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1.
Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control ; (6): 79-82, 2024.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1013573

ABSTRACT

Objective To analyze the echinococcosis surveillance results in Bayingolin Mongol Autonomous Prefecture, Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region from 2017 to 2022, so as to provide insights into formulation of echinococcosis control measures in the prefecture. Methods Villagers were randomly sampled using a multistage sampling method from class I and II echinococcosis endemic counties in Bayingolin Mongolian Autonomous Prefecture from 2017 to 2022 for detection of human echinococcosis, while all patients undergoing ultrasound examinations in medical institutions in class III endemic counties received active echinococcosis screening. In addition, livestock in centralized slaughterhouses or slaughtering sites were screened for echinococcosis using the palpation and necropsy method, and fresh domestic dog feces samples were collected from randomly selected dog owners in each administrative village for detection of Echinococcus copro-antigen in domestic dogs. The trends in detection of human and livestock echinococcosis, detection of newly diagnosed human echinococcosis cases and detection of Echinococcus coproantigen in domestic dogs were analyzed in Bayingolin Mongol Autonomous Prefecture from 2017 to 2022. Results The mean detection rate of human echinococcosis was 0.13% (540/407 803) in Bayingolin Mongol Autonomous Prefecture from 2017 to 2022, which appeared a tendency towards a decline over years (χ2trend = 1 217.21, P < 0.001), and the highest detection of newly diagnosed echinococcosis cases was seen in Hejing County (0.28%, 191/67 865). The detection of livestock echinococcosis appeared a tendency towards a decline over years from 2017 to 2022 (χ2trend = 147.02, P < 0.001), with the highest detection rate seen in Hejing County (3.44%, 86/2 500), and the detection of Echinococcus copro-antigen in domestic dogs appeared a tendency towards a decline over years from 2017 to 2022 (χ2trend = 302.46, P < 0.001), with the highest detection rate in Qiemo County (2.74%, 118/4 313). Conclusions The detection of human and livestock echinococcosis and dog feces antigens Echinococcus copro-antigen in domestic dogs all appeared a tendency towards a decline in Bayingolin Mongol Autonomous Prefecture, Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region from 2017 to 2022; however, there is still a high echinococcosis transmission risk in local areas. Sustainable integrated echinococcosis control is required in Bayingolin Mongol Autonomous Prefecture.

2.
Journal of Environmental and Occupational Medicine ; (12): 335-341, 2024.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1013443

ABSTRACT

Arsenic, a naturally occurring metal-like chemical element, is one of the 10 chemicals of major public concerns listed by the World Health Organization as harmful to the environment and human health. It can enter the human body through breathing, intaking food, drinking water, skin exposure, and other ways, and long-term exposure to arsenic can cause cancer of multiple organs and impaired function of multiple systems. Epigenetic mechanisms play an important role in arsenic-induced health effects, and research suggested that the carcinogenicity of arsenic may be associated with epigenetic changes. Previous studies focused on the effects of arsenic on DNA methylation modification. In recent years, research showed that 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5-hmC), an intermediate of active demethylation of DNA, can act as a sensitive epigenetic mark and play a crucial role as a "bridge" between arsenic exposure and health effects. Based on the latest research progress on the role of DNA hydroxymethylation in the health effects associated with arsenic exposure, this article briefly described the relationship between the health effects of arsenic exposure and DNA hydroxymethylation, summarized the possible mechanisms of DNA hydroxymethylation in the health effects associated with arsenic exposure, and provided a scientific basis for preventing and treating the health effects associated with arsenic exposure.

