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1.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-830639

ABSTRACT

Primary lung cancer commonly metastasizes to the brain, bones, liver, and adrenal glands. In some cases, bone metastasis serves as the first presenting sign of lung cancer with bone pain and headache, but it is not common. The incidence of skull metastasis in lung squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is low, and there have been only a few cases of skull metastases serving as the first sign of malignancy with skull mass and epidural bleeding; however, no similar cases have been reported regarding that of hematoma. We report a case of an 84-year-old man who first presented with a simple forehead hematoma and was eventually diagnosed with SCC of the lung.

2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-739672

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There has been no practical guidelines for the management of patients with central nervous system (CNS) tumors in Korea for many years. Thus, the Korean Society for Neuro-Oncology (KSNO), a multidisciplinary academic society, started to prepare guidelines for CNS tumors from February 2018. METHODS: The Working Group was composed of 35 multidisciplinary medical experts in Korea. References were identified through searches of PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane CENTRAL using specific and sensitive keywords as well as combinations of keywords. RESULTS: First, the maximal safe resection if feasible is recommended. After the diagnosis of a glioblastoma with neurosurgical intervention, patients aged ≤70 years with good performance should be treated by concurrent chemoradiotherapy with temozolomide followed by adjuvant temozolomide chemotherapy (Stupp's protocol) or standard brain radiotherapy alone. However, those with poor performance should be treated by hypofractionated brain radiotherapy (preferred)±concurrent or adjuvant temozolomide, temozolomide alone (Level III), or supportive treatment. Alternatively, patients aged >70 years with good performance should be treated by hypofractionated brain radiotherapy+concurrent and adjuvant temozolomide or Stupp's protocol or hypofractionated brain radiotherapy alone, while those with poor performance should be treated by hypofractionated brain radiotherapy alone or temozolomide chemotherapy if the patient has methylated MGMT gene promoter (Level III), or supportive treatment. CONCLUSION: The KSNO's guideline recommends that glioblastomas should be treated by maximal safe resection, if feasible, followed by radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy according to the individual comprehensive condition of the patient.


Subject(s)
Brain , Central Nervous System , Chemoradiotherapy , Diagnosis , Drug Therapy , Glioblastoma , Humans , Korea , Radiotherapy
3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763112

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There was no practical guideline for the management of patients with central nervous system tumor in Korea in the past. Thus, the Korean Society for Neuro-Oncology (KSNO), a multidisciplinary academic society, developed the guideline for glioblastoma successfully and published it in Brain Tumor Research and Treatment, the official journal of KSNO, in April 2019. Recently, the KSNO guideline for World Health Organization (WHO) grade III cerebral glioma in adults has been established. METHODS: The Working Group was composed of 35 multidisciplinary medical experts in Korea. References were identified by searches in PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane CENTRAL databases using specific and sensitive keywords as well as combinations of keywords. Scope of the disease was confined to cerebral anaplastic astrocytoma and oligodendroglioma in adults. RESULTS: Whenever radiological feature suggests high grade glioma, maximal safe resection if feasible is globally recommended. After molecular and histological examinations, patients with anaplastic astrocytoma, isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH)-mutant should be primary treated by standard brain radiotherapy and adjuvant temozolomide chemotherapy whereas those with anaplastic astrocytoma, NOS, and anaplastic astrocytoma, IDH-wildtype should be treated following the protocol for glioblastomas. In terms of anaplastic oligodendroglioma, IDH-mutant and 1p19q-codeletion, and anaplastic oligodendroglioma, NOS should be primary treated by standard brain radiotherapy and neoadjuvant or adjuvant PCV (procarbazine, lomustine, and vincristine) combination chemotherapy. CONCLUSION: The KSNO's guideline recommends that WHO grade III cerebral glioma of adults should be treated by maximal safe resection if feasible, followed by radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy according to molecular and histological features of tumors.


