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1.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-300391

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To study the influence of cow's milk protein allergy (CMPA) on the diagnosis of functional gastrointestinal diseases (FGID) based on the Rome IV standard in infants and young children.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>A total of 84 children aged 1 month to 3 years who were diagnosed with CMPA were enrolled as the case group, and 84 infants and young children who underwent physical examination and had no CMPA were enrolled as the control group. The pediatricians specializing in gastroenterology asked parents using a questionnaire for the diagnosis of FGID based on the Rome IV standard to assess clinical symptoms and to diagnose FGID.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>The case group had a significantly higher incidence rate of a family history of allergies than the control group (P<0.05). In the case group, 38 (45%) met the Rome IV standard for the diagnosis of FGID, while in the control group, 13 (15%) met this standard (P<0.05). According to the Rome IV standard for FGID, the case group had significantly higher diagnostic rates of reflex, functional diarrhea, difficult defecation, and functional constipation than the control group (P<0.05). The children who were diagnosed with FIGD in the control group were given conventional treatment, and those in the case group were asked to avoid the intake of cow's milk protein in addition to the conventional treatment. After 3 months of treatment, the case group had a significantly higher response rate to the treatment than the control group (P<0.05).</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>In infants and young children, CMPA has great influence on the diagnosis of FGID based on the Rome IV standard. The possibility of CMPA should be considered during the diagnosis of FGID.</p>

2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-346194

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To investigate the prevalence, current treatment, and clinical characteristics of asthma, as well as the risk factors for this disease, among children aged 0-14 years in 2010 in urban Zhongshan, China.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>A total of 10 336 children aged 0-14 years were selected from urban Zhongshan by cluster random sampling. The Third National Childhood Asthma Epidemiological Questionnaire 2010 was used to analyze the prevalence, current treatment, and clinical characteristics of childhood asthma, as well as the risk factors for this disease.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Asthma was diagnosed in 179 cases (1.73%). The prevalence of asthma in male children was significantly higher than that in female children (2.25% vs 1.16%; P<0.01). Of the 179 patients, severe attacks were common in 104 cases (58.1%), 110 cases (61.5%) had slow onset, 102 cases (57.0%) had gradually relieved conditions, 61 cases (34.1%) suffered from asthma during seasonal transition, and 150 cases (83.8%) developed asthma due to respiratory tract infection. Among all asthmatic children, 71.5% had been treated with inhaled corticosteroids, and 71.5% had been treated with bronchodilator. The multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that a history of penicillin allergy, a family history of allergy, food allergy, eczema, allergic rhinitis, cesarean delivery, family mould, and perinatal passive smoking were independent risk factors for childhood asthma.</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>The prevalence of childhood asthma in urban Zhongshan is on a high level, and is associated with gender. The treatment of asthma has been standardized, but still needs further improvement. The onset of asthma attack is influenced by various factors.</p>


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Asthma , Epidemiology , Child , Child, Preschool , China , Epidemiology , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Risk Factors , Seasons , Time Factors
3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-279043

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To study the risk factors for moderate and severe iron deficiency anemia (IDA) in infants aged 6-12 months, and to preliminarily investigate the effects of IDA on the neuromotor development and temperament characteristics of infants.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>A total of 326 infants aged 6-12 months with IDA were classified into three groups: mild IDA (n=176), moderate IDA (n=111), and severe IDA (n=39) according to the severity of anemia. The risk factors for moderate or severe IDA were investigated by multivariate logistic regression analysis. Three hundred and forty-six infants without IDA who showed matched age, sex, and other backgrounds were selected as the control group. The Gesell Development Diagnosis Scale was used to evaluate children's mental development. The Temperament Scale for infants was used for evaluating children's temperament.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>The univariate analysis showed that the severity of IDA was associated with sex, birth weight, gestational age, multiple birth, maternal anemia during pregnancy, and mother's lack of knowledge about IDA (P<0.05). Setting the mild IDA group as control, the multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that multiple birth, premature birth, low birth weight (<2500 g), maternal anemia during pregnancy, breast feeding, and mother's lack of knowledge about IDA were the risk factors for severe IDA (OR>1; P<0.05); premature birth, breast feeding, and mixed feeding were the risk factors for moderate IDA (OR>1; P<0.05). The IDA group had significantly lower scores in Gesell general development quotient, gross motor, adaptive behavior, and fine motor than the control group (P<0.05). The IDA group had higher percentages of children with difficulty and intermediate difficulty temperaments than the control group (P<0.05). The IDA group had significantly higher scores in activity level, rhythmicity, adaptability, and perseverance than the control group (P<0.05).</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>The severity of IDA is associated with premature birth, multiple birth, low birth weight, feeding pattern, maternal anemia during pregnancy and mother's lack of knowledge about IDA in infants aged 6-12 months. Infants with IDA have delayed neuromotor development and most of them have negative temperaments. More attention should be paid to mental and behavior problems for the infants. It is necessary to provide guidance for their parents in feeding and education.</p>


Subject(s)
Anemia, Iron-Deficiency , Child Development , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Low Birth Weight , Logistic Models , Male , Psychomotor Performance , Risk Factors
4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-254211