3.
Journal of Environmental and Occupational Medicine ; (12): 41-46, 2024.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1006455

ABSTRACT

Background Long-term exposure to noise during sleep may has adverse effects on metabolic system, and liver lipid metabolism is closely related to circadian clock genes. Objective To investigate the effects of long-term noise exposure during sleep on liver circadian clock and lipid metabolism in mice and its related mechanism. Methods Twenty C57BL/6J male mice were randomly divided into two groups: a noise exposure group and a control group with 10 mice in each group. The mice in the noise exposure group were exposed to white noise at 90 dB sound pressure level (SPL) for 30 consecutive days, 8 h a day, from 9:00 to 17:00. The mice in the control group were exposed to background noise ≤40 dB SPL. After noise exposure, the animals were neutralized at 14:00 (ZT6) and 2:00 (ZT18), 5 animals at each time spot, and the liver tissues were collected. Total cholesterol and triglyceride in liver were determined by cholesterol oxidase method and glycerol phosphate oxidase method respectively. The expressions of circadian clock genes (Clock, Bmal1, Rev-erbα, and Rev-erbβ) and lipid metabolism genes (Srebp1c, Hmgcr, Fasn, Lxrα, Acc1, and Chrebp) in liver were detected by quantitative real-time PCR. Results Compared with the control group, the content of total cholesterol in liver in the noise exposure group increased by 48% (P<0.05) and the content of liver triglyceride increased by 61% (P<0.05) at ZT18. The mRNA expression levels of circadian clock genes Clock and Bmal1 in the noise exposure group was significantly increased at ZT18 and decreased at ZT6 (P<0.05). The mRNA expression level of Rev-erbα decreased at both ZT6 and ZT18 (P<0.05). The mRNA expression level of Rev-erbβ had no significant change at ZT6 and ZT18. The mRNA expression levels of liver lipid metabolism related genes Srebp1c, Hmgcr, Chrebp, and Lxrα in the noise exposure group were higher than those in the control group at ZT18 (P<0.05). The mRNA expression levels of Acc1 and Fasn showed no significant change at ZT6, then an upward trend at ZT18, but no significant difference between the two time spots (P>0.05). Conclusion Long-term noise exposure during sleep can cause circadian clock and lipid metabolism disorders in mice. Among them, suppression of key circadian clock genes may be associated with Rev-erbα-mediated upregulation of the nuclear receptors Srebp1c and Chrebp for lipid synthesis and deposition in the liver, resulting in lipid metabolism disorder.

4.
Chinese Journal of Hepatobiliary Surgery ; (12): 237-240, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-993315

ABSTRACT

Pancreatic exocrine insufficiency (PEI) refers to insufficient or non-synchronous secretion of trypsin caused by various reasons, resulting in dyspepsia and other symptoms. Intestinal microbiota is a large number of microbiota on the surface of intestinal mucosa. Its main functions include intestinal immune function, forming intestinal biological barrier and participating in the regulation of nutrition and metabolism. Due to aging, some elderly people often have unexplained chronic pancreatic insufficiency, which is often characterized by unexplained weight loss and malnutrition. Several studies have shown that the composition of intestinal microbiota changes significantly with age. This article focuses on aging and its related PEI and then reviews its possible effects on intestinal microbiota, in order to provide a reference basis for individualized prevention and treatment strategies according to the changes of pancreatic exocrine function and microbiota in the elderly.

5.
Journal of Chinese Physician ; (12): 173-177,185, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-992279

ABSTRACT

The update of the clinical practice guide on seasonal influenza issued by the American Society of Infectious Diseases (IDSA) is mainly based on the content of the seasonal influenza guide issued by IDSA before the H1N1 influenza pandemic in 2009, combined with the latest literature. This guide covers the diagnosis, treatment, drug prevention and other aspects of seasonal influenza and emergency response suggestions for outbreaks in public institutions. Based on the full study of the guide and the actual situation of our country, this article interprets and discusses the diagnosis and treatment of seasonal influenza.

6.
Journal of Chinese Physician ; (12): 170-172, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-992278

ABSTRACT

Objective:To analyze the clinical and imaging characteristics of adult patients with influenza B viral pneumonia and improve the understanding of influenza B viral pneumonia in clinicians.Methods:The clinical data of adult patients with influenza B virus pneumonia were collected from January 2021 to December 2022 in the fever clinic of Beijing Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine affiliated to Capital Medical University. The clinical symptoms, blood routine results and lung computed tomography (CT) results were analyzed and summarized.Results:The clinical data of 24 adult patients with influenza B virus pneumonia were collected. The time from onset to treatment was (2.7±0.3)d. All patients had fever, and 14 of them had body temperature >39 ℃. Blood routine and procalcitonin levels were normal, while C-reactive protein levels were elevated [(56.28±32.35)mg/L]. Oxygen saturation was normal (≥95%). The pulmonary CT findings were mostly small flake ground glass shadows distributed on one side, and some of them were cord shadows caused by interstitial lesions.Conclusions:Influenza B virus infection can also cause pneumonia, but is relatively limited and has a good prognosis.

