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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922536

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Functional constipation (FC) is one of the most prevalent functional gastrointestinal disorders. Dissatisfaction with medications prescribed to treat FC may lead patients to seek alternative treatments. Numerous systematic reviews (SRs) examining the use of acupuncture to treat FC have reported inconsistent results, and the quality of these studies has not been fully evaluated.@*OBJECTIVE@#In this overview, we evaluated and summarized clinical evidence on the effectiveness and safety of acupuncture for treating FC and evaluated the quality and bias of the SRs we reviewed.@*SEARCH STRATEGY@#The search strategy was structured by medical subject headings and search terms such as "acupuncture therapy" and "functional constipation." Electronic searches were conducted in eight databases from their inception to September 2020.@*INCLUSION CRITERIA@#SRs that investigated the effectiveness and safety of acupuncture for managing FC were included.@*DATA EXTRACTION AND ANALYSIS@#Two authors independently extracted information and appraised the methodology, reporting accuracy, quality of evidence, and risk of bias using the following critical appraisal tools: (1) A Measurement Tool to Assess Systematic Reviews 2 (AMSTAR 2); (2) Risk of Bias in Systematic Reviews (ROBIS); (3) Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses for Acupuncture (PRISMA-A); and (4) the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluations (GRADE). A κ index was used to score the level of agreement between the 2 reviewers.@*RESULTS@#Thirteen SRs that examined the clinical utility of acupuncture for treating FC were identified. Using the AMSTAR 2 tool, we rated 92.3% (12/13) of the SRs as "critically low" confidence and one study as "low" confidence. Using the ROBIS criteria, 38.5% (5/13) of the SRs were considered to have "low risk" of bias. Based on PRISMA-A, 76.9% (10/13) of the SRs had over 70% compliance with reporting standards. The inter-rater agreement was good for AMSTAR 2, ROBIS, and PRISMA-A. Using the GRADE tool, we classified 22.5% (9/40) of the measured outcomes as "moderate" quality, 57.5% (23/40) as "low" quality, and 20.0% (8/40) as "very low" quality. The inter-rater agreement was moderate when using GRADE. Descriptive analyses indicated that acupuncture was more efficacious than sham acupuncture for improving weekly complete spontaneous bowel movements (CSBMs) and for raising the Bristol Stool Form Scale (BSFS) score. Acupuncture appeared to be superior to anti-constipation drugs for improving weekly spontaneous bowel movements, the total effective rate, and the Patient Assessment of Constipation Quality of Life score. Although ten SRs mentioned the occurrence of adverse events, serious adverse events were not associated with acupuncture treatment.@*CONCLUSION@#Acupuncture may be more efficacious than sham acupuncture for improving CSBMs and BSFS scores and may be superior to anti-constipation drugs for improving bowel movement frequency, as well as quality of life. Limitations to current studies and inconsistent evidence suggest a need for more rigorous and methodologically sound SRs to draw definitive conclusions.@*SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION@#PROSPERO CRD42020189173.


Subject(s)
Acupuncture Therapy , Constipation/therapy , Humans , Quality of Life , Systematic Reviews as Topic
2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879124

ABSTRACT

In leading the high-quality development of Chinese medicine preparations, it is an important link to formulate the scientific, reasonable, and feasible guidelines for the change of Chinese medicines in accordance with the change characteristics and principles of the Chinese medicines is an important work to promote the Technical guidelines for the study of pharmaceutical changes in traditional Chinese medicines was formed by a broad consensus based on the characteristics and research results of the pharmaceutical changes in Traditional Chinese Medicines(TCM)with the principles of science and risk management. This guideline has clarified the basic principles and requirements for the evaluation of changes in TCM, specified the research and verification work of common change scenarios, defined the boundaries of changes in TCM, and proposed to encourage the use of new technologies, new methods, and new excipients that meet product characteristics. It will definitely promote the quality improvement and the secondary development of TCM. In this article, the revision background and main content of the guideline were introduced, and the main features of the Guideline were analyzed, in order to provide references for the industry.


