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1.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921747

ABSTRACT

This study investigated the differential mechanisms of Rehmanniae Radix and Rehmanniae Radix Praeparata in improving diabetes in mice through AMPK-mediated NF-κB/NLRP3 signaling pathway. The diabetic mouse model was established with high-fat diet coupled with streptozotocin(STZ, intraperitoneal injection, 100 mg·kg~(-1), once a day for three consecutive days), after which the mice were randomly divided into model group, low-dose(5 g·kg~(-1)) and high-dose(15 g·kg~(-1)) Rehmanniae Radix groups, low-dose(5 g·kg~(-1)) and high-dose(15 g·kg~(-1)) Rehmanniae Radix Praeparata groups, catalpol group(250 mg·kg~(-1)), 5-hydroxymethylfurfural(5-HMF) group(250 mg·kg~(-1)), metformin group(250 mg·kg~(-1)), with the normal group also set. The organ indexes of heart,liver, spleen, lung, kidney and pancreas were calculated after four weeks of administration. The pathological changes and fibrosis of pancreas, kidney and liver in mice were observed by hematoxylin-eosin(HE) staining and Masson staining. Western blot was used to determine the expression levels of Toll-like receptor-4(TLR4), nuclear factor-κB(NF-κB), Nod-like receptor protein 3(NLRP3),interleukin-1β(IL-1β), adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase(AMPK), phosphorylated AMPK(p-AMPK) in the pancreas, kidney and liver of mice. Compared with the model group, the administration groups witnessed significant decrease in the liver,spleen, kidney, pancreas and fat indexes of diabetic mice, and there was no significant difference in heart and lung indexes. The pathological states and fibrosis of pancreatic, kidney and liver tissues were significantly improved after administration. Additionally, the expression levels of TLR4, NF-κB and NLRP3 in pancreas, kidney and liver of diabetic mice were significantly lowered. The expression levels of p-AMPK/AMPK were enhanced significantly in kidney and liver of mice in Rehmanniae Radix group while in pancreas, kidney and liver in Rehmanniae Radix Praeparata group. This suggests that Rehmanniae Radix and Rehmanniae Radix Praeparata differ in the mechanism of regulating energy metabolism of multiple organs and thereby exerting anti-inflammatory effects to alleviate symptoms of diabetic mice.


Subject(s)
AMP-Activated Protein Kinases/genetics , Animals , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/drug therapy , Diet, High-Fat/adverse effects , Mice , NF-kappa B/metabolism , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein , Plant Extracts , Rehmannia , Signal Transduction , Streptozocin
2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-777532

ABSTRACT

To compare the blood-cooling and hemostasis effects of Rehmanniae Radix before and after carbonizing on rats with blood heat and hemorrhage syndrome. The blood heat and hemorrhage syndrome rat model was established. Indexes including rectal temperature,whole blood viscosity,plasma viscosity,thrombin time(TT),activated partial thromboplastin time(APTT),prothrombin time(PT),fibrinogen content(FIB),red blood cell(RBC),hemoglobin(Hb),hematocrit(HCT),blood platelet count(PLT),mean platelet volume(MPV),serum IL-1,serum IL-6 and lung histopathology were detected to investigate the blood-cooling and hemostasis effects of Rehmanniae Radix and its carbonized products. Compared with the blank control group,the rectal temperature was significantly increased with rise of the high,middle and low whole blood viscosities and plasma viscosity(P<0.05); both the high and low whole blood restore viscosity and the high and low whole blood relative viscosity were increased significantly(P< 0.05); TT,APTT and PT were notably prolonged with the increase in FIB content(P<0.05); RBC,Hb and HCT increased significantly(P< 0.05); concentrations of serum IL-1 and IL-6 were also increased(P< 0.05) in model group. Additionally,obvious hemorrhages in lung and stomach were observed in rats of the model group. Rehmanniae Radix and its carbonized products can significantly reduce rectal temperature,high middle and low whole blood viscosities and plasma viscosity(P<0.05). TT and APTT were shortened,with lower expression of FIB in group of Rehmannia Radix and its carbonized products. Hemorrhages of lung and stomach were improved by Rehmannia Radix and its carbonized products. The results indicated that Rehmannia Radix before and after carbonizing had the hemostasis and blood-cooling effects by promoting coagulation,improving blood rheology and inhibiting expressions of IL-1 and IL-6.