7.
Journal of Chinese Physician ; (12): 161-164, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-992276

ABSTRACT

As a front-line department for the prevention and control of respiratory infectious diseases, the construction and management of fever clinics have also been adjusted with the changes of the epidemic situation in different periods. In this context, the scope of diagnosis and treatment of fever clinics should be expanded again, not limited to the detection and screening of infectious diseases, but should focus on early treatment and prevention of severe diseases. Management measures should also be further optimized with the expansion of patient types. Face of this situation, we need to actively explore the integration of epidemic prevention and control into the normalized diagnosis and treatment environment, and at the same time maintain the ability to respond to the outbreak of the epidemic. As a hospital of traditional Chinese medicine, it is also important to play and develop the characteristics of traditional Chinese medicine in the construction of fever clinic.

8.
International Journal of Traditional Chinese Medicine ; (6): 165-168, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-989614

ABSTRACT

Objective:To explore the clinical efficacy of modern rehabilitation techniques combined with Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) external application in the treatment of knee stiffness.Methods:Prospective cohort study. A total of 80 patients with knee stiffness meeting the entry criteria admitted to the People's Hospital of Bozhou from January 2019 to December 2021 were selected and divided into the observation group ( n=40) and the control group ( n=40) according to the random ball touching method. Both groups were given routine physiotherapy. The control group was treated with TCM external application on the basis of the physiotherapy, and the observation was treated with modern rehabilitation techniques on the basis of the treatment of the control group. The goniometer was used to measure the knee flexion and extension before and after treatment, and the VAS scale was used to assess the knee pain. Fug l-Meyer motor function score was used to evaluate lower extremity motor function. Results:After treatment, the knee flexion [(96.43 ± 4.63) ° vs. (89.58 ± 4.67) °, t=6.59] in the observation group was higher than that of the control group ( P<0.01), and the extension [(8.32 ± 2.03) ° vs. (11.69 ± 2.37) °, t=6.83] in the control group was lower than that of the control group ( P<0.01); VAS score (2.06 ± 0.49 vs. 3.65 ± 0.76, t=11.12) was lower than that of the control group ( P<0.01), and Fugl Meyer motor function score (28.97 ± 3.76 vs. 20.43 ± 3.04, t=11.17) was higher than that of the control group ( P<0.01). Conclusion:The application of modern rehabilitation techniques combined with TCM external application in the treatment of knee stiffness can improve the range of motion of the knee joint, reduce the VAS score of pain, and improve the motor function.

9.
International Journal of Traditional Chinese Medicine ; (6): 17-23, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-989596

ABSTRACT

At present, countries around the world are paying greater attention to the protection of medicinal plants and traditional medicinal knowledge resources, and are looking for various ways to protect medicinal plants. Many countries have established their own databases to save the medicinal plant information resources. This paper focuses on the introduction of medicinal plant databases in six countries including Malaysia, Philippines, and Singapore, and compares their basic information. It is difficult to achieve integration and sharing among these databases. It brings certain difficulties to the use of researchers in related fields. It is suggested that the construction of a multinational common medicinal plant database should be included in the "Belt and Road Initiative" to systematically organize massive information, enhance exchanges between countries on traditional medicinal plants, and achieve medicinal plant information sharing, and the establishment of a shared database will reduce optimization and maintenance to a certain extent or renewal work, laying the foundation for the protection, development and sustainable use of traditional medicinal plant resources.