Subject(s)
Consensus , Drug Compounding , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Quality Improvement
3.
Journal of Integrative Medicine ; (12): 303-312, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-829094

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Chronic urticaria (CU) is a common skin disease, which has a negative effect on quality of life. Current treatments do not fully control the symptoms of urticaria for many CU patients, thus effective and safe treatments for CU are still needed.@*OBJECTIVE@#This review aims to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of cupping therapy in patients with CU.@*SEARCH STRATEGY@#The search strategy looked for the presence of related keywords, such as "chronic urticaria" and "cupping therapy," in the title and abstract of research articles indexed in major databases. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were selected after querying nine electronic databases from their inception to May 2019 with the above search terms.@*INCLUSION CRITERIA@#RCTs were included if they recruited patients with CU who were intervened with dry or wet cupping. Publications could be written in Chinese or English.@*DATA EXTRACTION AND ANALYSIS@#Data were extracted, and the studies were assessed for the quality of their methodological design and risk of bias. Meta-analyses of the RCT data were conducted to assess the total effective rate of the treatment as the primary outcome. Skin disease quality of life index score, recurrence rate, and adverse events were assessed as secondary outcomes. Subgroup analyses were conducted based on different interventions.@*RESULTS@#Thirteen comparisons from 12 RCTs involving 842 participants were included. There were no significant differences between wet cupping and medications in total effective rate (n = 372; risk ratio [RR] = 1.10, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.97 to 1.25; P = 0.14) or recurrence rate (n = 240; RR = 0.56, 95% CI 0.23 to 1.36; P = 0.20). Cupping therapy, in combination with antihistamine treatment was more efficacious than antihistamines alone, with a greater total effective rate (n = 342; RR = 1.18, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.39; P = 0.03) and lower recurrence rate (n = 342; RR = 0.52, 95% CI 0.32 to 0.84; P = 0.007). Cupping therapy combined with acupuncture was more effective than acupuncture alone (n = 156; RR = 1.25, 95% CI 1.07 to 1.46; P = 0.006). No serious adverse events were reported.@*CONCLUSION@#Wet cupping may be as effective as treatment with antihistamines. When cupping therapy is used as an adjuvant therapy to antihistamines or acupuncture, it may enhance the efficacy. Results drawn from these studies should be interpreted with caution and applied with care to clinical practice, because of the poor quality among the studies that were reviewed.@*SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION@#PROSPERO, CRD42019137451.

4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-827785

ABSTRACT

To study the biopharmaceutics characteristics of paris saponin VII (PSVII). The solubility of PSVII was evaluated by measurement of the equilibrium solubility in different solvents and media. The permeability of PSVII was evaluated by measuring the oil/water partition coefficient (lgP) and determining the apparent permeability coefficient (PC) on a mono-layer Caco-2 cell model. The effects of p-glycoprotein and multidrug resistance related protein 2 on PSVII transport in mono-layer Caco-2 cell model were further investigated. Finally, the small intestinal absorption of PSVII was investigated in rat. In solvents of different pH, the equilibrium solubility of PSVII was quite low, and the dose number of PSVII was larger than 1. The lgP of PSVII was less than 0. The apparent permeability coefficient [PC] of PSVII in mono-layer Caco-2 cell model was less than 14.96 × 10 cm·s, and the efflux ratio of PSVII in mono-layer Caco-2 cell model was less than 1. The transport rate of PSVII in mono-layer Caco-2 cell model was not affected by the inhibitors of p-glycoprotein and multidrug resistance related protein 2. After oral administration, PSVII could be detected in rat intestinal contents, but could not be detected in the small intestinal mucosa. PSVII showed low solubility and permeability, which would result in low oral bioavailability in clinic. PSVII belonged to Class IV compound in biopharmaceutics classification system.

