review, standardized treatment rate, epidemiological case investigation rate, and epidemic focus investigation and disposal rate were all 100%. There were 18 076 people with the active case investigation, but no malaria parasite positive carriers were found. The mosquito vector monitoring was performed with the methods of mosquito trap lamp and human bait half night trap, and 187 and 78 Anopheles mosquitoes were captured respectively, and all the parasites were Anopheles sinensis. A total of 88 person-times were performed for the Plasmodium examinations with microscopy and RDTs (one blood sample, two detections) in Liyang City Center for Disease Prevention and Control from 2012 to 2016, and 35 person-times were positive, including 28 person-times of Plasmodium falciparum and 7 person-times of P. ovale, and there was no statistically significant difference between the detection rates of P. falciparum, and P. ovale (adjusted χ2 = 0.05, P > 0.05). There were 34 RDTs positive cases, including 14 cases of malignant malaria, and 17 cases of malignant malaria or mixed infections of P. falciparum with other three kinds of Plasmodium parasites, and 3 cases of single infection or mixed infections of other three kinds of Plasmodium parasites, and there was a statistically significant difference among them in the positive RDTs detection rates (adjusted χ2 = 13.75, P < 0.05). Conclusions There are still imported malaria cases and there is the risk of malaria retransmission in Liyang City. Therefore, it is necessary to strengthen the malaria surveillance work and the management of infectious sources, so as to consolidate the achievements of malaria elimination in the future.

3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-818841

ABSTRACT

Objective To assess the state of schistosomiasis elimination in 6 districts of Changzhou City, Jiangsu Province, so as to provide the evidence for the formulation of consolidation measures. Methods Three towns (streets) were selected according to the schistosomiasis epidemic degree in each district, and one village was sampled from each town. The on-site assessment was carried out between 2016 and 2017, including Oncomelania hupensis snail survey, population investigation and domestic animal investigation. In addition, the related data and materials were evaluated and the monitoring ability was assessed. Results In the history, there were 54 endemic towns, 368 endemic villages in Changzhou City, with a total area of 3 934.79 hm2 of historic snail spots, and 114 990 schistosomiasis cases so far. In the field assessment in 6 districts, a total of 26 environments were surveyed, with the surveyed area of 36.23 hm2, and there were no living snails captured in each village. A total of 18 199 people were examined for schistosome infection, 255 were blood test positive, and the sero-positive rate was 1.40%. The stool examination was done in 255 sero-positive cases, and no cases were stool-positive. A total of 779 domestic animals were investigated, including 200 cattle, 179 sheep and 400 pigs, and no infections were detected. The files regarding the snail status and schistosomiasis epidemic situation, and the monitoring data were complete and accurate in 6 districts. The annual investment funds for schistosomiasis prevention were 3 120 000 Yuan in Changzhou City, and the number of staff working for schistosomiasis prevention was 86 totally, which could meet the requirements of high quality monitoring. Conclusions All 6 districts of Changzhou City have met the requirements of schistosomiasis elimination.

4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-818723

ABSTRACT

Objective To evaluate the effect of malaria elimination monitoring in Liyang City, so as to provide the evidence for formulating control strategies and measures of malaria elimination. Methods The monitoring data about the epidemic situation, blood tests of feverish patients and epidemiology investigation of individual malaria patients in Liyang City from 2010 to 2016 were collected and analyzed by the descriptive epidemiology method. Results From 2010 to 2016, there were 67 malaria cases in total. Totally 39 196 feverish patients had blood tests for Plasmodium, and 65 of them showed positive and the positive rate was 0.17%. The other 2 cases of microscopy negative were treated with anti-malarial drugs by themselves after the onset of fever, and no Plasmodium was detected in the microscopy, but the tests with malaria rapid diagnostic kit (RDTs) were positive. Among all the 67 cases, there were 49 falciparum malaria cases, 13 ovale malaria cases and 5 vivax malaria cases. All the 67 malaria cases were imported, and the number of cases from Africa was 63 (94.03%). Totally 97.01% (65/67) of the malaria patients were male and most of them were young adults. The patients aged 30 to 49 years accounted for 73.13% (49/67) and 80.60% (54/67) of them were farmers. There were malaria cases in all the 10 towns of the city, and the time of onset had no obvious seasonal characteristics. The timely rate of case report, timely rate of blood film review, standardized treatment rate, epidemiological case investigation rate, and epidemic focus investigation and disposal rate were all 100%. There were 18 076 people with the active case investigation, but no malaria parasite positive carriers were found. The mosquito vector monitoring was performed with the methods of mosquito trap lamp and human bait half night trap, and 187 and 78 Anopheles mosquitoes were captured respectively, and all the parasites were Anopheles sinensis. A total of 88 person-times were performed for the Plasmodium examinations with microscopy and RDTs (one blood sample, two detections) in Liyang City Center for Disease Prevention and Control from 2012 to 2016, and 35 person-times were positive, including 28 person-times of Plasmodium falciparum and 7 person-times of P. ovale, and there was no statistically significant difference between the detection rates of P. falciparum, and P. ovale (adjusted χ2 = 0.05, P > 0.05). There were 34 RDTs positive cases, including 14 cases of malignant malaria, and 17 cases of malignant malaria or mixed infections of P. falciparum with other three kinds of Plasmodium parasites, and 3 cases of single infection or mixed infections of other three kinds of Plasmodium parasites, and there was a statistically significant difference among them in the positive RDTs detection rates (adjusted χ2 = 13.75, P < 0.05). Conclusions There are still imported malaria cases and there is the risk of malaria retransmission in Liyang City. Therefore, it is necessary to strengthen the malaria surveillance work and the management of infectious sources, so as to consolidate the achievements of malaria elimination in the future.