10.
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 379-389, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981014

ABSTRACT

The present article was aimed to compare the effectiveness of different induction methods for depression models. Kunming mice were randomly divided into chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) group, corticosterone (CORT) group, and CUMS+CORT (CC) group. The CUMS group received CUMS stimulation for 4 weeks, and the CORT group received subcutaneous injection of 20 mg/kg CORT into the groin every day for 3 weeks. The CC group received both CUMS stimulation and CORT administration. Each group was assigned a control group. After modeling, forced swimming test (FST), tail suspension test (TST) and sucrose preference test (SPT) were used to detect the behavioral changes of mice, and the serum levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) and CORT were detected with ELISA kits. Attenuated total refraction (ATR) spectra of mouse serum were collected and analyzed. HE staining was used to detect morphological changes in mouse brain tissue. The results showed that the weight of model mice from the CUMS and CC groups decreased significantly. There was no significant change in immobility time of model mice from the three groups in FST and TST, while the glucose preference of model mice from the CUMS and CC groups was significantly reduced (P < 0.05). The serum 5-HT levels of model mice from the CORT and CC groups were significantly reduced, while the serum BDNF and CORT levels of model mice from the CUMS, CORT, and CC groups showed no significant changes. Compared with their respective control groups, the three groups showed no significant difference in the one-dimensional spectrum of serum ATR. The difference spectrum analysis results of the first derivative of the spectrogram showed that the CORT group had the greatest difference from its respective control group, followed by the CUMS group. The structures of hippocampus in the model mice from the three groups were all destroyed. These results suggest that both CORT and CC treatments can successfully construct a depression model, and the CORT model is more effective than the CC model. Therefore, CORT induction can be used to establish a depression model in Kunming mice.


Subject(s)
Mice , Animals , Depression/etiology , Antidepressive Agents/pharmacology , Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor , Serotonin
11.
Chinese Journal of Pediatrics ; (12): 1109-1117, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1013232

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the etiology, complications, and prognostic factors of stage 5 chronic kidney disease (CKD5) in children. Methods: A case series study was conducted to retrospectively analyze the general situation, clinical manifestations, laboratory tests, genetic testing, and follow-up data (until October 2022) of 174 children with CKD5 who were diagnosed and hospitalized at the Children's Hospital of Chongqing Medical University from April 2012 to April 2021. The characteristics of complications in the children were compared based on age, gender, and etiology. Based on the presence or absence of left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH), patients were divided into LVH group and non LVH group for analyzing the influencing factors of cardiovascular disease. Patients were also divided into death group and survival group, peritoneal dialysis group and hemodialysis group based on the follow-up data for analyzing the prognostic factors. The chi-square test, independent sample t-test, Fisher exact probability test, Mann-Whitney U test and Kruskal Wallis test were used to analyze data among different groups. Multivariate Logistic regression analysis was used to identify the prognostic factors. Results: A total of 174 children with CKD5 were enrolled in the study (96 boys and 78 girls), aged 11.2 (8.2, 13.0) years. Congenital kidney and urinary tract malformations (CAKUT) were the most common causes of the CKD5 (84 cases, 48.3%), followed by glomerular diseases (83 cases, 47.7%), and among which 28 cases (16.1%) were hereditary glomerular diseases. The common complications of CKD5 included anemia (98.2%, 165/168), mineral and bone disorder in chronic kidney disease (CKD-MBD) (97.7%, 170/174), lipid metabolism disorders (87.5%, 63/72), hypertension (81.4%, 127/156) and LVH (57.6%,57/99). The incidences of hypertension in primary glomerular disease were higher than that in CAKUT(93.8%(30/32) vs.73.7%(56/76),χ2=5.59,P<0.05). The incidences of hypertension in secondary glomerular disease were higher than that in CAKUT and that in hereditary kidney disease (100.0%(20/20) vs. 73.7%(56/76), 68.2%(15/22), both P<0.05). The incidence of hypocalcemia in CAKUT, primary glomerular disease, and hereditary kidney disease was higher than that in secondary glomerular disease (82.1%(69/84), 88.2%(30/34), 89.3%(25/28) vs. 47.6%(10/21), χ2=10.21, 10.75, 10.80, all P=0.001); the incidence of secondary hyperparathyroidism in women was higher than that in men (80.0%(64/80) vs. 95.0%(57/60), χ2=6.58, P=0.010). The incidence of LVH in children aged 6-<12 was higher than that in children aged 12-18 (73.5%(25/34) vs. 43.1%(22/51), χ2=7.62, P=0.006). Among 113 follow-up children, the mortality rate was 39.8% (45/113). Compared to the survival group, the children in the death group had lower hemoglobin, higher blood pressure, lower albumin, lower alkaline phosphatase and higher left ventricular mass index ((67±19) vs. (75±20) g/L, 142 (126, 154) vs. 128(113, 145) mmHg(1 mmHg=0.133 kPa), (91±21) vs. (82±22) mmHg, 32 (26, 41) vs. 40 (31, 43) g/L, 151 (82, 214) vs. 215 (129, 37) U/L, 48 (38, 66) vs. 38(32, 50) g/m2.7,t=2.03, Z=2.89, t=2.70, Z=2.49, 2.79, 2.29,all P<0.05), but no independent risk factors were identified (all P>0.05). The peritoneal dialysis group had better alleviation for anemia, low calcium, and high phosphorus than the hemodialysis group ((87±22) vs. (72±16) g/L, (1.9±0.5) vs. (1.7±0.4) mmol/L, (2.2±0.7) vs. (2.8±0.9) mmol/L, t=2.92, 2.29, 2.82, all P<0.05), and the survival rate of the peritoneal dialysis group was significantly higher than that of the hemodialysis group (77.8% (28/36) vs. 48.4% (30/62), χ2=8.14, P=0.004). Conclusions: CAKUT is the most common etiology in children with CKD 5, and anemia is the most common complication. The incidence of complications in children with CKD 5 varies with age, gender and etiology. Anemia, hypertension, hypoalbuminemia, reduced alkaline phosphatase and elevated LVMI may be the prognostic factors in children with CKD5. Peritoneal dialysis may be more beneficial for improving the long-term survival rate.


