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1.
Psychiatry Investigation ; : 940-945, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1002749

ABSTRACT

Objective@#Successful transition to school is of great importance to children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The purpose of this study was to develop a school readiness inventory for Korean children with ASD, and demonstrate its content validity and reliability. @*Methods@#The Korean School Readiness Inventory (K-SRI) was developed to assess current levels of some fundamental skills needed for attending school for children with ASD. The K-SRI was comprised of four subscales and 16 test items: Self-help skills, Social and emotional development, School behavior, and Literacy and numeracy skills. For content validity, six experts rated the validity of the test items. Lawshe’s Content Validity Ratio (CVR) was calculated. For reliability, parents of 22 children with ASD entering school completed the KSRI twice. Cronbach’s alpha coefficient was calculated for internal consistency. The test–retest reliability was assessed using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). @*Results@#All the items except two items in the literacy and numeracy skills did not show a CVR of 1. The two items were deleted resulting in a 14-item inventory. The Cronbach’s alpha coefficient of the K-SRI was 0.93, showing good internal consistency reliability. The test– retest reliability results showed ICC value of 0.93 (p<0.001), which indicates good stability. @*Conclusion@#A parent-rated, 14-item school readiness inventory for Korean children with ASD were developed and preliminary evidence of its content validity and reliability were demonstrated in this study. The present study provides a basis for future studies that would further help evaluate and promote school readiness of the children with ASD.

2.
Psychiatry Investigation ; : 152-161, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-968538

ABSTRACT

Objective@#This study examined the factors influencing the mental health and stress of individuals during the coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. @*Methods@#A total of 600 participants were enrolled in this anonymous questionnaire survey that included questions on their demographic profiles and experiences related to the COVID-19 pandemic. The COVID-19 Stress Scale for Korean People (CSSK), Warwick– Edinburgh Mental Wellbeing Scale, Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7, Patient Health Questionnaire-9, Insomnia Severity Index, and Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support were used. Data were analyzed using multiple regression to identify the factors affecting the total CSSK scores and the scores of each of the three CSSK subscales. @*Results@#Multiple regression analyses revealed that the severity of insomnia, sex, degree of income decline, occupation, religion, education level, marital status, residential status, level of social support, and degree of depression and anxiety had significant relationships with COVID-19-related stress. @*Conclusion@#We identified factors affecting stress and mental health in the general population during the COVID-19 pandemic. Our findings may be helpful in providing an individualized approach to managing the mental health of the public. We expect that the results of this study will be used to screen high-risk individuals vulnerable to stress and to establish policies related to the public health crisis.

3.
Journal of Korean Neurosurgical Society ; : 276-286, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-926020

ABSTRACT

Objective@#: Spinal cord stimulation (SCS) is an effective treatment for chronic neuropathic pain. However, its clinical efficacy in regard to specific types of pain has not been well studied. The primary objective of this study was to retrospectively analyze the clinical outcomes of paddle-type SCS according to the type of neuropathic pain. @*Methods@#: Seventeen patients who underwent paddle-lead SCS at our hospital were examined. Clinical outcomes were evaluated pre- and postoperatively (3 months, 1 year, and last follow-up) using the Neuropathic Pain Symptom Inventory (NPSI). The NPSI categorizes pain as superficial, deep, paroxysmal, evoked, or dysesthesia and assess the duration of the pain (pain time score). Changes in NPSI scores were compared with change in Visual analogue scale (VAS) scores. @*Results@#: After SCS, the pain time score improved by 45% (independent t-test, p=0.0002) and the deep pain score improved by 58% (independent t-test, p=0.001). Improvements in the pain time score significantly correlated with improvements in the VAS score (r=0.667, p=0.003, Spearman correlation). Additionally, the morphine milligram equivalent value was markedly lower after vs. before surgery (~49 mg, pared t-test, p=0.002). No preoperative value was associated with clinical outcome. @*Conclusion@#: The NPSI is a useful tool for evaluating the therapeutic effects of SCS. Chronic use of a paddle-type spinal cord stimulation improved the deep pain and the pain time scores.