5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-818719

ABSTRACT

Objective To assess the state of schistosomiasis elimination in 6 districts of Changzhou City, Jiangsu Province, so as to provide the evidence for the formulation of consolidation measures. Methods Three towns (streets) were selected according to the schistosomiasis epidemic degree in each district, and one village was sampled from each town. The on-site assessment was carried out between 2016 and 2017, including Oncomelania hupensis snail survey, population investigation and domestic animal investigation. In addition, the related data and materials were evaluated and the monitoring ability was assessed. Results In the history, there were 54 endemic towns, 368 endemic villages in Changzhou City, with a total area of 3 934.79 hm2 of historic snail spots, and 114 990 schistosomiasis cases so far. In the field assessment in 6 districts, a total of 26 environments were surveyed, with the surveyed area of 36.23 hm2, and there were no living snails captured in each village. A total of 18 199 people were examined for schistosome infection, 255 were blood test positive, and the sero-positive rate was 1.40%. The stool examination was done in 255 sero-positive cases, and no cases were stool-positive. A total of 779 domestic animals were investigated, including 200 cattle, 179 sheep and 400 pigs, and no infections were detected. The files regarding the snail status and schistosomiasis epidemic situation, and the monitoring data were complete and accurate in 6 districts. The annual investment funds for schistosomiasis prevention were 3 120 000 Yuan in Changzhou City, and the number of staff working for schistosomiasis prevention was 86 totally, which could meet the requirements of high quality monitoring. Conclusions All 6 districts of Changzhou City have met the requirements of schistosomiasis elimination.

6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-840805

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the concerns over disease prevention in local residents of Yingxiu Town of Wenchuan County before and 15, 30 days after the earthquake, so as to provide scientific evidences for epidemic prevention in the public. Methods: Self-designed questionnaire was used to collect information on the disease prevention among the local earthquake-refugees. Chi-square test was used to determine the significance of difference. Results: A total of 121 effective questionnaires were collected. We found that the number of the residents who received health education was significantly increased after earthquake (P=0.000). The choice of drinking water was spring water and tap water before the earthquake, and the bottled water and spring water were the top choice after earthquake. Significantly more people considered the flies in the feces pool should be controlled after earthquake (P=0.001); the numbers of residents considered that rubbish should be buried or burned and hands should be washed after defecation were also significantly increased. The consciousness of epidemic diseases (reminding others and reporting to the authorities) was significantly intensified among people (P = 0.001). Most residents chose insecticides for the control of mosquitoes and flies. After the earthquake, the residents were more concerned over their health, and they had an intensified expectation for medical aids from the troops and were more willing to take drugs. Conclusion: Health education intensifies the concerns over epidemic prevention in the residents of Yingxiu Town after earthquake. However, they tend to depend too much on medication and disinfection services.

7.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 15-23, 2009.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-265881

ABSTRACT

<p><b>BACKGROUND</b>Hepatitis B virus encoded X protein (HBx) is a trans-activating protein that may be involved in hepatocarcinogenesis, although few natural effectors of HBx that participate in this process have been identified. We screened, by comparative proteomics method, effectors of HBx associated with hepatocarcinogenesis.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>HBx positive and negative HepG2 cells were constructed and expression patterns of cellular proteins were obtained by high resolution, two dimensional electrophoresis. Comprehensive analyses of proteins associated with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) were focused on the differently expressed proteins (more than two-fold increase or decrease, P < 0.05) from HBx positive and negative HepG2 cells. For peptide mass fingerprinting, protein spots with different intensity between HBx positive and negative HepG2 cells were directly cut out of gels and processed for matrix assisted, laser desorption/ionization, time of flight mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS) analysis.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>The mean number of protein spots for HBx negative and HBx positive HepG2 cells were 2095 +/- 137 and 2188 +/- 105, respectively. The analysis of paired cells showed 75 spots with significant differences in expression between HBx negative and HBx positive cells: 37 spots corresponding to 32 different proteins; 25 proteins were upregulated, 7 downregulated. We found 7 proteins not previously reported differentially expressed in HBx positive HepG2 cells. Variations in protein accumulation were confirmed for four (HSP90AB1, BCL2 associated athanogene 2, nucleophosmin and chloride intracellular channel 1) by Western blotting in HBx positive HepG2 cells.</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>Numerous effectors of HBx that may promote the development of HCC are identified, of which 7 are newly noted in HepG2 cells. Several of these effectors of HBx may help in elucidating the roles of HBx in hepatocarcinogenesis and diagnostics or targets for therapeutic intervention.</p>