5.
Journal of Medical Biomechanics ; (6): E437-E442, 2016.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-804054

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the effects of gastrocnemius muscle forces on biomechanical mechanism of heel pain. Methods The finite element model of the foot including foot bone, soft tissues, ligaments and plantar fascia was reconstructed based foot CT images by Mimics software. The gastrocnemius force applied on the foot was 40%-90% of half-body weight(320 N) with increment of 5% of half-body weight(16 N). The plantar surface pressure distribution and peak pressure as well as the plantar fascia stress were calculated. Results The plantar surface pressure distribution was mainly concentrated on the heel and metatarsal head. With the increase of gastrocnemius force, the peak plantar pressure at the heel decreased, while the peak pressure at the front of the foot decreased at first and then increased, which reached the minimum value with the load of 224 N. The plantar fascia stress increased with the gastrocnemius force increasing. Conclusions Gastrocnemius force applied on the foot has a significant influence on the plantar pressure distribution. Finite element analysis can contribute to understanding etiology and pathology of foot diseases, predicting the biomechanical results of the treatment and provide theoretical reference for treatments.

6.
Journal of Medical Biomechanics ; (6): E427-E432, 2015.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-804457

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the effects from various angles between inferior vein cava (IVC) and right hepatic vein (RHV) on pathogenesis of IVC membranous obstruction for patients with Budd-Chiari syndrome (BCS). Methods The normal 3D solid model of IVC and hepatic veins was reconstructed using MRI angiograms, and the angle between IVC and RHV was 56°. The two models with IVC-RHV angle of 30° and 120° were established, respectively, based on the reconstructed model. The distributions of wall shear stress, static pressure and blood velocity of the 3 models were calculated by numerical simulation. Results The wall shear stresses, static pressure and blood velocity of the 3 models displayed significantly differences. Compared with the normal 56° model, the 30° model showed a higher wall pressure and lower blood velocity, while the 120° model presented a lower wall pressure and blood velocity with turbulence of blood flowing, and such hemodynamic changes would increase the risk of thrombosis. The 56° model had the fastest blood velocity. Conclusions Numerical simulation of the flow in IVC and RHV can promote to discover the pathogenesis of BCS, and help to predict risk of IVC membranous obstruction, and provide theoretical references for BCS treatment.

7.
Chinese Acupuncture & Moxibustion ; (12): 1017-1022, 2014.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-307761

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To analyze the rules for acupoint selection of acupuncture and moxibustion in domestic clinical treatment of perimenopausal syndrome based on data mining technology in modern times.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>The relevant literature were retrieved from Chinese Biomedical Literature Database (CBM), China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) and Wanfang database on this disease treated with clinical acupuncture and moxibustion in China from 1978 to 2013. The database of acupuncture-moxibustion prescription was set up. The relevant regulations of data mining technology were used to analyze the rules for acupoint selection.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Totally, 211 papers, 254 acupuncture-moxibustion prescriptions and 130 acupoints were included. The total frequency of acupoints application was 2193 times, with 14 meridians involved. The utilization of the acupoints in the lower limbs and on the back were 33.0% (723/2193) and 23.8% (521/2193) and those of yin and yang meridians were 51.8% (1136/2193) and 44.0% (965/2193), respectively. The utilization of the specific acupoints accounted for 88.7% (1946/2193).</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>In clinical treatment of perimenopausal syndrome with acupuncture and moxibustion in modern times, the acupoint selection from involved meridians is the basis, associated with multiple methods of acupoint combination; yin and yang meridians are equally important and the specific acupoints are considered particularly critical in application.</p>


Subject(s)
Acupuncture Points , Acupuncture Therapy , China , Clinical Trials as Topic , Female , Humans , Perimenopause , Physiology
8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-247062

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Clinical application of standards for reporting interventions in clinical trials of acupuncture (STRICTA) is introduced in this article, and improving opinions are proposed as well. STRICTA has already been extensively applied in designation of acupuncture clinical trials, composition of articles and quality assessment of acupuncture literature. According to the present version of STRICTA, it is suggested that items such as "standards and methods on acupoint selection and location", "angle and direction of needle insertion" and "whether the subjects ever have been acupunctured" should be further perfected. Individuated treat protocols which is highlighted on treatment according to differentiation of syndromes according to different opportunities and stages of diseases should be promoted so as to give better expression to the characteristics of Chinese medicine and enhance the clinical value of the relative literature.


