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1.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e66-2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-967488

ABSTRACT

Background@#Antimicrobial prescriptions for serious chronic or acute illness nearing its end stages raise concerns about the potential for futile use, adverse events, increased multidrugresistant organisms, and significant patient and social cost burdens. This study investigated the nationwide situation of how antibiotics are prescribed to patients during the last 14 days of life to guide future actions. @*Methods@#This nationwide multicenter retrospective cohort study was conducted at 13 hospitals in South Korea from November 1 to December 31, 2018. All decedents were included in the study. Antibiotic use during the last two weeks of their lives was investigated. @*Results@#A total of 1,201 (88.9%) patients received a median of two antimicrobial agents during the last two weeks of their lives. Carbapenems were prescribed to approximately half of the patients (44.4%) in the highest amount (301.2 days of therapy per 1,000 patient-days).Among the patients receiving antimicrobial agents, 63.6% were inappropriate and only 327 patients (27.2%) were referred by infectious disease specialists. The use of carbapenem (odds ratio [OR], 1.51; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.13–2.03; P = 0.006), underlying cancer (OR, 1.56; 95% CI, 1.20–2.01, P = 0.047), underlying cerebrovascular disease (OR, 1.88; 95% CI, 1.23–2.89, P = 0.004), and no microbiological testing (OR, 1.79; 95% CI, 1.15–2.73; P = 0.010) were independent predictors for inappropriate antibiotic prescribing. @*Conclusion@#A considerable number of antimicrobial agents are administered to patients with chronic or acute illnesses nearing their end-of-life, a high proportion of which are prescribed inappropriately. Consultation with an infectious disease specialist, in addition to an antimicrobial stewardship program, may be necessary to induce the optimal use of antibiotics.

2.
Psychiatry Investigation ; : 418-429, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-977351

ABSTRACT

Objective@#The purpose of this study was to examine whether attachment insecurity, stigma, and certain demographic and medical factors predict depression and anxiety in people living with HIV (PLWH). @*Methods@#Participants were 147 PLWH who visited the outpatient infection clinic in Kyungpook National University Hospital (KNUH; Daegu, South Korea) between June 2020 and January 2021. We measured HIV-related stigma, attachment anxiety and avoidance, depressive symptoms, and anxiety symptoms. @*Results@#Logistic regression analysis showed that unemployment, longer time receiving antiretroviral therapy, higher attachment avoidance, and higher attachment anxiety were significant predictors of depression. Results also showed that longer time receiving antiretroviral therapy, higher attachment anxiety, and concern with public attitudes were significant predictors of anxiety. @*Conclusion@#In addition to education to reduce public stigma, interventions to reduce PLWH’s self-stigma should continue. We suggest attachment-based psychotherapy as an effective intervention to improve PLWH’s mental health.

3.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e49-2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-915500

ABSTRACT

Background@#As the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is ongoing, heavy workload of healthcare workers (HCWs) is a concern. This study investigated the workload of HCWs responding to the COVID-19 outbreak in South Korea. @*Methods@#A nationwide cross-sectional survey was conducted from September 16 to October 15, 2020, involving 16 healthcare facilities (4 public medical centers, 12 tertiary-care hospitals) that provide treatment for COVID-19 patients. @*Results@#Public medical centers provided the majority (69.4%) of total hospital beds for COVID-19 patients (n = 611), on the other hand, tertiary care hospitals provided the majority (78.9%) of critical care beds (n = 57). The number of beds per doctor (median [IQR]) in public medical centers was higher than in tertiary care hospitals (20.2 [13.0, 29.4] versus 3.0 [1.3, 6.6], P = 0.006). Infectious Diseases physicians are mostly (80%) involved among attending physicians. The number of nurses per patient (median [interquartile range, IQR]) in tertiarycare hospitals was higher than in public medical centers (4.6 [3.4–5] vs. 1.1 [0.8–2.1], P =0.089). The median number of nurses per patient for COVID-19 patients was higher than the highest national standard in South Korea (3.8 vs. 2 for critical care). All participating healthcare facilities were also operating screening centers, for which a median of 2 doctors, 5 nurses, and 2 administrating staff were necessary. @*Conclusion@#As the severity of COVID-19 patients increases, the number of HCWs required increases. Because the workload of HCWs responding to the COVID-19 outbreak is much greater than other situations, a workforce management plan regarding this perspective is required to prevent burnout of HCWs.