4.
Psychiatry Investigation ; : 1035-1043, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-918726

ABSTRACT

Objective@#Subjective reports of patients with insomnia often show a discrepancy with their objective assessments of sleep. We aimed to assess subjective-objective sleep discrepancy in subjects with insomnia disorder as well as the psychological factors associated with the discrepancy. @*Methods@#This study is a secondary analysis of the baseline data of a randomized controlled study on 110 adults aged 18 years to 59 years with insomnia disorder. Subjective reports on sleep and the objective measures acquired by an overnight polysomnography were used to measure the sleep discrepancy. Smartphone Addiction Proneness Scale (SAPS), Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D), beck anxiety inventory (BAI), and Global Assessment of Recent Stress (GARS) were used to evaluate the psychological factors associated with the sleep discrepancy. @*Results@#Mean total sleep time (TST) discrepancy of the participants was -81.65±97.41 minutes. Multivariable logistic regression analyses revealed that age (adjusted OR=1.07, 95% CI=1.01–1.13, p=0.027), years of education (adjusted OR=0.69, 95% CI=0.48–0.91, p=0.017), and smartphone addiction proneness (adjusted OR=1.14, 95% CI=1.04–1.27, p=0.008) were independent predictors of TST misperception. Mean sleep onset latency (SOL) discrepancy of the participants was 41.28±45.01 minutes. Only anxiety was an independent predictor of SOL misperception (adjusted OR=1.16, 95% CI=1.05–1.31, p=0.006). @*Conclusion@#The present study provides empirical evidence to increase our understanding of the various factors that are associated with subjective-objective sleep discrepancy. Screening insomnia patients with smartphone addiction proneness may help predict the potential discrepancy between the patients’ subjective reports and objective measures of sleep duration.

5.
Psychiatry Investigation ; : 1076-1081, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-918724

ABSTRACT

Objective@#This study investigated the effect of suicide prevention education on attitudes toward suicide among police officers. @*Methods@#We used an anonymous questionnaire for 518 officers and surveyed the demographic profiles and examined attitudes toward suicide utilizing the Attitudes Towards Suicide Scale (ATTS) (1=totally agree, 5=totally disagree). Our study divided participants into two groups, based on whether or not they had received suicide prevention education, and examined the differences in attitudes toward suicide between the groups. @*Results@#Of the total population, 247 (47.7%) officers had received suicide prevention education. The education group thought suicide as a predictable matter, disagreeing significantly more with the ATTS factor ‘suicide is unpredictable’ (3.36 vs. 3.35; p=0.001) compared with the no education group. Also, the education group more perceived suicide as a cry for help and at the same time disagreed more with the notion ‘suicidal thoughts will never disappear’ (2.08 vs. 2.26; p=0.025, 3.2 vs. 3.05; p=0.035, respectively). @*Conclusion@#Officers with experience in suicide prevention education showed more positive attitude toward suicide and suicide prevention. These findings suggest a need to organize more opportunities of suicide prevention educations, such as making the training mandatory for police officers.

6.
Psychiatry Investigation ; : 1117-1124, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-918721

ABSTRACT

Objective@#Young adults putting off marriage and having less children have become recent trends in many modern societies. Yet less is known about the psychological factors underlying the drastically low marriage and fertility rates. We hypothesized that childhood maltreatment experience may have a negative association with one’s marriage and childbearing intention. @*Methods@#A total of 1,004 college students (mean age of 20.8±2.3 years, 56.1% female) completed self-questionnaires including sociodemographic information, marriage and childbearing intention, Patient Health Questionnaire 9 (PHQ-9), and Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ). Multivariable logistic regression analyses were conducted to evaluate the effect of childhood trauma on marriage and childbearing intentions after controlling for sociodemographic variables and depression. @*Results@#29.7% had no intention to get married and 40.4% had no intention to have children in the future. The prevalence of physical, sexual, and emotional abuse was 33.1%, 18.5%, and 22.3%, respectively. Multivariable logistic regression analyses revealed that female (p<0.001), poor health status (p=0.001), and childhood emotional abuse (p=0.01) were independent predictors of no desire to get married. Female (p<0.001), poor health status (p<0.001), and childhood emotional abuse (p=0.038) were also predictors of no desire to have children. @*Conclusion@#Childhood emotional abuse may be the most damaging form among other types of childhood maltreatment because it can occur more pervasively and persist for a longer period, causing extensive damage to a child’s emotional, social and cognitive development. Raising awareness regarding the life-long consequences of childhood emotional abuse and the need to prevent and detect childhood emotional abuse should be emphasized.