Subject(s)
Male , Humans , Child , Female , Retrospective Studies , Alkaline Phosphatase , Kidney Failure, Chronic/therapy , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/therapy , Hypertension , Risk Factors , Hypertrophy, Left Ventricular/etiology , Anemia/etiology
12.
Chinese Journal of Pediatrics ; (12): 700-707, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1013158

ABSTRACT

Objective: To compare the application of China growth standard for children under 7 years of age (China standards) and World Health Organization child growth standards (WHO standards) in evaluating the prevalence of malnutrition in children aged 0-<6 years in China. Methods: The research data came from the national special program for science & technology basic resources investigation of China, named "2019-2021 survey and application of China's nutrition and health system for children aged 0-18 years". Multi-stage stratified random sampling was used to recruit 28 districts (regions) in 14 provinces, autonomous regions or municipalities across the country. Children (n=38 848) were physically measured and questionnaires were conducted in the guardians of the children. The indicators of stunting, underweight, wasting, overweight and obesity were evaluated by China standards and WHO standards respectively. Chi-square test was used to comparing the prevalence of each nutritional status between the two standards, as well as the comparison between the two standards by gender and age. Results: Among the 38 848 children, 19 650 were boys (50.6%) and 19 198 were girls (49.4%), 19 480 urban children (50.1%) and 19 368 rural children (49.9%). The stunting, underweight and wasting cases in the study population were 2 090 children (5.4%), 1 354 children (3.5%) and 1 276 children (3.3%) according to the China standards, and 1 474 children (3.8%), 701 children (1.8%) and 824 children (2.1%) according to the WHO standards, respectively; the above rates according to the China standards were slightly higher than those to the WHO standards (χ2=111.59, 213.14, and 99.99, all P<0.001). The overweight and obesity cases in the study population were 2 186 children (5.6%) and 1 153 children (3.0%) according to the China standards, and 2 210 children (5.7%) and 1 186 children (3.1%) according to the WHO standards, with no statistically significant differences (χ2=0.14 and 0.48, P=0.709 and 0.488, respectively). Compared to the results based on WHO standards, the China standards showed a lower prevalence of overweight and obesity in boys (χ2=14.95 and 5.85, P<0.001 and =0.016, respectively), and higher prevalence of overweight in girls (χ2=12.60, P<0.001); but there was no statistically significant differences in girls' obesity prevalence between the two standards (χ2=2.62, P=0.106). Conclusions: In general, the prevalence of malnutrition among children aged 0-<6 years based on China standards is slightly higher than that on WHO standards. To evaluate the nutritional status of children, it is advisable to select appropriate child growth standards based on work requirements, norms or research objectives.