4.
Infection and Chemotherapy ; : 812-853, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-968907

ABSTRACT

The guidelines are intended to provide practical information for the correct use of antibiotics for intra-abdominal infections in Korea. With the aim of realizing evidence-based treatment, these guidelines for the use of antibiotics were written to help clinicians find answers to key clinical questions that arise in the course of patient care, using the latest research results based on systematic literature review. The guidelines were prepared in consideration of the data on the causative pathogens of intra-abdominal infections in Korea, the antibiotic susceptibility of the causative pathogens, and the antibiotics available in Korea.

5.
Infection and Chemotherapy ; : 637-673, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-968903

ABSTRACT

Currently, antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a major threat to global public health. The antimicrobial stewardship program (ASP) has been proposed as an important approach to overcome this crisis. ASP supports the optimal use of antimicrobials, including appropriate dosing decisions, administration duration, and administration routes. In Korea, efforts are being made to overcome AMR using ASPs as a national policy. The current study aimed to develop core elements of ASP that could be introduced in domestic medical facilities. A Delphi survey was conducted twice to select the core elements through expert consensus.The core elements for implementing the ASP included (1) leadership commitment, (2) operating system, (3) action, (4) tracking, (5) reporting, and (6) education. To ensure these core elements are present at medical facilities, multiple departments must collaborate as teams for ASP operations. Establishing a reimbursement system and a workforce for ASPs are prerequisites for implementing ASPs. To ensure that ASP core elements are actively implemented in medical facilities, it is necessary to provide financial support for ASPs in medical facilities, nurture the healthcare workforce in performing ASPs, apply the core elements to healthcare accreditation, and provide incentives to medical facilities by quality evaluation criteria.

6.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e356-2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-967382

ABSTRACT

The first coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak in Daegu city was overcome by efforts, including; 1) prompt isolation and quarantine action by local government with cooperative help from expert groups and the central government, 2) high-intensity social distancing and active cooperation of citizens, 3) admission of asymptomatic and mild patients in ‘residential treatment centers’, and 4) use of a telephone scoring system for the allocation of patients, with a mortality rate of 2.5%. A continuous suppression policy with test, tracing, and treatment (3 Ts) was implemented as an active response to the initial outbreaks in Korea. With the introduction of vaccines and therapeutic agents, the COVID-19 crisis had improved. Recently, the omicron variant was responsible for most domestic outbreaks, albeit with a low mortality rate (0.1%). Since the omicron outbreak, a damage mitigation policy has been implemented, focusing on protecting vulnerable groups. In the future, preparation including below are needed; 1) improving the national public health emergency response system, 2) strengthening the crisis response capacity of local governments, 3) cooperation between public healthcare and private healthcare, and 4) establishing a resilient medical response system.