7.
Psychiatry Investigation ; : 233-240, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-903217

ABSTRACT

Objective@#This study aimed to investigate treatment effects of combination therapy of memantine and acetylcholinesterase inhibitors (AchEIs) compared with AchEIs alone on behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) in patients with moderate Alzheimer’s dementia (AD). @*Methods@#This was a 12-week, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. A total of 148 patients with moderate AD participated in this study. Mini-Mental State Examination, Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI), Clinician’s Interview-Based Impression of Change plus caregiver input, Gottfries–Bråne–Steen Scale, and Zarit Burden Interview were used as assessment scales. @*Results@#There were no significant differences in age, sex, or education between AChEIs alone and combination groups. The combination group showed significantly more improvement of NPI-disinhibition score (0.76±2.15) than the AChEIs alone group (-0.14±1.71) after 12 weeks. @*Conclusion@#Our findings suggest that the combination therapy of memantine and AchEIs might be a beneficial option for reducing disinhibition symptoms of patients with moderate AD compared with AchEIs alone. We believe that clinicians need to consider additional memantine treatment when patients with moderate AD complain disinhibition symptom. A larger clinical trial is needed to further determine the efficacy and advantages of such combination therapy of memantine and AchEIs for treating BPSD of patients with moderate AD.

8.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e72-2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-899959

ABSTRACT

Background@#Evidence continues to accumulate that the presence or absence of early trauma (ET) implies unique characteristics in the relationships between suicidal ideation and its risk factors. We examined the relationships among recent stress, depressive symptoms, anxiety symptoms, and suicidal ideation in Korean suicidal women with or without such a history. @*Methods@#Using data on suicidal adult females, 217 victims and 134 non-victims of ET, from the Korean Cohort for the Model Predicting a Suicide and Suicide-related Behavior, we performed structural equation modeling to investigate the contribution of recent stress, depressive symptoms, and anxiety symptoms on suicidal ideation within each group according to the presence or absence of a history of ET. @*Results@#Structural equation modeling with anxiety and depressive symptoms as potential mediators showed a good fit. Recent stress had a direct effect on both depressive symptoms and anxiety symptoms in both groups. Only anxiety symptoms for victims of ET (standardized regression weight, 0.281; P = 0.005) and depressive symptoms for non-victims of ET (standardized regression weight, 0.326; P = 0.003) were full mediators that increased suicidal ideation. Thus, stress contributed to suicidal ideation by increasing the level of anxiety and depressive symptoms for victims and non-victims, respectively. @*Conclusion@#Tailored strategies to reduce suicidal ideation should be implemented according to group type, victims or non-victims of ET. Beyond educating suicidal women in stressmanagement techniques, it would be effective to decrease anxiety symptoms for those with a history of ET and decrease depressive symptoms for those without such a history.