Subject(s)
Acupuncture Points , Acupuncture Therapy , Methods , Reference Standards , Clinical Trials as Topic , Methods , Reference Standards , Humans , Quality Improvement
9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-247049

ABSTRACT

The data in literature of acupuncture and moxibustion on treatment of diarrhea from pre-Qin period to Qing dynasty was collected to establish prescription database and characteristics and rules of ancient acupuncture and moxibustion for diarrhea were analyzed with data mining technology. Totally 235 papers were collected and 76 acupoints were involved with 439 times of selection. The number and times of special acupoints were 72.37% (55/76) and 76.99% (338/439), respectively, which was more seen in front-mu acupoint and back-shu acupoint. The acupoints were distributed among 11 meridians. Moxibustion was applied in 53 papers while combination of acupuncture and moxibustion was used in 1 literature. As a result, acupuncture and moxibustion for diarrhea in ancient pay much attention on acupoint in back and abdomen, in which Tianshu (ST 25), Shen-que (CV 8), Guanyuan (CV 4) and Dachangshu (BL 25) were the most frequently used. The compatibility of front-mu acupoint and back-shu acupoint was very common. Selection of special acupoint was dominant. Besides crossing points that has the most intersection of meridian qi in the back and abdomen, acupoints below the elbow and knee joints, such as five-shu points, source point, luo-connecting point, eight confluence point and lower he-sea point were also taken into account. As for compatibility of special acupoints, the supportive degree between back-shu acupoint and confluence points or front-mu acupoint was the highest; the selections of meridians mainly were Bladder Meridian, Conception Vessel and Spleen Meridian; and application of moxibustion was highly valued. In conclusion, it is feasible to apply data mining technology to the clinical literature research of ancient acupuncture and moxibustion, which can provide evidence for summary of the traditional classical theory.


Subject(s)
Acupuncture Points , Acupuncture Therapy , History , China , Data Mining , Diarrhea , History , Therapeutics , History, 15th Century , History, 16th Century , History, 17th Century , History, 18th Century , History, 19th Century , History, 20th Century , History, Ancient , History, Medieval , Humans , Medicine in Literature , Meridians , Moxibustion , History
10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-310149

ABSTRACT

Through the examples of explanatory and pragmatic trials on acupuncture for migraine and the comparison between research objectives, experiment environment and trial designs, the design of current clinical trial should focus on: (1) Making a point of continuum research on efficacy-effectiveness at trial design type; (2) Thinking highly of therapeutic effect criteria that could have a better show of trial purpose; (3) More use of qualitative research embedded in the randomized controlled trials. With these improvements, the effects of acupuncture could be evaluated more scientifically, objectively and comprehensively.


Subject(s)
Acupuncture Therapy , Humans , Migraine Disorders , Therapeutics , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Research Design
11.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 752-755, 2006.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-294945