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To investigate the incidence of wheezing and chronic cough in children aged 3-14 years in different living areas of Zhongshan, China.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>According to the unified program of the 2010 national epidemiological survey of asthmatic children aged 0-14 years, a questionnaire survey of the children aged 3-14 years in rural and urban areas of Zhongshan was conducted.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>A total of 15 763 children were included in the survey. Among all participants, 8 248 were from the urban area, and 7 515 from the rual area; 8 306 were boys, and 7 457 were girls. The percentage of children with a history of wheezing was significantly higher in the urban group than in the rural group (6.6% vs 3.2%; P<0.05), and it was significantly higher in boys than in girls for each group (P<0.05). The urban group had a significantly higher percentage of individuals who had wheezing in the past one year than the rural group (2.8% vs 1.5%; P<0.05), and this percentage was significantly higher in boys than in girls for each group (P<0.05). Compared with the rural group, the urban group had a significantly higher percentage of individuals who had chronic cough (duration 1 year) (7.9% vs 3.1%; P<0.05). The above indices were relatively high in children under 6 years of age, and all but the percentage of girls who had wheezing in the past one year in both rural and urban areas showed significant differences between all age groups.</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>The incidence of wheezing and chronic cough varies with age, sex, and living area for children aged 3-14 years in Zhongshan, and it is relatively high under 6 years of age, in the urban area, and among boys.</p>


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Child , Child, Preschool , China , Epidemiology , Chronic Disease , Cough , Epidemiology , Female , Humans , Incidence , Male , Respiratory Sounds , Surveys and Questionnaires
5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-241473

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To investigate the causes of unintentional injuries in children and to provide reference for reducing the incidence of unintentional injuries in children.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>A retrospective analysis was performed on the clinical data of 924 children with unintentional injuries who were hospitalized in Zhongshan Boai Hospital from January 2008 to December 2010.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Of the 924 cases, 26.4% suffered falls, which was the most common cause of injuries, 15.7% suffered burns and scalds, 14.0% were injured by foreign bodies, and 13.1% were injured in traffic accidents. Unintentional injuries occurred mainly among children aged 0-3 years (67%). The proportion of cases in summer (July to September) was significantly higher than in any other season (P < 0.05), and burns were the common causes of injuries in summer. Home was the most common place where unintentional injuries occurred (36.9%). The incidence of traffic accidents was significantly higher in non-local children than in local children (P < 0.001). As for the parents' educational levels, the children whose parents had an education level below junior middle school accounted for the highest proportion of all cases of unintentional injury (45.5%). Injuried cases in rural areas accounted for a significantly higher percentage than in urban areas (P < 0.05).</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>Falls are the principal cause of unintentional injuries in children. Young children (0-3 years) are most vulnerable to unintentional injuries. Unintentional injuries mostly occur at home. The incidence of traffic accidents is higher in non-local children than in local children. Parents' education levels are associated with the incidence of unintentional injuries. In order to reduce the incidence of unintentional injuries in children, preventive measures must be carried out, and safety education should be enhanced in consideration of children's age, sex and family background.</p>


Subject(s)
Accidents , Adolescent , Child , Child, Preschool , Educational Status , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Parents , Retrospective Studies
6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-241429

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To study the influence of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency on hand-foot-mouth disease (HFMD) induced by enterovirus 71 (EV71) , and possible mechanisms.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>A total of 220 boys with HFMD induced by EV71 were classified into two groups based on disease severity: mild/moderate (n=145) and severe HFMD groups (n=75), and 132 healthy boys were selected as the control group. The activity of G6PD and levels of reduced glutathione (GSH) and malonaldehyde (MDA) in blood were measured using the automatic biochemical analyzer.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>The percentage of G6PD deficiency cases in the severe HFMD group was significantly higher than in the control group (P<0.0125). In the severe HFMD group, the durations of fever, mental abnormality, limb trembling and hospital stay were significantly longer in children with G6PD deficiency than in those with normal G6PD activity (P<0.05). In the acute and recovery stages, patients in the mild/moderate and severe HFMD groups had significantly lower GSH levels and G6PD activity and significantly higher MDA levels compared with those in the control group (P<0.05). In the acute stage, children in the mild/moderate and severe HFMD groups with G6PD deficiency had significantly lower GSH levels and significantly higher MDA levels compared with those with normal G6PD activity (P<0.01). In the acute and recovery stages, GSH level in children with HFMD was positively correlated with G6PD activity (r=0.61, P<0.01; r=0.58, P<0.01), and in the acute stage, MDA level was negatively correlated with G6PD activity (r=-0.29, P<0.01).</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>G6PD deficiency is probably a predisposing factor for HFMD induced by EV71 and may aggravate the patient's condition. Its mechanism might be related to oxidative stress.</p>


Subject(s)
Child, Preschool , Enterovirus A, Human , Glucosephosphate Dehydrogenase , Blood , Glucosephosphate Dehydrogenase Deficiency , Glutathione , Blood , Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease , Humans , Infant , Male , Malondialdehyde , Blood
7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-308787

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To investigate the roles of the residential environment and eating habits in the pathogenesis of bronchial asthma in school children.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>One hundred and twenty-nine children between 6-12 years who were diagnosed with asthma were enrolled. Two hundred and fifty-eight healthy age- and gender-matched children were used as the control group. A questionaire which included 23 factors related to respiratory tract anaphylactic diseases such as residential environment and eating habits were completed by the children's parents.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Logistic regression analysis showed that 6 variances out of 16 agents of the residential environment, the experience of raising pets, the type of floor, the type of pillow, the type of quilts, the heating equipments and the house area, were entered into the regression equation; none of the 7 variances of eating inhabits was entered into it.</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>The residential environment plays an impotent role in the pathogenesis of bronchial asthma in children. The incidence of bronchial asthma in children can be reduced by the improvement of the residential environment.</p>


Subject(s)
Asthma , Case-Control Studies , Child , Female , Humans , Logistic Models , Male , Risk Factors
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