9.
Psychiatry Investigation ; : 233-240, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-895513

ABSTRACT

Objective@#This study aimed to investigate treatment effects of combination therapy of memantine and acetylcholinesterase inhibitors (AchEIs) compared with AchEIs alone on behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) in patients with moderate Alzheimer’s dementia (AD). @*Methods@#This was a 12-week, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. A total of 148 patients with moderate AD participated in this study. Mini-Mental State Examination, Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI), Clinician’s Interview-Based Impression of Change plus caregiver input, Gottfries–Bråne–Steen Scale, and Zarit Burden Interview were used as assessment scales. @*Results@#There were no significant differences in age, sex, or education between AChEIs alone and combination groups. The combination group showed significantly more improvement of NPI-disinhibition score (0.76±2.15) than the AChEIs alone group (-0.14±1.71) after 12 weeks. @*Conclusion@#Our findings suggest that the combination therapy of memantine and AchEIs might be a beneficial option for reducing disinhibition symptoms of patients with moderate AD compared with AchEIs alone. We believe that clinicians need to consider additional memantine treatment when patients with moderate AD complain disinhibition symptom. A larger clinical trial is needed to further determine the efficacy and advantages of such combination therapy of memantine and AchEIs for treating BPSD of patients with moderate AD.

10.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e72-2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-892255

ABSTRACT

Background@#Evidence continues to accumulate that the presence or absence of early trauma (ET) implies unique characteristics in the relationships between suicidal ideation and its risk factors. We examined the relationships among recent stress, depressive symptoms, anxiety symptoms, and suicidal ideation in Korean suicidal women with or without such a history. @*Methods@#Using data on suicidal adult females, 217 victims and 134 non-victims of ET, from the Korean Cohort for the Model Predicting a Suicide and Suicide-related Behavior, we performed structural equation modeling to investigate the contribution of recent stress, depressive symptoms, and anxiety symptoms on suicidal ideation within each group according to the presence or absence of a history of ET. @*Results@#Structural equation modeling with anxiety and depressive symptoms as potential mediators showed a good fit. Recent stress had a direct effect on both depressive symptoms and anxiety symptoms in both groups. Only anxiety symptoms for victims of ET (standardized regression weight, 0.281; P = 0.005) and depressive symptoms for non-victims of ET (standardized regression weight, 0.326; P = 0.003) were full mediators that increased suicidal ideation. Thus, stress contributed to suicidal ideation by increasing the level of anxiety and depressive symptoms for victims and non-victims, respectively. @*Conclusion@#Tailored strategies to reduce suicidal ideation should be implemented according to group type, victims or non-victims of ET. Beyond educating suicidal women in stressmanagement techniques, it would be effective to decrease anxiety symptoms for those with a history of ET and decrease depressive symptoms for those without such a history.

11.
Journal of Korean Geriatric Psychiatry ; : 1-9, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-836004

ABSTRACT

Objective@#We investigated the frequency of depressive disorders in the elderly with normal cognition (NC), mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and dementia patients living in the community to find out the association between cognitive disorders and depressive disorders in the community dwelling elderly. @*Methods@#6,262 baseline study subjects from November 2010 through October 2012 were enrolled based on the Korean longitudinal study on cognitive aging and dementia which is the first nationwide multi-center population based prospective cohort study in Korea. Diagnosis of MCI, dementia, major depressive disorder (MDD), minor depressive disorder (mDD) and subsyndromal depression (SSD) was made by psychiatrists with expertise in dementia based on the appropriate diagnostic criteria. @*Results@#4,303 NC, 1,737 MCI, 222 dementia were enrolled. The frequency of MDD, mDD, SSD were highest in dementia and lowest in NC and showed significant difference among three groups. The odds ratio also increased significantly in MCI and dementia compared with NC showing highest odds ratio in dementia. @*Conclusion@#Our findings propose that MCI and dementia in the community dwelling elderly were significantly associated with various types of depressive disorders showing highest association tendency in dementia.