Subject(s)
Male , Female , Child , Humans , Child, Preschool , Nutritional Status , Overweight/epidemiology , Thinness/epidemiology , Obesity/epidemiology , Malnutrition/epidemiology , Growth Disorders/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Prevalence
13.
Chinese Journal of Experimental Traditional Medical Formulae ; (24): 117-125, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-953931

ABSTRACT

ObjectiveThrough the targeted lipidomics, we explored the intervention mechanism of Kaixuan Bushen method on psoriasis vulgaris (PV) from the perspective of lipid metabolism, providing reference for the diagnosis and treatment of PV. MethodTwenty-six patients with PV admitting the outpatient clinic of the Department of Dermatology, Guang'anmen Hospital, China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences from September 2019 to November 2020 were selected as the research object (observation group), and 26 sex- and age-matched healthy volunteers in the same period were recruited as control group. Venous blood was collected for lipid index and targeted lipidomics detection in the control and observation groups at inclusion. After 12 weeks of continuous treatment of Kaixuan Bushen method, the psoriasis area and severity index (PASI) was measured and compared before and after treatment to assess the clinical efficacy, while venous blood was collected again in the observation group to compare the blood lipid level and lipid metabolism of patients before and after treatment. Targeted lipidomics analysis was performed by ultra performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) on an ACQUITY UPLC BEH C8 column (2.1 mm×100 mm, 1.7 μm) with mobile phase of 5 mmol∙L-1 ammonium formate in acetonitrile-water (6∶4, A)-5 mmol∙L-1 ammonium formate in acetonitrile-isopropanol (1∶9, B) for gradient elution and flow rate of 0.26 mL∙min-1. Conditions of MS were electrospray ionization (ESI), positive and negative ion modes, and scanning range of m/z 50-1 200. Then principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) models were developed to screen differential metabolites, and the differential metabolites were identified and the pathways were enriched. ResultAfter 12 weeks of treatment with Kaixuan Bushen method, PASI score decreased by more than 50% in a total of 22 out of 26 patients with PV, suggesting the total effective rate was 84.62%. The serum triglyceride level of patients with PV was significantly higher than that of healthy individuals (P<0.05), and the triglyceride level was significantly reduced after treatment (P<0.05). Targeted lipidomics analysis screened a total of 43 potential biomarkers for PV, of which 42 were up-regulated and 1 was down-regulated, involving 7 signaling pathways such as linoleic acid metabolism, glycerophospholipid metabolism and unsaturated fatty acid biosynthesis. Moreover, there were 14 response makers for clinical efficacy of Kaixuan Bushen method on PV, of which 6 were up-regulated and 8 were down-regulated, involving five signaling pathways such as linoleic acid metabolism, glycerophospholipid metabolism and sphingolipids metabolism. In a comparison between healthy individuals and patients with PV and PV before and after treatment, the common differential metabolites were screened as phosphatidylcholine (PC) 38∶0 and ceramide (Cer) 42∶1, and the common pathways were linoleic acid and glycerophospholipid metabolic pathways. ConclusionThe disorder of lipid metabolism in PV are largely due to abnormal sphingolipid, glycerophospholipid and linoleic acid metabolic pathways, of which Kaixuan Bushen method can regulate the glycerophospholipid and linoleic acid metabolism, thereby improving psoriatic lesions.