7.
Infection and Chemotherapy ; : 298-307, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-937670

ABSTRACT

Background@#Securing an available healthcare workforce is critical to respond to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19); however, research investigating Korea’s COVID-19 staffing response is rare. To present the fundamental data of healthcare staff in response to the surge in COVID-19 cases, we investigated the healthcare workforce response in Daegu, South Korea, which experienced the first largest outbreak of COVID-19 outside of China. @*Materials and Methods@#In response to the COVID-19 outbreak, this retrospective crosssectional study analyzed data on the scale and characteristics of healthcare workers (HCWs). Additionally, it analyzed the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of HCWs infected with COVID-19 in six major teaching hospitals (five tertiary and one secondary) in Daegu from January 19 to April 30, 2020. @*Results@#During this study period, only 1.3% (n = 611) of the total hospitalized patients (n = 48,807) were COVID-19 inpatients, but they occupied 6.0% (n = 303) of the total hospital beds (n = 5,056), and 23.7% (n = 3,471) of all HCWs (n = 14,651) worked in response to COVID-19.HCWs participating in COVID-19-related works comprised 50.6% (n = 1,203) of doctors (n = 2,379), 26.3% (n = 1,571) of nurses (n = 5,982), and 11.4% (n = 697) of other HCWs (n = 6,108).Only 0.3% (n = 51) of HCWs (n = 14,651) developed COVID-19 infections from communityacquired (66.7%) or hospital-acquired (29.4%). Nurses were affected predominantly (33.3%), followed by doctors (9.8%), caregivers (7.8%), radiographers (5.9%), and others (45.1%), including nurse aides and administrative, facility maintenance, telephone appointment centers, and convenience store staff. All HCWs infected with COVID-19 recovered completely. The 32.7% (n = 333) of individuals (n = 1,018) exposed to HCWs who had COVID-19 were quarantined, and only one case of secondary transmission among them occurred. @*Conclusion@#The COVID-19 pandemic has necessitated significant staffing and facility usage, which is disproportionate to the relatively low number of COVID-19 inpatients, imposing a substantial burden on healthcare resources. Therefore, beyond the current reimbursement level of the Korean National Health Insurance, a new type of rewarding system is needed to prepare hospitals for the emerging outbreaks of infectious diseases. Keeping HCWs safe from COVID-19 is crucial for maintaining the healthcare workforce during a sudden massive outbreak. Further studies are needed to determine the standards of required HCWs through detailed research on the working hours and intensity of HCWs responding to COVID-19.

8.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 499-510, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927149

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Globally, concerns have grown regarding the long-term effects of novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) infection. Therefore, we evaluated the long-term course of persistent symptoms and patient quality of life. @*Materials and Methods@#This prospective cohort study was conducted at a single tertiary university hospital from August 31, 2020 to March 29, 2021 with adult patients followed at 6 and 12 months after acute COVID-19 symptom onset or diagnosis. Clinical characteristics, self-reported symptoms, EuroQol 5 dimension 5 level (EQ5D-5L) index scores, Korean version of the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9), Korean version of the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist-5 (PCL-5-K), and Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 (GAD-7) were investigated. Symptom persistent or non-persistent groups were defined according to persistency of COVID-19 related symptoms or signs after acute COVID-19 infection, respectively. @*Results@#Of all 235 patients, 170 (64.6%) patients were eligible for analysis. The median age was 51 (interquartile range, 37–61) years old, and 102 patients were female (60.0%). After 12 months from acute COVID-19 infection, in total, 83 (48.8%) patients still suffered from COVID-19-related symptoms. The most common symptoms included amnesia (24.1%), insomnia (14.7%), fatigue (13.5%), and anxiety (12.9%). Among the five EQ5D-5L categories, the average value of anxiety or depression was the most predominant. PHQ-9 and PCL-5-K scores were statistically higher in the COVID-19–related symptom persistent group than the non-persistent group (p=0.001). However, GAD-7 scores showed no statistical differences between the two groups (p=0.051). @*Conclusion@#Neuropsychiatric symptoms were the major COVID-19–related symptoms after 12 months from acute COVID-19 infection, reducing quality of life.

9.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e12-2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-874745