Subject(s)
Adult , Astrocytoma , Brain , Brain Neoplasms , Central Nervous System , Drug Therapy , Drug Therapy, Combination , Glioblastoma , Glioma , Humans , Isocitrate Dehydrogenase , Korea , Lomustine , Oligodendroglioma , Radiotherapy , World Health Organization
4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763111

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There was no practical guideline for the management of patients with central nervous system tumor in Korea for many years. Thus, the Korean Society for Neuro-Oncology (KSNO), a multidisciplinary academic society, has developed the guideline for glioblastoma. Subsequently, the KSNO guideline for World Health Organization (WHO) grade II cerebral glioma in adults is established. METHODS: The Working Group was composed of 35 multidisciplinary medical experts in Korea. References were identified by searching PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane CENTRAL databases using specific and sensitive keywords as well as combinations of keywords regarding diffuse astrocytoma and oligodendroglioma of brain in adults. RESULTS: Whenever radiological feature suggests lower grade glioma, the maximal safe resection if feasible is recommended globally. After molecular and histological examinations, patients with diffuse astrocytoma, isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH)-wildtype without molecular feature of glioblastoma should be primarily treated by standard brain radiotherapy and adjuvant temozolomide chemotherapy (Level III) while those with molecular feature of glioblastoma should be treated following the protocol for glioblastomas. In terms of patients with diffuse astrocytoma, IDH-mutant and oligodendroglioma (IDH-mutant and 1p19q codeletion), standard brain radiotherapy and adjuvant PCV (procarbazine+lomustine+vincristine) combination chemotherapy should be considered primarily for the high-risk group while observation with regular follow up should be considered for the low-risk group. CONCLUSION: The KSNO's guideline recommends that WHO grade II gliomas should be treated by maximal safe resection, if feasible, followed by radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy according to molecular and histological features of tumors and clinical characteristics of patients.


Subject(s)
Adult , Astrocytoma , Brain , Central Nervous System , Drug Therapy , Drug Therapy, Combination , Follow-Up Studies , Glioblastoma , Glioma , Humans , Isocitrate Dehydrogenase , Korea , Oligodendroglioma , Radiotherapy , World Health Organization
5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-714344

ABSTRACT

Diffusion-tensor imaging (DTI) is a noninvasive medical imaging tool used to investigate the structure of white matter. The signal contrast in DTI is generated by differences in the Brownian motion of the water molecules in brain tissue. Postprocessed DTI scalars can be used to evaluate changes in the brain tissue caused by disease, disease progression, and treatment responses, which has led to an enormous amount of interest in DTI in clinical research. This review article provides insights into DTI scalars and the biological background of DTI as a relatively new neuroimaging modality. Further, it summarizes the clinical role of DTI in various disease processes such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's dementia, epilepsy, ischemic stroke, stroke with motor or language impairment, traumatic brain injury, spinal cord injury, and depression. Valuable DTI postprocessing tools for clinical research are also introduced.


Subject(s)
Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis , Brain , Brain Injuries , Dementia , Depression , Diagnostic Imaging , Disease Progression , Epilepsy , Multiple Sclerosis , Nervous System Diseases , Neuroimaging , Parkinson Disease , Spinal Cord Injuries , Stroke , Water , White Matter
6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-101944

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Homeobox (HOX) genes are essential developmental regulators that should normally be in the silenced state in an adult brain. The aberrant expression of HOX genes has been associated with the prognosis of many cancer types, including glioblastoma (GBM). This study examined the identity and role of HOX genes affecting GBM prognosis and treatment resistance. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The full series of HOX genes of five pairs of initial and recurrent human GBM samples were screened by microarray analysis to determine the most plausible candidate responsible for GBM prognosis. Another 20 newly diagnosed GBM samples were used for prognostic validation. In vitro experiments were performed to confirm the role of HOX in treatment resistance. Mediators involved in HOX gene regulation were searched using differentially expressed gene analysis, gene set enrichment tests, and network analysis. RESULTS: The underexpression of HOXA11 was identified as a consistent signature for a poor prognosis among the HOX genes. The overall survival of the GBM patients indicated a significantly favorable prognosis in patients with high HOXA11 expression (31±15.3 months) compared to the prognoses in thosewith low HOXA11 expression (18±7.3 months, p=0.03). When HOXA11 was suppressed in the GBM cell lines, the anticancer effect of radiotherapy and/or temozolomide declined. In addition, five candidate mediators (TGFBR2, CRIM1, TXNIP, DPYSL2, and CRMP1) that may confer an oncologic effect after HOXA11 suppression were identified. CONCLUSION: The treatment resistance induced by the underexpression of HOXA11 can contribute to a poor prognosis in GBM. Further investigation will be needed to confirm the value of HOXA11 as a potential target for overcoming the treatment resistance by developing chemo- or radiosensitizers.