ABSTRACT

<p><b>AIM</b>To study the biliary excretion of genistein and its metabolite at different doses in rats.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Suspended in 0.5% CMC-Na solution, genistein was orally administered to rats at the dose of 6.25, 12.5 and 50 mg x kg(-1), separately. At various time intervals, the bile was collected. The bile was treated with beta-glucuronidase. The genistein in bile was extracted twice by vortexing with 2.0 mL mixture of methyl tert-tubtyl ether and pentane (8:2). The organic phase was removed into the tubes and then evaporated in ventilation cabinet. The residue was dissolved in 50 microL of methanol. Twenty microL solution was drawn and detected by high-performance liquid chromatography.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>The accumulative biliary excretion of genistein was (42.56 +/- 6.54) , (75.17 +/- 18.87) and (126.60 +/- 34.78) microg at the dose of 6.25, 12.5 and 50 mg x kg(-1), respectively. The total drug (genistein plus glucuronidated genistein) excreted from bile was (108.46 +/- 35.23), (423.46 +/- 158.31) and ( 853.74 +/- 320. 84) microg, and the ratio of glucuronidated genistein was 60.76% , 82.25% and 85.17% at the dose of 6.25, 12.5 and 50 mg x kg(-1), respectively.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>The genistein was excreted mainly in the form of glucuronidated genistein in rat bile. The genistein and glucuronidated genistein were excreted in a nonlinear dose-dependent manner.</p>


Subject(s)
Administration, Oral , Animals , Bile , Metabolism , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Female , Genistein , Chemistry , Metabolism , Pharmacokinetics , Male , Molecular Structure , Phytoestrogens , Metabolism , Pharmacokinetics , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley
12.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 1019-1023, 2005.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-253501

ABSTRACT

<p><b>AIM</b>To study the metabolic kinetics of MN9202 in Beagle dog liver microsome.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Beagle dog liver microsomes were prepared by using ultracentrifuge method. After incubating 0.4 micromol x L(-1) MN9202 with 1 g x L(-1) microsomes for 30 min at 37 degrees C, the reaction was terminated by adding 0.5 mL alkalization. The RP-HPLC was used to determine the drug in the incubation mixture. The Michaelis-Menten parameters Km, and Vmax in Beagle dog liver microsomes were initially estimated by analyzing Lineweave-Brurk plot. Various selective CYP inhibitors were used to investigate their inhibitory effect on the metabolism of MN9202.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>The Km, Vmax and CLint of MN9202 were (22.6 +/- 8.0) micromol x L(-1), (0.54 +/- 0.17) micromol x g(-1) x min(-1) and (0.0242 +/- 0.0009) L x g(-1) x min(-1), respectively. The metabolism of MN9202 was significantly inhibited by ketoconazole (Ket) and troleandomycin (Tro) in Beagle dog liver microsomes. Tranylcypromine (Tra) could inhibit the metabolism of drug as well. While other inhibitors showed little inhibitory effect on the metabolism of MN9202.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>It was shown that CYP3A and CYP2C19 were involved in MN9202 metabolism. The inhibitors of human CYP3A and CYP2C19 may have potential interaction with MN9202, and this can reduce the metabolism rate and increase the toxicity of MN9202.</p>


Subject(s)
Animals , Aryl Hydrocarbon Hydroxylases , Calcium Channel Blockers , Metabolism , Pharmacokinetics , Cytochrome P-450 CYP2C19 , Cytochrome P-450 CYP3A Inhibitors , Dihydropyridines , Metabolism , Pharmacokinetics , Dogs , Ketoconazole , Pharmacology , Microsomes, Liver , Metabolism , Mixed Function Oxygenases , Nitrobenzenes , Metabolism , Pharmacokinetics , Tranylcypromine , Pharmacology , Troleandomycin , Pharmacology
13.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 553-556, 2005.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-353474