12.
Psychiatry Investigation ; : 21-28, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-832519

ABSTRACT

Objective@#Cardiovascular diseases are representative risk factors for the onset of cognitive decline. The purpose of this study was to confirm the relationship between diastolic blood pressure and cognitive function in elderly people in Korea. @*Methods@#Data from subjects who were enrolled in the prospective Korean Longitudinal Study on Cognitive Aging and Dementia were used in this study. Data from 701 subjects whose diastolic blood pressure range did not change (≤79 mm Hg or ≥80 mm Hg) over 2 years were analyzed. To analyze the differences in cognitive function between the groups at the 2-year follow-up, an analysis of covariance was performed with covariates, which were significantly different between the two groups, and the baseline cognitive function. @*Results@#Significant differences were observed between the two groups, and the mean scores on the constructional praxis (η2=0.010) and word list recall tests (η2=0.018) in the diastolic blood pressure ≥80 mm Hg group were higher than those in the diastolic blood pressure ≤79 mm Hg group at the 2-year follow-up. @*Conclusion@#These results indicate that maintaining a DBP below 79 mm Hg presents a greater risk of cognitive decline in Korean elderly people.

13.
Psychiatry Investigation ; : 744-750, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-832499

ABSTRACT

Objective@#This study estimated the incidence of driving-related adverse events and examined the association of cognitive function with the risk of future driving-related adverse events in the elderly Korean male population. @*Methods@#We analyzed 1,172 male drivers aged 60 years or older in the Korean Longitudinal Study on Cognitive Aging and Dementia (KLOSCAD). Using the data from Korean National Police Agency, we classified the participants into three groups: safe driving (drove for 2 years after baseline without a traffic accident or repeated violations), driving cessation (stopped driving), and risky driving (one or more traffic accidents or repeated violations). We estimated the incidences of driving cessation and risky driving, and examined the effect of cognitive function on their risks. @*Results@#The incidence of driving cessation and risky driving in the Korean male drivers aged 60 years or older was 19.3 and 69.9 per 1,000 person-years respectively and increased in the late 80s. Drivers with better baseline Word List Memory Test scores showed less risky driving (OR=0.94, p=0.039). @*Conclusion@#Driving-related adverse events increased in late 80s, and better memory function was protective against these events.

14.
Journal of Korean Neuropsychiatric Association ; : 303-310, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-900075

ABSTRACT

Objectives@#The aim of this study was to investigate elementary school teachers' knowledge and perception of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Variables associated with the teacher's tendency to recommend treatment to parents of the ADHD children were also evaluated. @*Methods@#A total of 73 elementary-school teachers completed a self-questionnaire regarding their demographic characteristics, previous experience, and perception of ADHD children. Knowledge of the Attention Deficit Disorders Scale (KADDS) was used to examine the participants' level of knowledge of ADHD. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed to identify the variables associated with the participants' tendency to recommend treatment to parents of ADHD students. @*Results@#The average correct rate was 64.4% on the KADDS. 64 (87.7%) participants had a positive perception of medical treatments of ADHD, but only 41 (56.2%) participants reported that they would recommend treatment to parents of ADHD children. Teachers that were older and married were more likely to recommend treatment. The teacher's sense of efficacy was found to have a positive association with the tendency to recommend treatment to parents. @*Conclusion@#Educational programs and specific guidelines that can improve the knowledge of ADHD and self-efficacy as a teacher are needed for elementary school teachers. Teachers should understand that they have significant roles in the management of ADHD children.

15.
Journal of Korean Neuropsychiatric Association ; : 303-310, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-892371

ABSTRACT

Objectives@#The aim of this study was to investigate elementary school teachers' knowledge and perception of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Variables associated with the teacher's tendency to recommend treatment to parents of the ADHD children were also evaluated. @*Methods@#A total of 73 elementary-school teachers completed a self-questionnaire regarding their demographic characteristics, previous experience, and perception of ADHD children. Knowledge of the Attention Deficit Disorders Scale (KADDS) was used to examine the participants' level of knowledge of ADHD. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed to identify the variables associated with the participants' tendency to recommend treatment to parents of ADHD students. @*Results@#The average correct rate was 64.4% on the KADDS. 64 (87.7%) participants had a positive perception of medical treatments of ADHD, but only 41 (56.2%) participants reported that they would recommend treatment to parents of ADHD children. Teachers that were older and married were more likely to recommend treatment. The teacher's sense of efficacy was found to have a positive association with the tendency to recommend treatment to parents. @*Conclusion@#Educational programs and specific guidelines that can improve the knowledge of ADHD and self-efficacy as a teacher are needed for elementary school teachers. Teachers should understand that they have significant roles in the management of ADHD children.