ABSTRACT

Background@#A coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak started in February 2020 and was controlled at the end of March 2020 in Daegu, the epicenter of the coronavirus outbreak in Korea. The aim of this study was to describe the clinical course and outcomes of patients with COVID-19 in Daegu. @*Methods@#In collaboration with Daegu Metropolitan City and Korean Center for Diseases Control, we conducted a retrospective, multicenter cohort study. Demographic, clinical, treatment, and laboratory data, including viral RNA detection, were obtained from the electronic medical records and cohort database and compared between survivors and non-survivors. We used univariate and multi-variable logistic regression methods and Cox regression model and performed Kaplan–Meier analysis to determine the risk factors associated with the 28-day mortality and release from isolation among the patients. @*Results@#In this study, 7,057 laboratory-confirmed patients with COVID-19 (total cohort) who had been diagnosed from February 18 to July 10, 2020 were included. Of the total cohort, 5,467 were asymptomatic to mild patients (77.4%) (asymptomatic 30.6% and mild 46.8%), 985 moderate (14.0%), 380 severe (5.4%), and 225 critical (3.2%). The mortality of the patients was 2.5% (179/7,057). The Cox regression hazard model for the patients with available clinical information (core cohort) (n = 2,254) showed the risk factors for 28-day mortality: age > 70 (hazard ratio [HR], 4.219, P = 0.002), need for O 2 supply at admission (HR, 2.995; P = 0.001), fever (> 37.5°C) (HR, 2.808; P = 0.001), diabetes (HR, 2.119; P = 0.008), cancer (HR, 3.043; P = 0.011), dementia (HR, 5.252; P = 0.008), neurological disease (HR, 2.084; P = 0.039), heart failure (HR, 3.234;P = 0.012), and hypertension (HR, 2.160; P = 0.017). The median duration for release from isolation was 33 days (interquartile range, 24.0–46.0) in survivors. The Cox proportional hazard model for the long duration of isolation included severity, age > 70, and dementia. @*Conclusion@#Overall, asymptomatic to mild patients were approximately 77% of the total cohort (asymptomatic, 30.6%). The case fatality rate was 2.5%. Risk factors, including older age, need for O 2 supply, dementia, and neurological disorder at admission, could help clinicians to identify COVID-19 patients with poor prognosis at an early stage.

10.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 806-813, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-904302

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#We aimed to develop a novel mortality scoring system for inpatients with COVID-19 based on simple demographic factors and laboratory findings. @*Materials and Methods@#We reviewed and analyzed data from patients who were admitted and diagnosed with COVID-19 at 10 hospitals in Daegu, South Korea, between January and July 2020. We randomized and assigned patients to the development and validation groups at a 70% to 30% ratio. Each point scored for selected risk factors helped build a new mortality scoring system using Cox regression analysis. We evaluated the accuracy of the new scoring system in the development and validation groups using the area under the curve. @*Results@#The development group included 1232 patients, whereas the validation group included 528 patients. In the development group, predictors for the new scoring system as selected by Cox proportional hazards model were age ≥70 years, diabetes, chronic kidney disease, dementia, C-reactive protein levels >4 mg/dL, infiltration on chest X-rays at the initial diagnosis, and the need for oxygen support on admission. The areas under the curve for the development and validation groups were 0.914 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.891–0.937] and 0.898 (95% CI 0.854–0.941), respectively. According to our scoring system, COVID-19 mortality was 0.4% for the low-risk group (score 0–3) and 53.7% for the very high-risk group (score ≥11). @*Conclusion@#We developed a new scoring system for quickly and easily predicting COVID-19 mortality using simple predictors. This scoring system can help physicians provide the proper therapy and strategy for each patient.

11.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 584-592, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-904243

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) have been considered effective in preventing and treating viral infections. However, until now, the duration and clinical implications of antibody-mediated nature immunity in Koreans have remained unknown.Therefore, we examined NAbs levels and clinical characteristics in recovered coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients. @*Materials and Methods@#Blood samples were collected from 143 adult patients who had been diagnosed with and had recovered from COVID-19 from February to March in 2020 at a tertiary-care university-affiliated hospital in Daegu, Korea. A plaque reduction neutralization test was conducted to analyze NAb titers. Individualized questionnaires were used to identify patient clinical information. @*Results@#The median number of days from symptom onset to the blood collection date was 109.0 (104.0; 115.0). The NAb titers ranged from 10 to 2560. The median NAb titer value was 40. Of the 143 patients, 68 (47.6%) patients had NAb titers ≥80, and 31 (21.7%) patients had NAb titers ≥160. The higher the age or disease severity, the higher the NAb titer. In univariate logistic regression, statistically significant predictors of high NAb titers (≥80) were age, myalgia, nausea or vomiting, dyspnea, and disease severity (p<0.05). Multivariable logistic regression showed that age ≥50 years (p=0.013) and moderate or higher disease severity (p<0.001) were factors associated with high NAb titers (≥80). None of the patients had reinfection of COVID-19. @*Conclusion@#All recovered patients were found to have NAbs regardless of the NAb titers maintained by natural immunity. Age and disease severity during COVID-19 infection were associated with high NAb titers.