Subject(s)
Adult , Brain , Cell Line , Genes, Homeobox , Glioblastoma , Humans , In Vitro Techniques , Microarray Analysis , Prognosis , Radiotherapy
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-6981

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the feasibility and survival benefits of combined treatment with radiotherapy and adjuvant temozolomide (TMZ) in a Korean sample. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 750 Korean patients with histologically confirmed glioblastoma multiforme, who received concurrent chemoradiotherapy with TMZ (CCRT) and adjuvant TMZ from January 2006 until June 2011, were analyzed retrospectively. RESULTS: After the first operation, a gross total resection (GTR), subtotal resection (STR), partial resection (PR), biopsy alone were achieved in 388 (51.7%), 159 (21.2%), 96 (12.8%), and 107 (14.3%) patients, respectively. The methylation status of O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) was reviewed retrospectively in 217 patients. The median follow-up period was 16.3 months and the median overall survival (OS) was 17.5 months. The actuarial survival rates at the 1-, 3-, and 5-year OS were 72.1%, 21.0%, and 9.0%, respectively. The median progression-free survival (PFS) was 10.1 months, and the actuarial PFS at 1-, 3-, and 5-year PFS were 42.2%, 13.0%, and 7.8%, respectively. The patients who received GTR showed a significantly longer OS and PFS than those who received STR, PR, or biopsy alone, regardless of the methylation status of the MGMT promoter. Patients with a methylated MGMT promoter also showed a significantly longer OS and PFS than those with an unmethylated MGMT promoter. Patients who received more than six cycles of adjuvant TMZ had a longer OS and PFS than those who received six or fewer cycles. Hematologic toxicity of grade 3 or 4 was observed in 8.4% of patients during the CCRT period and in 10.2% during the adjuvant TMZ period. CONCLUSION: Patients treated with CCRT followed by adjuvant TMZ had more favorable survival rates and tolerable toxicity than those who did not undergo this treatment.


Subject(s)
Biopsy , Chemoradiotherapy , Disease-Free Survival , Follow-Up Studies , Glioblastoma , Humans , Korea , Methylation , Radiotherapy , Retrospective Studies , Survival Rate
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-27922

ABSTRACT

When treating childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), secondary neoplasms are a significant long term problem. Radiation is generally accepted to be a major cause of the development of secondary neoplasms. Following treatment for ALL, a variety of secondary tumors, including brain tumors, hematologic malignancies, sarcomas, thyroid cancers, and skin cancers have been reported. However, oligodendroglioma as a secondary neoplasm is extremely rare. Herein we present a case of secondary oligodendroglioma occurring 13 years after the end of ALL treatment.


Subject(s)
Brain Neoplasms , Global Health , Hematologic Neoplasms , Leukemia , Oligodendroglioma , Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma , Sarcoma , Skin Neoplasms , Thyroid Neoplasms , World Health Organization
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-199035