14.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 2203-2217, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-999143

ABSTRACT

To address the continuous emergence of drug-resistant strains of viruses and the outbreaks of novel virus infections, developing new antiviral drugs based on novel strategies has become an important and urgent research topic. In recent years, the rapidly developing multi-specific binding strategy has become a focus and been widely applied in antiviral. This review summarizes the recent progress of the multi-specific binding strategy in the antiviral field from the perspective of medicinal chemistry and discusses existing challenges as well as future opportunities for antiviral drug discovery.

15.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 3270-3284, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-999071

ABSTRACT

Hepatitis B virus infection is a serious threat to human life and health. The approved anti-HBV drugs including interferons and nucleos(t)ide analogues have serious adverse effect, rebound phenomena after drug withdrawal, and drug resistance. And the cccDNA cannot be completely eliminated by both of them, which is the reason why a complete cure for hepatitis B cannot be achieved. Therefore, developing anti-HBV drugs directly targeting protein or nucleic acid of HBV remains a current public health priority. Based on the analysis of representative literature from the last decade, this article reviews recent developments in small molecule inhibitors directly targeting HBV from a medicinal chemistry perspective.

16.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 2979-2994, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-999040

ABSTRACT

Hepatitis B virus (HBV) represents a significant global public health challenge. Despite the availability of several approved drugs for hepatitis B treatment, the persistence of covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA) renders HBV eradication elusive, thereby leading to disease relapse after drug withdrawal. This paper reviews the regulatory mechanisms of cccDNA formation, transcription and replication, and summarizes the research progress of related small molecule regulators from the perspective of medicinal chemistry.

17.
Digital Chinese Medicine ; (4): 317-327, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-997735

ABSTRACT

@#Objective To investigate the underlying mechanism of the compound Bugansan Decoction (补肝散, BGSD) in intervening learning and memory in D-galactose (D-gal)-induced aging rats. @*Methods@#A total of 40 rats were randomly assigned to four groups: control, model, BGSD [14.06 g/(kg·d)], and piracetam [0.4 g/(kg·d)] groups, with 10 rats in each group. D-gal [400 mg/(kg·d)] was injected intraperitoneally to establish the aging rat model. The rats' body weight, water intake, food intake, and gripping strength were recorded each week. The eightarm maze and step-down test were used to measure the rats' capacity for learning and memory. Liver, thymus, spleen, and brain tissues were weighed to calculate the corresponding organ indices; serum malondialdehyde (MDA) content and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity were measured. Hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining was adopted to observe the pathological changes of the hippocampus; enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to detect the levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-6, and IL-1β in the hippocampus. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) was used to detect the expression of receptors for advanced glycation end products (RAGE), nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1β mRNA in the hippocampus. Western blot (WB) was employed to detect the expression levels of advanced glycation end products (AGEs), RAGE, and NF-κB protein in the hippocampus. @*Results@#In D-gal-induced aging rats, BGSD significantly increased food intake, water intake, body weight, gripping strength, and organ indices (P < 0.05), and significantly decreased working memory error (WME), reference memory error (RME), and total memory errors (TE) in an eight-arm maze (P < 0.05). In the step-down test, step-down latency was prolonged and the frequency of errors dropped (P < 0.05). Additionally, BGSD could lessen the harm done to hippocampus neurons, increase serum SOD activity, lower MDA levels, and down-regulate the expression levels of the pro-inflammatory molecules TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1β (P < 0.05). Further findings showed that BGSD significantly decreased hippocampal AGEs, RAGE, and NF-κB expression (P < 0.05). @*Conclusion@#By blocking the AGEs/RAGE/NF-κB signaling pathway, BGSD may regulate the neuroinflammatory damage in D-gal-induced aging rats, and thus improve learning and memory.