ABSTRACT

<p><b>AIM</b>To study the pharmacokinetics of genistein at different doses in Beagle dogs.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Suspended in 0.5% CMC-Na solution, genistein was orally administered to Beagle dogs at doses of 2.67, 5.34 and 10.68 mg.kg(-1). At various time intervals, 1.5 mL of blood was drawn from the femoral vein of dogs in their front legs. The plasma was treated with beta-glucuronidase. The genistein in plasma was extracted twice by vortexing with 2.0 mL mixture of methyl tert-tubtyl ether and pentane (v/v = 8:2). The organic phase was removed into the tubes and then evaporated in ventilation cabinet. The residue was dissolved in 50 microL of methanol. 20 microL solution was drawn and detected by high-performance liquid chromatography. The pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated by 3P97 software.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>The plasma drug concentration-time data were fitted to the two-compartment model. When the dose was 2.67 mg.kg(-1), the MRT and AUC of parent compound were 52.9 min and 6.7 mg.min. L(-1), respectively. When the dose rose to 5.34 mg.kg(-1), the MRT and AUC of parent compound became 224.8 min and 26.1 mg.min.L(-1), respectively. However, when the dose increased to 10.68 mg .kg(-1), the MRT and AUC of parent compound increased to 267.7 min and 33.2 mg.min L(-1), respectively. The AUC of glucuronidated genistein was 33.9, 70.1 and 140.5 mg.min.L(-1) at the dose of 2.67, 5.34 and 10.68 mg.kg(-1), respectively.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Due to significant first pass metabolism, the drug was mainly existed in the form of glucuronidated genistein in the plasma. With the increase of dose, the absorption of genistein became saturated and the half life prolonged.</p>


Subject(s)
Animals , Anticarcinogenic Agents , Blood , Pharmacokinetics , Area Under Curve , Dogs , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Female , Genistein , Blood , Pharmacokinetics , Glucuronides , Blood , Pharmacokinetics , Male
14.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 609-612, 2004.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-302752

ABSTRACT

<p><b>AIM</b>To study the pharmacokinetics of m-nifedipine (m-Nif) in Beagle dogs.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>The Beagle dogs were divided into two groups. m-Nif was intravenously administered to the Beagle dogs in group 1 at the dose of 0. 288 mg x kg(-1), and it was orally administered to the Beagle dogs in group 2, 3 and 4 at the dose of 1.152, 3.456 and 10.370 mg x kg(-1), respectively. m-Nif in plasma was detected by reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography. The pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated by 3P97 software.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>When m-Nif was intravenously administered, the plasma concentration-time curve was fit to a two-compartment model and T1/2beta was 117 min. When m-Nif was orally administered, the plasma concentration-time curve was fit to a one-compartment model. T1/2 (Ke) and Cmax were 147 min and 20 microg x L(-1); at the low dose of 1.152 mg x kg(-1). T1/2 (Ke) was 122 min and Cmax was 36 microg x L(-1) at the middle dose of 3.456 mg x kg(-1). T1/2 (Ke) was 144 min and Cmax was 69 microg x L(-1) at the high dose of 10.37 mg x kg(-1), respectively.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>It was showed that the speed of elimination of m-Nif was high in Beagle dogs. The absolute bioavailability of m-Nif given orally was very low.</p>


Subject(s)
Administration, Oral , Animals , Area Under Curve , Biological Availability , Calcium Channel Blockers , Pharmacokinetics , Dogs , Injections, Intravenous , Isomerism , Nifedipine , Pharmacokinetics
15.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-266775

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To evaluate the effects of Tanguticum Maxim polysaccharide (TMP-1) on TNBS-induced colitis in rats.</p><p><b>METHOD</b>Rats with TNBS/ethanol-induced colitis were used and treated with TMP-1 and dexamethasone (DX). Seventy-two rats, including animals with TNBS-induced colitis, were treated with saline, TMP-1 (100, 200, 400 mg.kg-1) and DX. White blood cells were counted on the fifth day and the rats were killed by ether on the sixth day. SOD activity in serum, MPO and SOD activity of colonic tissue were measured.</p><p><b>RESULT</b>The remarkable effects of TMP-1 at dosage of 200, 400 mg.kg-1 on TNBS-induced colitis were observed. The ulcerative area was diminished and weight of colon was reduced. White blood cell population was reduced, SOD activity in serum and SOD activity of colon tissue were remarkably increased, and, MPO activity of colonic tissue was reduced.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>TMP-1 has significant effects on TNBS-induced colitis in rats with lower side effects, which suggests the effective component of rhubarb on colitis perhaps is TMP. The mechanism of the actions of TMP may relate to its antiflammation, antioxidation and immunoloregulation.</p>