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Capsular contracture is the most troublesome complication in breast implant surgery. Although capsule formation can be seen as a normal reaction to a foreign body, it can induce pain, hardness, deformity, and other pathologic problems. Surgical intervention is required in severe cases, but even surgery cannot guarantee a successful outcome without recurrence. This experimental study confirms that single topical administration of leukotriene antagonist zafirlukast (Accolate, Astrazeneca) reduces peri-implant capsule formation and prevents capsular contracture. METHODS: Twelve smooth-surfaced cohesive gel implants were implanted in New Zealand White rabbits. These miniature implants were designed to be identical to currently used products for breast augmentation. The rabbits were divided into 2 groups. In the experimental group (n=6), the implant and normal saline with zafirlukast were inserted in the submuscular pocket. In the control group (n=6), the implant and normal saline alone were used. Two months later, the implants with peri-implant capsule were excised. We evaluated capsule thickness and collagen pattern and performed immunohistochemical staining of myofibroblasts, transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta1, 2. RESULTS: The thickness of the capsules in the experimental group was reduced in both dorsal and ventral directions. The collagen pattern showed parallel alignment with low density, and the number of myofibroblasts as well as the amounts of TGF-beta1 and TGF-beta2 were reduced in the experimental group. CONCLUSIONS: We suggest that single topical administration of leukotriene antagonist zafirlukast can be helpful in reducing capsule formation and preventing capsular contracture via myofibroblast suppression, modulation of fibroblastic cytokines, and anti-inflammatory effect.


Subject(s)
Administration, Topical , Breast , Breast Implants , Capsules , Collagen , Congenital Abnormalities , Contracture , Cytokines , Fibroblasts , Foreign Bodies , Hardness , Implant Capsular Contracture , Myofibroblasts , Rabbits , Recurrence , Transforming Growth Factor beta1 , Transforming Growth Factor beta2 , Transforming Growth Factors
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-57666

ABSTRACT

Intracisternal accessory nerve schwannomas are very rare; only 18 cases have been reported in the literature. In the majority of cases, the tumor origin was the spinal root of the accessory nerve and the tumors usually presented with symptoms and signs of intracranial hypertension, cerebellar ataxia, and myelopathy. Here, we report a unique case of an intracisternal schwannoma arising from the cranial root of the accessory nerve in a 58-year-old woman. The patient presented with the atypical symptom of hoarseness associated with recurrent laryngeal neuropathy which is noted by needle electromyography, and mild hypesthesia on the left side of her body. The tumor was completely removed with sacrifice of the originating nerve rootlet, but no additional neurological deficits. In this report, we describe the anatomical basis for the patient's unusual clinical symptoms and discuss the feasibility and safety of sacrificing the cranial rootlet of the accessory nerve in an effort to achieve total tumor resection. To our knowledge, this is the first case of schwannoma originating from the cranial root of the accessory nerve that has been associated with the symptoms of recurrent laryngeal neuropathy.


Subject(s)
Accessory Nerve , Cerebellar Ataxia , Electromyography , Female , Hoarseness , Humans , Hypesthesia , Intracranial Hypertension , Middle Aged , Needles , Neurilemmoma , Spinal Cord Diseases , Spinal Nerve Roots
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-106233

ABSTRACT

Dermoid cysts are rare congenital tumors that occur primarily at the midline at a characteristic intradural location. However, dermoid cysts located at extradural and lateral regions have been rarely reported until now. In the present study, the authors demonstrate the unusual instance of an intracranial extradural dermoid cyst at the lateral sphenoid ridge. A 53-year-old woman admitted because of progressive headache and dizziness. The patient had no neurologic deficits, and magnetic resonance imaging with no contrast enhancement revealed a mass at the right sphenoid ridge. The mass was accompanied with sphenoid bone erosion visible on computed tomography. The patient underwent right pterional craniotomy, and the tumor including the capsule was totally resected. Presence of a dermoid cyst was confirmed with histopathological examination. The patient had no complications during the postoperative period. This study suggests that dermoid cyst should be considered for differential diagnosis of extradural and lateral intracranial masses.