18.
Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control ; (6): 213-216, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-973708

ABSTRACT

Objective To perform an epidemiological investigation on a case of visceral leishmaniasis reported from Shule County, Kashi Prefecture, Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region in 2021, so as to provide insights into differential diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis during the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods The epidemiological history of this case was collected, and the case was diagnosed for Leishmania infection with the immunochromatographic (rK39) strip test, bone marrow smear microscopy and PCR assay. Results The patient had typical clinical symptoms of leishmaniasis, including irregular fever, hepatosplenomeg- aly, low serum albumin and elevated globulin. Bone marrow smear microscopy identified L. donovani amastigotes, and both rK39 strip test and PCR assay were positive, while the case was tested negative for SARS-CoV-2. COVID-19 was therefore excluded and visceral leishmaniasis was diagnosed. Standard full-dose treatment with sodium stibogluconate was given, and no Leishmania was found on blood smears during the reexamination. No recurrence was found during the followup after discharge for hospital. Conclusions During the COVID-19 pandemic, it is recommended to increase the perception of differential diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis among first-contact doctors, and reinforce the capability of differential diagnosis and health education of visceral leishmaniasis among medical and healthcare institutions at all levels, to prevent missed diagnosis and misdiagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis.

19.
Chinese Journal of Experimental Traditional Medical Formulae ; (24): 179-189, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-972300

ABSTRACT

Lancang-Mekong countries refer to the six countries that the Lancang-Mekong River flows through, including China, Laos, Myanmar, Thailand, Cambodia, and Vietnam. These countries are geographically adjacent with similar cultures and have long history of traditional medicine and high plant diversity. Since ancient times, medicinal plants have been introduced into China from the countries along the river, including a variety of medicinal plants with edible and healthcare values, which is an important way for the transnational circulation of medicinal resources. This paper briefly described the history and application of edible medicinal plants in the six Lancang-Mekong countries and summarized more than 150 edible medicinal plants from the other five countries except China. These 150 medicinal plants belong to 66 families such as Labiatae, and 12 species of them are used as edible medicinal plants in all the six countries. Further, we collected the information of these edible medicinal plants, including the origins, efficacy, indications, medicinal edible parts, edible values, and the traditional application of these plants in China. Some valuable edible medicinal plants in the other five countries are considered to have a promising prospect of application in China and may be introduced to China as new medicinal resources. These efforts will be conducive to the cooperation in traditional medicine among Lancang-Mekong countries.

20.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 5259-5270, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008723

ABSTRACT

Moringa oleifera leaves are known for their "Virechana"(purgative) effect in Ayurvedic medicine in India. This study compared the purgative effects and mechanisms of M. oleifera leaves with the reference Rhei Radix et Rhizoma to establish a foundation for the further application of M. oleifera leaves in traditional Chinese medicine(TCM). Using network pharmacology and molecular docking methods, this study identified the material basis, common targets, and signaling pathways through which Rhei Radix et Rhizoma and M. oleifera leaves exerted their purgative pharmacological effects. A low-fiber diet-induced constipation mouse model was established to measure fecal parameters and small intestinal propulsion rate, and histological changes in the colon were observed using HE staining. Relative expression levels of relevant genes and target proteins were assessed using RT-qPCR and immunohistochemistry, respectively. The results showed that mapping the targets of Rhei Radix et Rhizoma and M. oleifera leaves onto the biological process network of constipation revealed close proximity, indicating that they may exert their therapeutic effects on constipation through similar biological processes. Molecular docking results indicated that compounds such as sennoside C and isoquercitrin could target serine/threonine protein kinases(AKT1) and mitogen-activated protein kinase 3(MAPK3), thereby affecting MAPK and calcium signaling pathways to promote defecation. Animal experiments demonstrated that both M. oleifera leaves and Rhei Radix et Rhizoma increased the number of fecal pellets and water content in constipated mice, improved small intestine motility, colon mucosal thickness, and muscle layer thickness, upregulated the gene expression levels of AKT1 and MAPK3 in the colon, and downregulated the expression of AQP3 protein. These findings suggest that M. oleifera leaves and Rhei Radix et Rhizoma share similarities in their therapeutic efficacy and mechanisms for treating constipation. Using Rhei Radix et Rhizoma as a reference can provide a better understanding of the characteristics of the "Virechana"(purgative) effect of M. oleifera leaves in TCM.


Subject(s)
Mice , Animals , Cathartics , Moringa oleifera , Molecular Docking Simulation , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/chemistry , Constipation
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