16.
Psychiatry Investigation ; : 575-580, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760974

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: We investigated the impact of depressed mood (dysphoria) and loss of interest or pleasure (anhedonia)on the risk of dementia in cognitively-normal elderly individuals. METHODS: This study included 2,685 cognitively-normal elderly individuals who completed the baseline and 4-year follow-up assessments of the Korean Longitudinal Study on Cognitive Aging and Dementia. We ascertained the presence of dysphoria and anhedonia using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Inventory. We defined subjective cognitive decline as the presence of subjective cognitive complaints without objective cognitive impairments. We analyzed the association of dysphoria and anhedonia with the risk of cognitive disorders using multinomial logistic regression analysis adjusted for age, sex, education, Cumulative Illness Rating Scale score, Apolipoprotein E genotype, and neuropsychological test performance. RESULTS: During the 4-year follow-up period, anhedonia was associated with an approximately twofold higher risk of mild cognitive impairment (OR=2.09, 95% CI=1.20–3.64, p=0.008) and fivefold higher risk of dementia (OR=5.07, 95% CI=1.44–17.92, p=0.012) but was not associated with the risk of subjective cognitive decline. In contrast, dysphoria was associated with an approximately twofold higher risk of subjective cognitive decline (OR=2.06, 95% CI=1.33–3.19, p=0.001) and 1.7-fold higher risk of mild cognitive impairment (OR=1.75, 95% CI=1.00–3.05, p=0.048) but was not associated with the risk of dementia. CONCLUSION: Anhedonia, but not dysphoria, is a risk factor of dementia in cognitively-normal elderly individuals.


Subject(s)
Aged , Humans , Anhedonia , Apolipoproteins , Cognition Disorders , Cognitive Aging , Cohort Studies , Dementia , Depression , Education , Follow-Up Studies , Genotype , Logistic Models , Longitudinal Studies , Cognitive Dysfunction , Neuropsychological Tests , Pleasure , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors
17.
Psychiatry Investigation ; : 625-628, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760966

ABSTRACT

The purpose of the present study was to examine the severity of suicidal ideation of the older adults according to the amount of involvement in grandchild care. Data for this research were drawn from a cross-sectional study conducted on community-dwelling adults aged 65 years or older. The 922 participants were divided into three groups according to their involvement in grandchild care: 18.5% had provided daily care, 12.4% had provided occasional care, and 69.1% had never cared for their grandchildren. ANCOVA analysis showed that the scores for depression was significantly lower in the group which took care of their grandchildren occasionally compared to the other two groups. The scores for suicidal ideation was significantly higher in the group which had never taken care of their grandchildren compared to the other two groups. Current study suggests that grandparenting may have a positive effect on suicidal ideation of the older adults.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Humans , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression , Suicidal Ideation
18.
Psychiatry Investigation ; : 532-538, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760957

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to examine the association between normal-but-low folate levels and cognitive function in the elderly population using a prospective cohort study. METHODS: We analyzed 3,910 participants whose serum folate levels were within the normal reference range (1.5–16.9 ng/mL) at baseline evaluation in the population-based prospective cohort study named the “Korean Longitudinal Study on Cognitive Aging and Dementia.” The association between baseline folate quartile categories and baseline cognitive disorders [mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or dementia] was examined using binary logistic regression analysis adjusting for confounding variables. The risks of incident MCI and dementia associated with the decline of serum folate level during a 4-year follow-up period were examined using multinomial logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: The lowest quartile group of serum folate (≥1.5, ≤5.9 ng/mL) showed a higher risk of cognitive disorders than did the highest quartile group at baseline evaluation (odds ratio 1.314, p=0.012). Over the 4 years of follow-up, the risk of incident dementia was 2.364 times higher among subjects whose serum folate levels declined from the 2nd–4th quartile group to the 1st quartile than among those for whom it did not (p=0.031). CONCLUSION: Normal-but-low serum folate levels were associated with the risk of cognitive disorders in the elderly population, and a decline to normal-but-low serum folate levels was associated with incident dementia. Maintaining serum folate concentration above 5.9 ng/mL may be beneficial for cognitive status.