Subject(s)
Craniotomy , Dermoid Cyst , Diagnosis, Differential , Dizziness , Female , Headache , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Middle Aged , Neurologic Manifestations , Postoperative Period , Sphenoid Bone
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-114568

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to describe the clinical characteristics, treatment outcomes, and prognostic factors in patients with brain abscesses treated in a single institute during a recent 10-year period. METHODS: Fifty-one patients with brain abscesses who underwent navigation-assisted abscess aspiration with antibiotic treatment were included in this study. Variable parameters were collected from the patients' medical records and radiological data. A comparison was made between patients with favorable [Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS) > or =4] and unfavorable (GOS or =13) and 24 patients (47%) had predisposing factors. The offending microorganisms were identified in 25 patients (49%), and Streptococcus species were the most commonly isolated bacteria (27%). The mean duration of antibiotic administration was 42 days. At discharge, 41 patients had a favorable outcome and 10 had an unfavorable outcome including 8 deaths. The decreased level of consciousness (GCS or =140 mg/dL) was an independent risk factor for prolonged antibiotic therapy (p=0.032). CONCLUSION: We found that the level of consciousness at admission was associated with treatment outcomes in patients with brain abscesses. Furthermore, initial hyperglycemia was closely related to the long-term use of antibiotic agents.


Subject(s)
Abscess , Bacteria , Brain Abscess , Causality , Consciousness , Female , Glasgow Coma Scale , Glasgow Outcome Scale , Humans , Hyperglycemia , Male , Medical Records , Risk Factors , Streptococcus
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-33339

ABSTRACT

Diagnosis of cerebral syphilitic gumma is frequently determined at the time of surgery, because imaging and laboratory findings demonstrate the elusive results. A 59-year-old woman presenting dysarthria showed a mass on her brain computed tomography. She was first suspected of brain tumor, but histological results from surgical resection revealed cerebral gumma due to neurosyphilis. After operation, she presented fever and rash with an infiltration on a chest X-ray. Histological assessment of skin was consistent with syphilis. Fluorescent treponemal antibody absorbed test IgG in cerebrospinal fluid was positive. She was successfully treated with ceftriaxone for 14 days.


Subject(s)
Brain , Brain Neoplasms , Ceftriaxone , Dysarthria , Exanthema , Female , Fever , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , Neurosyphilis , Recurrence , Skin , Syphilis , Syphilis, Latent , Thorax
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-85118

ABSTRACT

Here, we report a rare case of an anaplastic astrocytoma masquerading as a hypertensive basal ganglia hemorrhage. A 69-year-old woman who had been under medical management for hypertension during the past 3 years suddenly developed right hemiparesis with dysarthria. Brain computed tomography (CT) scans with contrast and CT angiograms revealed an intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) in the left basal ganglia, without an underlying lesion. She was treated conservatively, but underwent a ventriculoperitoneal shunt operation 3 months after the initial attack due to deteriorated mental status and chronic hydrocephalus. Three months later, her mental status deteriorated further. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with gadolinium demonstrated an irregular enhanced mass in which the previous hemorrhage occurred. The final histological diagnosis which made by stereotactic biopsy was an anaplastic astrocytoma. In the present case, the diagnosis of a high grade glioma was delayed due to tumor bleeding mimicking hypertensive ICH. Thus, a careful review of neuroradiological images including MRI with a suspicion of tumor bleeding is needed even in the patients with past medical history of hypertension.


Subject(s)
Aged , Astrocytoma , Basal Ganglia , Basal Ganglia Hemorrhage , Biopsy , Brain , Brain Neoplasms , Cerebral Hemorrhage , Dysarthria , Female , Gadolinium , Glioma , Hemorrhage , Humans , Hydrocephalus , Hypertension , Intracranial Hemorrhage, Hypertensive , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Paresis , Ventriculoperitoneal Shunt
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-52851

ABSTRACT

As a rare cerebrovascular disease, cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT) is caused by various conditions including trauma, infection, oral contraceptive, cancer and hematologic disorders. However, iron deficiency anemia is not a common cause for CVT in adult. Posterior fossa infarction following CVT is not well demonstrated because posterior fossa has abundant collateral vessels. Here, we report a case of a 55-year-old man who was admitted with complaints of headache, nausea, and mild dizziness. The patient was diagnosed with isolated lateral sinus thrombosis presenting as cerebellar infarction. Laboratory findings revealed normocytic normochromic anemia due to iron deficiency, and the patient's symptoms were improved after iron supplementation.