Subject(s)
Animals , Blood Coagulation , Blood Viscosity , Body Temperature , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Pharmacology , Hemorrhage , Drug Therapy , Hemostasis , Interleukin-1 , Metabolism , Interleukin-6 , Metabolism , Partial Thromboplastin Time , Plant Roots , Rats , Rehmannia , Chemistry , Thrombin Time
3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-801837

ABSTRACT

Objective: To compare the protective effect of Phytolaccae Radix and its processed products on nephropathy induced by doxorubicin (DOX) in rats, and explore its mechanism. Method: A rat model of nephropathy was established by a single tail intravenous injection of DOX hydrochloride. Content of esculentoside A (EsA) in Phytolaccae Radix and its processed products was determined by HPLC-ELSD. Contents of serum total protein (TP), albumin (Alb), urea nitrogen (BUN), serum creatinine (SCr), total cholesterol (TC) and urine protein (UP) were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The mRNA and protein expression of transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) in renal tissue of rats was examined by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (Real-time PCR) and immunohistochemistry. Result: A single intravenous injection of DOX could induce a severe nephrotic syndrome associated with decreased serum TP, Alb and elevated serum BUN, SCr, TC, and a high urinary excretion of protein (Pβ in renal tissue of model group rats was significantly higher than that of blank group (PPPConclusion: Phytolaccae Radix and its processed products can improve the symptoms of DOX nephropathy model rats in different degrees, among which the vinegar prepared products have the strongest effect, and this effect may be related to the reduction of TGF-β expression in renal tissue.

4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-775350

ABSTRACT

In the thermal analysis, the pyrolysis characteristics of crude Kansui Radix, alcohol extract of Kansui Radix, petroleum ether extract, chloroform extract, ethyl acetate extract, n-butanol extract, and licorice vinegar were analyzed with simulated air (N₂-O₂ 4:1) as the carrier gas, at a temperature increase rate of 10 °C·min⁻¹ and a volume flow rate of 60 mL·min⁻¹, respectively. The results showed that due to the different polarity of the extraction solvent, the type and quantity of the chemical components contained in each polar part were different, and with the increase in the amount of solid powder of licorice, the peak of the maximum heat loss rate occurred in advance. For petroleum ether, chloroform, and ethyl acetate fractions, (157.40±1.06), 3.50, (25.83±1.66) °C in advance respectively, but the weight loss rate of the chloroform fraction was increased by (2.62±5.19) °C, while decreased by (33.90±1.72), (19.28±1.11) °C for the petroleum ether and ethyl acetate fractions. So we can conclude that with the addition of licorice, the pyrolysis rate of the petroleum ether and chloroform fractions in the toxic part of Kansui Radix was increased; the temperature point at the peak of the maximum weight loss rate was decreased, and the ethyl acetate fraction (effective part) showed a decrease in temperature rising process, but its overall ratio of weight loss and weight loss rate were relatively small, retaining the effect of medicinal ingredients. This proved the mechanism of licorice system Kansui Radix on attenuating toxicity after processing and the scientificity and rationality of licorice system Kansui Radix. At the same time, as the proportion of glycyrrhizin was increased, the peak of the maximum heat loss rate of petroleum ether, chloroform and ethyl acetate fractions occurred in advance; the peak temperature was decreased, with easy pyrolysis. Among them, the thermogravimetric rate of the mixture of petroleum ether and chloroform fractions (10:1) was relatively large, with a low peak temperature, while ethyl acetate fraction showed opposite results. This conclusion has certain guiding significance for the ratio of gansui to licorice.


Subject(s)
Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Chemistry , Euphorbia , Chemistry , Glycyrrhiza , Chemistry , Plant Extracts , Chemistry , Plant Roots , Chemistry , Technology, Pharmaceutical , Temperature
5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-327179

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To determine the pyrolysis characteristics of calcined and processed calamine, qualitatively and quantitatively compare the contents of related elements, morphology and functional groups of the pyrolysis products dried at different heating temperatures and explore the critical temperature and the optimal drying temperature for the process of calamine with Huanglian Decoction (HLD, ) and San Huang Decoction (SHD, ).</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Pyrolysis products were prepared by programmable and constantly heating the calcined and processed calamine to or at different heating temperatures. Thermogravimetry (TG) was used to test their pyrolysis characteristics. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopeenergy dispersive spectrometer were used to determine their morphology, functional groups and element contents. Page model was used to investigate the constant drying kinetics of processed calamine.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>The adding of HLD or SHD to calcined calamine (CC) can slow its weight loss in drying pyrolysis process. The temperature ranges where HLD and SHD can affect its weight loss were 65-150 °C and 74-180 °C, respectively. The drying temperature was optimized as 90 °C. The drying kinetic for the processed calamine fits Page model shows good linearity.</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>Conclusions: The critical temperature and the optimal drying temperature where HLD and SHD can affect the weight loss rate in the process of calamine were explored using the theories and methods of both biophysical chemistry and processing of Chinese materia medica. This work provides a good example for the study of the process of other Chinese medicines using modern analytical techniques.</p>