Subject(s)
Blotting, Western , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular , Genetics , Metabolism , Cell Line, Tumor , Electrophoresis, Gel, Two-Dimensional , Humans , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Proteomics , Methods , Spectrometry, Mass, Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption-Ionization , Trans-Activators , Genetics , Metabolism , Viral Regulatory and Accessory Proteins , Genetics , Metabolism
8.
Chinese Journal of Endemiology ; (6): 288-290, 2009.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-642543

ABSTRACT

Objective To perform a spatial analysis of myocardium uhrastructure and the activity of mitochondrial succinate dehydrogenase in sub-acute Keshan disease. Methods Myocardium samples were collected from the cases with sub-acute Keshan disease and non-myocarditis(control), and their ultrastructure was observed under electron microscope. The density of mitochondrion volume and cristal membrane and its volume were measured by a point-counting method, while mitochondrion volume was estimated by water displacement method, succinate dehydrogenase activity of mitochondrion by iron-copper method in sub-acute Keshan disease and non-myocarditis cases. Results The volume ratio of mitochondrion to the cell on myoeardium [(47.79±6.20)%], the area ratio of mitochondrion to sarcoplasm [(55.06±6.50) %], mitochondrion to myofibrils [(1.43±0,41)%], mitochondrion section area[(0.78±0.15)μm2], and ratio of the lesion of cristal membrane area to the matrix area and mitochondrion volume[(67.14±13.96)%, (44.62±13.44)%]in sub-acute Keshan disease group were obviously higher than those in control [(33.20±7.62)%, (38.07±9.43)%, (0.71±0.33)%, (0.44±0.07)μm2, (14.11± 12.51)%, (9.34±11.28)%; t = 3.75,7.93,6.61,36.40,52.65,37.51, all P < 0.05]. The volume ratio of myofibrils to cell[(34.52±5.12)%]and the area ratio of cristae mitochondria to matrix[(32.43±14.42)%]in sub-acute Keshan disease group was obviously less than those in control [(48.51±4.30)%, (86.04±12.37)%; t = 9.85, 53.46, both P < 0.05)]. Succinate dehydrogenase activity was negative in sub-acute Keshan disease group. Conclusions Myocardium ultrastructure changes in sub-acute Keshan disease including the increase of volume and areas of mitochondria and the damage of the cristal membrane in mitochondria. Succinate dehydrogenase activity is decreased or even disappeared.

9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-290262

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To evaluate the impact of universal salt iodization using monitoring data on correctional status of iodine deficiency and hospitalized thyroid diseases.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Retrospective survey was conducted to collect medical records of hospitalized thyroid disease cases. Routine monitoring data on population iodine nutrition status and goiter prevalence were analyzed.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>The coverage of adequately iodized salt was consistently above 95%. Hospitalization rate of thyroid diseases rose steadily, and peaked at 54.5 per 100,000. The proportion of hospitalized thyroid disease among hospitalized diseases also rose with female and those aged above 40 years old mostly affected. The proportion of hospitalized hyperthyroidism among total hospitalized thyroid disease rose from 13.6% to 34.7%.</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>Universal salt iodization might eliminate iodine deficiency while other impact still exists. However, the benefits of universal salt iodization should be far overweight the adverse effects.</p>


Subject(s)
China , Epidemiology , Female , Humans , Iodine , Therapeutic Uses , Male , Sodium Chloride, Dietary , Therapeutic Uses , Thyroid Diseases , Epidemiology
10.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 789-794, 2006.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-286209

ABSTRACT

The 16S rDNA specific primers were designed for rapid detection of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) by the fluorescence quantitative PCR (FQ-PCR) assay, based upon multiple sequence alignment and phylogenetic tree analysis of the 16S rDNAs of over 20 bacteria. After extraction of PA genomic DNA, the target 16S rDNA fragment was amplified by PCR with specific primers, and used to construct recombinant pMDT-Pfr plasmid, the dilution gradients of which were subjected to the standard quantitation curve in FQ-PCR assay. Different concentrations of PA genomic DNA were detected by FQ-PCR in a 20microL of reaction system with SYBR Green I. At the same time, various genomic DNAs of Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhi, Shigella flexneri, Proteus vulgaris, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Escherichia coli, and Mycobacterium tuberculosis were used as negative controls to confirm specificity of the FQ-PCR detection assay. Results demonstrated that the predicted amplified product of designed primers was of high homology only with PA 16S rDNA, and that sensitivity of the FQ-PCR assay was of 3.6pg/microL of bacterial DNA or (2.1 x 10(3) +/- 3.1 x 10(2)) copies/microL of 16S rDNA, accompanied with high specificity, and that the whole detection process including DNA extraction could be completed in about two hours. In contrast to traditional culture method, the FQ-PCR assay targeting 16S rDNA gene can be used to detect PA rapidly, which exhibits perfect application prospect in future.


Subject(s)
Base Sequence , DNA, Ribosomal , Genetics , Fluorescence , Molecular Sequence Data , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Methods , Pseudomonas aeruginosa , Genetics , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S , Genetics
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