12.
Infection and Chemotherapy ; : 463-476, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898662

ABSTRACT

Background@#As the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has progressed, there has been a growing awareness of the long-term impacts of the COVID-19 infection. However, until recently, there was no published study that investigated COVID-19-related sequelae and related factors for greater than six months from the onset of COVID-19 symptoms or the time of COVID-19 diagnosis in Korea. @*Materials and Methods@#Online survey and statistical analysis were conducted by Kyungpook National University Hospital on 5,252 patients diagnosed as COVID-19 between February 18, 2020 and March 14, 2020. Responders aged between 16 and 70 years were included. Longterm sequelae were defined as persistent symptoms or signs ≥ 6 months after acute COVID-19 infection. The survey was conducted from September 8, 2020 to September 10, 2020.Clinical characteristics and self-reported clinical sequelae of the responders were analyzed to investigate the prevalence and factors associated with sequelae using descriptive and multivariate logistic regression analysis. @*Results@#The median period from the date of the first symptom onset or COVID-19 diagnosis to the time of the survey was 195 (interquartile range [IQR] 191 - 200) days. The response rate was 17.1% (900 out of 5,252). The median age was 31 (IQR 24.0 - 47.0) years old, and 627 responders were female (69.7%). Regarding the disease severity, 29 (3.2%) were asymptomatic, 763 (84.8%) mild, 86 (9.6%) moderate, 17 (1.9%) severe, and 5 (0.6%) critical. In total, 591 (65.7%) responders suffered from COVID-19-related long-term sequelae and 78 (8.6%) responders were receiving outpatient treatment for COVID-19-related long-term sequelae. The most common symptoms identified during the isolation period were anosmia and ageusia at 44.5% and 43.5%, respectively. Fatigue was the most common long-term sequelae, accounting for 253 (26.2%) responders, followed by concentration difficulty, amnesia, cognitive dysfunction, anxiety, and depression, which accounted for over 20%. Female gender was identified as the factor associated with mental and psychological long-term sequelae (P <0.05). @*Conclusion@#The results showed that the rate of COVID-19-related long-term sequelae was 65.7%. The most common long-term sequela was fatigue. The risk factor identified was female gender. It was found that the long-term sequelae had various manifestations, including mental and psychological aspects. To improve the care of COVID-19 recovered patients with COVID-19-related long-term sequelae, the participation of a comprehensive and an interdisciplinary group of researchers is required.

13.
Infection and Chemotherapy ; : 617-659, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898642

ABSTRACT

These guidelines were developed as a part of the 2021 Academic R&D Service Project of the Korea Disease Control and Prevention Agency in response to requests from healthcare professionals in clinical practice for guidance on developing antimicrobial stewardship programs (ASPs). These guidelines were developed by means of a systematic literature review and a summary of recent literature, in which evidence-based intervention methods were used to address key questions about the appropriate use of antimicrobial agents and ASP expansion. These guidelines also provide evidence of the effectiveness of ASPs and describe intervention methods applicable in Korea.

14.
Infection and Chemotherapy ; : 384-390, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898620

ABSTRACT

Vibrio cholerae is a pathogen known to cause the waterborne epidemic disease cholera. Overall, V. cholerae O1 or O139 strains produce the cholera toxin that cause gastroenteritis, resulting in watery diarrhea. Most of the enterocolitis caused by V. cholerae can be easily treated with fluid therapy and conservative care. However, V. cholerae non-O1/O139 strains can cause extraintestinal infections, such as wound infection or sepsis, in immunocompromised patients. The clinical course of these infections is very similar to that of V. vulnificus infection. We report about a 52-year-old man without previous underlying disease who was diagnosed with V. cholerae non-O1/O139 infection and died within 72 hours after admission to the intensive care unit.