6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-812308

ABSTRACT

AIM@#The aim of the work is to study the pyrolysis characteristics of radix rhizoma rhei, cortex moudan radicis, and radix sanguisorbae in an inert atmosphere of argon (Ar), and to investigate the mechanism of the carbonizing process of the three traditional Chinese herbs.@*METHODS@#The pyrolysis characteristics of the crude materials and their extracts were studied by thermogravimetry-mass spectrometry (TG-MS) in a carrier gas of argon, coupled with Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) methods. Correlation of the pyrolysis behaviors with the carbonizing process by stir-frying of traditional Chinese medicines was made.@*RESULTS@#Within the temperature range of 200-300 °C, which is the testing range for the study of the carbonizing process of Chinese herbs, the temperatures indicated by the maximum weight loss rate peak of the above three extracts were taken as the upper-limit temperatures of the carbonizing process of the herbs, and which were 200, 240 and 247 °C for radix rhizoma rhei, cortex moudan radicis, and radix Sanguisorbae, respectively. The ion monitoring signal peaks detected by the TG-MS method corresponded with reports that the level of chemical components of traditional Chinese medicinal materials would decrease after the carbonizing process. It was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) methods that better results of "medicinal property preservation" could be obtained by heating at 200 °C for radix rhizoma rhei, at about 250 °C for cortex moudan radicis, and radix sanguisorbae, as the relative intensity values of the common peaks were among the middle of their three carbonized samples by programmed heating.@*CONCLUSION@#The upper-limit temperatures of the carbonizing process for radix rhizoma rhei, cortex moudan radicis and radix sanguisorbae were 200, 240 and 247 °C respectively. It is feasible to research the mechanism and technology of the carbonizing process of traditional Chinese medicinal materials using thermogravimetry, Fourier transform infrared spectrometry, and scanning electron microscopy methods.


Subject(s)
Chemistry, Pharmaceutical , Methods , Drug Stability , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Chemistry , Hot Temperature , Mass Spectrometry , Rheum , Chemistry , Rhizome , Sanguisorba , Chemistry
7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-287593

ABSTRACT

Thermogravimetry (TG), TG-MS, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscope (SEM)-energy dispersive spectrometer(EDS) were adopted to investigate the pyrolysis characteristics of calamina. According to the findings of the qualitative and quantitative studies on the changes in the content of relevant elements, the whole shape, the functional groups, and the volatile components of calamina before and after being pyrolyzed, the 200-360, 580-750 degrees C were two sensitive temperature ranges related to the changes in effective component during calamina processing. Thermal weight loss was observed for ZnCO3, Zn(OH)2 and ZnCO3-2Zn(OH)2-H2O under 200-360 degrees C and for CaCO3 under 580-750 degrees C. The results of studies on chemical reaction kinetics showed good linear relations. This experiment integrated relevant methods and theories of physical chemistry and science of traditional Chinese medicine processing, and interpretes calamina processing techniques and mechanism, in order to provide a good example for modem studies on other traditional Chinese medicine processing.


Subject(s)
Drug Combinations , Drug Compounding , Methods , Ferric Compounds , Chemistry , Kinetics , Temperature , Zinc Oxide , Chemistry
8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-308578

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To investigate the processing mechanism of Zushima which was stir-fried with licorice.</p><p><b>METHOD</b>Study of pyrolysis characteristics for extraction of Zushima effective part, petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate, n-butanol parts and the mixture of Zushima effective parts and licorice solid powder according to the proportion of 10: 1, 10: 2, 10: 3 was carried out in the thermogravimetric analyzer, the simulation of air (N2-O2 4:1) was chosen as carrier gas and heating rate was 5 degrees C x min(-1).</p><p><b>RESULT</b>Compared with TG-DTG curve of Zushima effective parts, the major weightloss temperature range of petroleum ether extraction which has strong stimulation was 320-390 degrees C, 0.69% x min(-1) weightlessness rate peak gradually moved forward with the addition of licorice powder, finally it was merged with the peak around 265 degrees C. In addition, effective department of Zushima at 291, 516 degrees C for 2.38% x min(-1) and 2.42% x min(-1) thermal weightlessness rate peak shift to lower temperature, the moving range were about 20-26, 19-50 degrees C, the former was significantly reduced, the latter was significantly increased.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>In the course of programmed temperature heating, petroleum ether department was easy to lose with the addition oflicorice solid powder. At the same time, the main efficacy components of Zushima had a slow loss rate, which supported the processing mechanisms of TG-DTG method to research traditional Chinese medicine, and verified irritating characteristics that stimulus reduced after stir-fried with licorice.</p>


Subject(s)
Chemistry, Pharmaceutical , Methods , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Chemistry , Glycyrrhiza , Chemistry , Thermogravimetry , Methods
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