Subject(s)
Adult , Anemia , Anemia, Iron-Deficiency , Dizziness , Headache , Humans , Infarction , Iron , Lateral Sinus Thrombosis , Middle Aged , Nausea , Thrombosis , Transverse Sinuses , Venous Thrombosis
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-162923

ABSTRACT

The aneurysm arising from fenestrated proximal anterior cerebral artery (ACA) is considered to be unique. The authors report a case of a 59-year-old woman who presented with a subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) secondary to a ruptured aneurysm originating from the fenestrated A1 segment of right ACA. The patient had another unruptured aneurysm which was located at the right middle cerebral artery bifurcation. She was successfully treated with surgical clipping for both aneurysms. From the previously existing literatures, we found 18 more cases (1983-2011) of aneurysms associated with fenestrated A1 segment. All cases represented saccular type of aneurysms, and 79% of the patients had SAH. There were three subtypes of the fenestrated A1 aneurysms depending on the anatomical location, relative to the fenestrated segment. The most common type was the aneurysms located on the proximal end of fenestrated artery (82%). Azygos ACA and hypoplastic A1 were frequently accompanied by the aneurysm (33% and 31%, respectively), and multiple aneurysms were shown in three cases (16%). Considering that fenestrated A1 segment is likely to develop an aneurysm, which has high risk of rupture, early management may benefit patients with aneurysms accompanied by fenestrated proximal ACA.


Subject(s)
Aneurysm , Aneurysm, Ruptured , Anterior Cerebral Artery , Arteries , Female , Humans , Intracranial Aneurysm , Middle Cerebral Artery , Rupture , Subarachnoid Hemorrhage , Surgical Instruments
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-45152

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to determine the association between the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers and inflammation, and the predictive value of these CSF biomarkers for subsequent shunt associated infection. METHODS: We obtained CSF samples from the patients with hydrocephalus during ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt operations. Twenty-two patients were enrolled for this study and divided into 3 groups: subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH)-induced hydrocephalus, idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (INPH) and hydrocephalus with a subsequent shunt infection. We analyzed the transforming growth factor-beta1, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and total tau in the CSF by performing enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The subsequent development of shunt infection was confirmed by the clinical presentations, the CSF parameters and CSF culture from the shunt devices. RESULTS: The mean VEGF concentration (+/-standard deviation) in the CSF of the SAH-induced hydrocephalus, INPH and shunt infection groups was 236+/-138, 237+/-80 and 627+/-391 pg/mL, respectively. There was a significant difference among the three groups (p=0.01). Between the SAH-induced hydrocephalus and infection groups and between the INPH and infection groups, there was a significant difference of the VEGF levels (p<0.01). However, the other marker levels did not differ among them. CONCLUSION: The present study showed that only the CSF VEGF levels are associated with the subsequent development of shunt infection. Our results suggest that increased CSF VEGF could provide a good condition for bacteria that are introduced at the time of surgery to grow in the brain, rather than reflecting a sequel of bacterial infection before VP shunt.


Subject(s)
Bacteria , Bacterial Infections , Biomarkers , Brain , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Humans , Hydrocephalus , Hydrocephalus, Normal Pressure , Inflammation , Subarachnoid Hemorrhage , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A , Ventriculoperitoneal Shunt
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-127998

ABSTRACT

We report here on a rare case of a ruptured basilar tip aneurysm that was successfully treated with coil embolization in the bilateral cervical internal carotid artery (ICA) occlusions with abnormal vascular networks from the posterior circulation. A 43-year old man with a familial history of moyamoya disease presented with subarachnoid hemorrhage. Digital subtraction angiography demonstrated complete occlusion of the bilateral ICAs at the proximal portion and a ruptured aneurysm at the basilar artery bifurcation. Each meningeal artery supplied the anterior cranial base, but most of both hemispheres were supplied with blood from the basilar artery and the posterior cerebral arteries through a large number of collateral vessels to the ICA bifurcation as well as the anterior cerebral and middle cerebral arteries. The perfusion computed tomography (CT) scans with acetazolamide (ACZ) injection revealed no reduction of cerebral blood flow and normal cerebrovascular reactivity to ACZ. An abdominal CT aortogram showed no other extracranial vessel abnormalities. A ruptured basilar tip aneurysm was successfully treated with coil embolization without complications. Endovascular embolization may be a good treatment option with excellent safety for a ruptured basilar tip aneurysm that accompanies proximal ICA occlusion with vulnerable collateral flow.