Subject(s)
Animals , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal , Therapeutic Uses , Colitis, Ulcerative , Drug Therapy , Colon , Pathology , Male , Phytotherapy , Plants, Medicinal , Chemistry , Polysaccharides , Therapeutic Uses , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Rheum , Chemistry , Trinitrobenzenesulfonic Acid
16.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 646-649, 2003.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-266598

ABSTRACT

<p><b>AIM</b>To study the pharmacokinetics of genistein in Beagle dogs.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Genistein, suspended in 0.5% CMC-Na solution, was orally administered to Beagle dogs at the dose of 5.34 mg.kg-1. At various time intervals, 1.5 mL of blood was drawn from the vein of dogs in their front legs. At the same time, urine and feces were collected. After the collection, the feces were homogenized with physiological saline (to 1 g feces, 10 mL physiological saline were added). The genistein in plasma, urine and homogenized feces was extracted twice by vortexing with 2.0 mL mixture of methyl tert-butyl ether and pentane (8:2). The organic phase was transferred into tubes and evaporated in ventilation cabinet. The residue was dissolved in 50 microL of methanol and 20 microL of the solution was drawn and detected by high-performance liquid chromatography. The pharmacokinetic parameter was calculated by 3P97 software.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>The plasma concentration-time curve was fitted to a one-open-compartment model. The peak time was 0.29 h, and the elimination half-life was 0.52 h. After genistein was administered, 10.79% of genistein were excreted from urine and 21.55% from feces within 24 h. It was also found that 13.00% genistein were excreted from urine and 52.46% from feces within 60 h.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>It showed that the speed of absorption and elimination of genistein was high in Beagle dog, and genistein was mainly excreted in the form of parent compound in urine and feces.</p>


Subject(s)
Animals , Anticarcinogenic Agents , Blood , Pharmacokinetics , Urine , Area Under Curve , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Dogs , Feces , Chemistry , Genistein , Blood , Pharmacokinetics , Urine
17.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 388-391, 2003.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-251078

ABSTRACT

<p><b>AIM</b>To evaluate the effects of molecular weight of dextran on drug-release of conjugate in vitro by screening colon-specific conjugates.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>The conjugates, synthesized with different molecular-weight dextran and dexamethasone, were incubated in the contents of different parts of rat gastrointestinal tract at 37 degrees C. The release of dexamethasone(Dex) and dexamethasonehemisuccinate was determined by HPLC. The mobile phase consisted of 35% acetonitrile and 65% trisodium citrate (50 mmol.L-1, adjusted to pH 4.1 with phosphoric acid).</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>There was no release of dexamethasone or dexamethasonehemisuccinate from conjugates in the stomach contents. The amount of Dex (including dexamethasonehemisuccinate) released from DexD26 in the contents of colon and cecum was shown to be 4.0 times higher than that released in the contents of proximal and distal small intestine while the amount of Dex (including dexamethasonehemisuccinate) released from DexD50 was shown to be 3.6 times higher. The amount of Dex (including dexamethasonehemisuccinate) released from DexD2 in the contents of colon and cecum and from DexD7.6 were 2.0 times and 1.9 times higher, respectively, than that released in contents of proximal and distal small intestine.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>The molecular weight of dextran showed marked effect on drug-release of the conjugate in vitro, and the conjugates with larger molecular-weight dextran have great potential in colon-specific delivery of dexamethasone.</p>


Subject(s)
Animals , Colon , Metabolism , Dexamethasone , Metabolism , Dextrans , Chemistry , Drug Carriers , Drug Compounding , Drug Delivery Systems , Female , In Vitro Techniques , Intestine, Small , Metabolism , Male , Molecular Weight , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Stomach , Metabolism
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