15.
Epidemiology and Health ; : e2021024-2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898319

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#A coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak triggered by religious activities occurred in Daegu, Korea in February 2020. This outbreak spread rapidly to the community through high-risk groups. This study describes the characteristics of COVID-19 cases based on S religious group membership and summarizes the Daegu municipal government’s processes and responses to control the outbreak. @*METHODS@#The epidemiological characteristics of confirmed cases were obtained through basic and in-depth epidemiological surveys. General characteristics, the proportion of asymptomatic cases, the case-fatality rate, and the time-to-event within each group were presented after stratifying confirmed cases according to S religious group membership. @*RESULTS@#Overall, 7,008 COVID-19 cases were confirmed in Daegu from February 18, 2020 to June 30, 2020, and 61.5% (n= 4,309) were S religious group members. Compared with non-members, members had a higher proportion of female (p< 0.001) and younger age (p< 0.001), as well as lower disease prevalence. At the time of the investigation, 38.4% of cases in members were asymptomatic versus 23.7% of cases in non-members (p< 0.001). The case-fatality rate of non-members aged ≥ 60 years was significantly higher than that of members (p< 0.001). Compared with non-members, members had longer intervals from symptom onset to diagnosis (p< 0.001) and from diagnosis to admission (p< 0.001), and a shorter interval from admission to discharge (p< 0.001). @*CONCLUSIONS@#The epidemiological features of S religious group members, including the proportion of asymptomatic cases, case-fatality rate, and time-to-event, differed from non-members. The Daegu authorities prevented further COVID-19 spread through immediate isolation and active screening tests of all S religious group members.

16.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 806-813, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-896598

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#We aimed to develop a novel mortality scoring system for inpatients with COVID-19 based on simple demographic factors and laboratory findings. @*Materials and Methods@#We reviewed and analyzed data from patients who were admitted and diagnosed with COVID-19 at 10 hospitals in Daegu, South Korea, between January and July 2020. We randomized and assigned patients to the development and validation groups at a 70% to 30% ratio. Each point scored for selected risk factors helped build a new mortality scoring system using Cox regression analysis. We evaluated the accuracy of the new scoring system in the development and validation groups using the area under the curve. @*Results@#The development group included 1232 patients, whereas the validation group included 528 patients. In the development group, predictors for the new scoring system as selected by Cox proportional hazards model were age ≥70 years, diabetes, chronic kidney disease, dementia, C-reactive protein levels >4 mg/dL, infiltration on chest X-rays at the initial diagnosis, and the need for oxygen support on admission. The areas under the curve for the development and validation groups were 0.914 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.891–0.937] and 0.898 (95% CI 0.854–0.941), respectively. According to our scoring system, COVID-19 mortality was 0.4% for the low-risk group (score 0–3) and 53.7% for the very high-risk group (score ≥11). @*Conclusion@#We developed a new scoring system for quickly and easily predicting COVID-19 mortality using simple predictors. This scoring system can help physicians provide the proper therapy and strategy for each patient.

17.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 584-592, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-896539

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) have been considered effective in preventing and treating viral infections. However, until now, the duration and clinical implications of antibody-mediated nature immunity in Koreans have remained unknown.Therefore, we examined NAbs levels and clinical characteristics in recovered coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients. @*Materials and Methods@#Blood samples were collected from 143 adult patients who had been diagnosed with and had recovered from COVID-19 from February to March in 2020 at a tertiary-care university-affiliated hospital in Daegu, Korea. A plaque reduction neutralization test was conducted to analyze NAb titers. Individualized questionnaires were used to identify patient clinical information. @*Results@#The median number of days from symptom onset to the blood collection date was 109.0 (104.0; 115.0). The NAb titers ranged from 10 to 2560. The median NAb titer value was 40. Of the 143 patients, 68 (47.6%) patients had NAb titers ≥80, and 31 (21.7%) patients had NAb titers ≥160. The higher the age or disease severity, the higher the NAb titer. In univariate logistic regression, statistically significant predictors of high NAb titers (≥80) were age, myalgia, nausea or vomiting, dyspnea, and disease severity (p<0.05). Multivariable logistic regression showed that age ≥50 years (p=0.013) and moderate or higher disease severity (p<0.001) were factors associated with high NAb titers (≥80). None of the patients had reinfection of COVID-19. @*Conclusion@#All recovered patients were found to have NAbs regardless of the NAb titers maintained by natural immunity. Age and disease severity during COVID-19 infection were associated with high NAb titers.