Subject(s)
Aged , Humans , Cognition , Cognition Disorders , Cognitive Aging , Cohort Studies , Dementia , Folic Acid , Follow-Up Studies , Logistic Models , Longitudinal Studies , Prospective Studies , Reference Values
19.
Journal of Korean Neuropsychiatric Association ; : 331-338, 2019.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-915553

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#Many studies have demonstrated comorbidities and overlapping symptoms in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD). The purpose of this study was to examine the functional impairment in subjects with ADHD, ODD, and in those with both ADHD and ODD.@*METHODS@#172 male subjects, aged 6 to 15 years old, were enrolled in this study. Based on diagnoses made by applying the Kiddie-Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia-Present and Lifetime (K-SADS-PL), the subjects were categorized into four groups: ADHD group (n=64), ODD group (n=17), ADHD+ODD group (n=28), and control group (n=63). The Child and Adolescent Functioning Impairment Scale (CAFIS) was used to measure the functional impairment of the subjects. CAFIS consists of four subscales : Family relationship, Teacher relationship, Peer relationship, and Academic achievement scales. A high CAFIS score implies high functional impairment. Analysis of covariance was conducted to compare the scores between the four groups.@*RESULTS@#Both the ODD and the ADHD+ODD groups had significantly high scores for Parent relationship compared to that of the ADHD group. Compared to the control group, both the ADHD and the ADHD+ODD group had significantly higher scores for Peer relationship and Academic achievement, whereas, the ODD group showed no significant difference from the control group on those two subscales.@*CONCLUSION@#The present study showed that subjects with ADHD and ODD have different functional impairment characteristics. The subjects' relationships with their parents were worsened by the presence of ODD. Peer relationships and Academic achievements were significantly affected by the presence of ADHD.

20.
Psychiatry Investigation ; : 767-774, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-716402

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Due to an unprecedented rate of population aging, South Korea is facing a dementia epidemic. For this reason, the Korean Longitudinal Study on Cognitive Aging and Dementia (KLOSCAD) was launched in 2009 with support from the Korean Health Industry Development Institute to investigate the epidemiology, biopsychosocial risk factors, and outcomes of dementia and dementia-related conditions. METHODS: The KLOSCAD is the first nationwide multi-center population-based prospective cohort study. In October 2010, 12,694 individuals were randomly sampled from residents aged 60 years or older who lived in 13 districts across South Korea. In the baseline assessment, which was conducted from November 2010 through October 2012, 6,818 (53.7%) individuals participated. Follow-up assessments have been conducted every two years, with the first follow-up assessment conducted between November 2012 and October 2014, and the second between November 2014 and October 2016. The third is now in progress, and will span from November 2016 to October 2018. Diagnosis of cognitive disorders, neuropsychological battery, behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia, activities of daily living, physical and neurologic examination and laboratory tests, life styles, quality of life, and identification of death were evaluated in each assessment. RESULTS: The cumulative drop-out rate at the second follow-up assessment was 38.7%. Dementia and mild cognitive impairment were 5.0% and 27.0%, respectively. CONCLUSION: The KLOSCAD may provide strong scientific evidence for advancing the fight against dementia both in Korea and globally.


Subject(s)
Activities of Daily Living , Aging , Cognitive Aging , Cohort Studies , Dementia , Diagnosis , Epidemiology , Follow-Up Studies , Korea , Life Style , Longitudinal Studies , Cognitive Dysfunction , Neurologic Examination , Prospective Studies , Quality of Life , Risk Factors
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