Subject(s)
Acetazolamide , Aneurysm , Aneurysm, Ruptured , Angiography, Digital Subtraction , Basilar Artery , Carotid Artery, Internal , Collateral Circulation , Glycosaminoglycans , Meningeal Arteries , Middle Cerebral Artery , Moyamoya Disease , Perfusion , Posterior Cerebral Artery , Skull Base , Subarachnoid Hemorrhage
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-178295

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The prefabrication of customized cranioplastic implants has been introduced to overcome the difficulties of intra-operative implant molding. The authors present a new technique, which consists of the prefabrication of implant molds using three-dimensional (3D) printers and polymethyl-methacrylate (PMMA) casting. METHODS: A total of 16 patients with large skull defects (>100 cm2) underwent cranioplasty between November 2009 and April 2011. For unilateral cranial defects, 3D images of the skull were obtained from preoperative axial 1-mm spiral computed tomography (CT) scans. The image of the implant was generated by a digital subtraction mirror-imaging process using the normal side of the cranium as a model. For bilateral cranial defects, precraniectomy routine spiral CT scan data were merged with postcraniectomy 3D CT images following a smoothing process. Prefabrication of the mold was performed by the 3D printer. Intraoperatively, the PMMA implant was created with the prefabricated mold, and fit into the cranial defect. RESULTS: The median operation time was 184.36+/-26.07 minutes. Postoperative CT scans showed excellent restoration of the symmetrical contours and curvature of the cranium in all cases. The median follow-up period was 23 months (range, 14-28 months). Postoperative infection was developed in one case (6.2%) who had an open wound defect previously. CONCLUSION: Customized cranioplasty PMMA implants using 3D printer may be a useful technique for the reconstruction of various cranial defects.


Subject(s)
Computer-Aided Design , Decompressive Craniectomy , Follow-Up Studies , Fungi , Humans , Methylmethacrylate , Polymethyl Methacrylate , Reconstructive Surgical Procedures , Skull , Tomography, Spiral Computed
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-22529

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the role of intra-arterial (IA) nimodipine injections for cerebral vasospasm secondary to ruptured subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) and to investigate the factors that influence vasodilation and clinical outcomes. METHODS: We enrolled 29 patients who underwent aneurysm clipping for ruptured cerebral aneurysms between 2009 and 2011, and who received IA nimodipine after subsequently presenting with symptomatic vasospasm. The degree of vasodilation shown in angiography was measured, and the correlation between the degree of vasodilation and both the interval from SAH to cerebral vasospasm and the interval from clipping to cerebral vasospasm was determined. The change in blood flow rate after IA injection was assessed by transcranial Doppler ultrasound. Multiple clinical parameters were completed before and after IA nimodipine injection to evaluate any improvements in clinical symptoms. RESULTS: For eight patients, Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) scores increased by two or more points. The regression analysis demonstrated a positive correlation between the change in GCS scores after IA nimodipine injection and the change in blood vessel diameter (p=0.025). A positive correlation was also observed between the interval from SAH to vasospasm and the change in diameter (p=0.040); and the interval from clipping to vasospasm and the change in diameter (p=0.022). CONCLUSION: IA nimodipine injection for SAH-induced vasospasm led to significant vasodilation in angiography and improvement in clinical symptoms without significant complications. Our findings suggest that IA nimodipine injection should be utilized when intractable vasospasm develops despite rigorous conservative management.


Subject(s)
Aneurysm , Aneurysm, Ruptured , Angiography , Blood Vessels , Glasgow Coma Scale , Glycosaminoglycans , Humans , Injections, Intra-Arterial , Intracranial Aneurysm , Nimodipine , Subarachnoid Hemorrhage , Vasodilation , Vasospasm, Intracranial
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