18.
Infection and Chemotherapy ; : 463-476, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890958

ABSTRACT

Background@#As the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has progressed, there has been a growing awareness of the long-term impacts of the COVID-19 infection. However, until recently, there was no published study that investigated COVID-19-related sequelae and related factors for greater than six months from the onset of COVID-19 symptoms or the time of COVID-19 diagnosis in Korea. @*Materials and Methods@#Online survey and statistical analysis were conducted by Kyungpook National University Hospital on 5,252 patients diagnosed as COVID-19 between February 18, 2020 and March 14, 2020. Responders aged between 16 and 70 years were included. Longterm sequelae were defined as persistent symptoms or signs ≥ 6 months after acute COVID-19 infection. The survey was conducted from September 8, 2020 to September 10, 2020.Clinical characteristics and self-reported clinical sequelae of the responders were analyzed to investigate the prevalence and factors associated with sequelae using descriptive and multivariate logistic regression analysis. @*Results@#The median period from the date of the first symptom onset or COVID-19 diagnosis to the time of the survey was 195 (interquartile range [IQR] 191 - 200) days. The response rate was 17.1% (900 out of 5,252). The median age was 31 (IQR 24.0 - 47.0) years old, and 627 responders were female (69.7%). Regarding the disease severity, 29 (3.2%) were asymptomatic, 763 (84.8%) mild, 86 (9.6%) moderate, 17 (1.9%) severe, and 5 (0.6%) critical. In total, 591 (65.7%) responders suffered from COVID-19-related long-term sequelae and 78 (8.6%) responders were receiving outpatient treatment for COVID-19-related long-term sequelae. The most common symptoms identified during the isolation period were anosmia and ageusia at 44.5% and 43.5%, respectively. Fatigue was the most common long-term sequelae, accounting for 253 (26.2%) responders, followed by concentration difficulty, amnesia, cognitive dysfunction, anxiety, and depression, which accounted for over 20%. Female gender was identified as the factor associated with mental and psychological long-term sequelae (P <0.05). @*Conclusion@#The results showed that the rate of COVID-19-related long-term sequelae was 65.7%. The most common long-term sequela was fatigue. The risk factor identified was female gender. It was found that the long-term sequelae had various manifestations, including mental and psychological aspects. To improve the care of COVID-19 recovered patients with COVID-19-related long-term sequelae, the participation of a comprehensive and an interdisciplinary group of researchers is required.

19.
Infection and Chemotherapy ; : 617-659, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890938

ABSTRACT

These guidelines were developed as a part of the 2021 Academic R&D Service Project of the Korea Disease Control and Prevention Agency in response to requests from healthcare professionals in clinical practice for guidance on developing antimicrobial stewardship programs (ASPs). These guidelines were developed by means of a systematic literature review and a summary of recent literature, in which evidence-based intervention methods were used to address key questions about the appropriate use of antimicrobial agents and ASP expansion. These guidelines also provide evidence of the effectiveness of ASPs and describe intervention methods applicable in Korea.

20.
Infection and Chemotherapy ; : 384-390, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890916

ABSTRACT

Vibrio cholerae is a pathogen known to cause the waterborne epidemic disease cholera. Overall, V. cholerae O1 or O139 strains produce the cholera toxin that cause gastroenteritis, resulting in watery diarrhea. Most of the enterocolitis caused by V. cholerae can be easily treated with fluid therapy and conservative care. However, V. cholerae non-O1/O139 strains can cause extraintestinal infections, such as wound infection or sepsis, in immunocompromised patients. The clinical course of these infections is very similar to that of V. vulnificus infection. We report about a 52-year-old man without previous underlying disease who was diagnosed with V. cholerae non-O1/O139 infection and died within 72 hours after admission to the intensive care unit.

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