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1.
Endocrinology and Metabolism ; : 1131-1141, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-914257

ABSTRACT

Background@#Conventional diagnostic approaches for adrenal tumors require multi-step processes, including imaging studies and dynamic hormone tests. Therefore, this study aimed to discriminate adrenal tumors from a single blood sample based on the combination of liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) and machine learning algorithms in serum profiling of adrenal steroids. @*Methods@#The LC-MS-based steroid profiling was applied to serum samples obtained from patients with nonfunctioning adenoma (NFA, n=73), Cushing’s syndrome (CS, n=30), and primary aldosteronism (PA, n=40) in a prospective multicenter study of adrenal disease. The decision tree (DT), random forest (RF), and extreme gradient boost (XGBoost) were performed to categorize the subtypes of adrenal tumors. @*Results@#The CS group showed higher serum levels of 11-deoxycortisol than the NFA group, and increased levels of tetrahydrocortisone (THE), 20α-dihydrocortisol, and 6β-hydroxycortisol were found in the PA group. However, the CS group showed lower levels of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and its sulfate derivative (DHEA-S) than both the NFA and PA groups. Patients with PA expressed higher serum 18-hydroxycortisol and DHEA but lower THE than NFA patients. The balanced accuracies of DT, RF, and XGBoost for classifying each type were 78%, 96%, and 97%, respectively. In receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analysis for CS, XGBoost, and RF showed a significantly greater diagnostic power than the DT. However, in ROC analysis for PA, only RF exhibited better diagnostic performance than DT. @*Conclusion@#The combination of LC-MS-based steroid profiling with machine learning algorithms could be a promising one-step diagnostic approach for the classification of adrenal tumor subtypes.

2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-816628

ABSTRACT

Since parathyroid hormone (PTH) was first isolated and its gene (PTH) was sequenced, only eight PTH mutations have been discovered. The C18R mutation in PTH, discovered in 1990, was the first to be reported. This autosomal dominant mutation induces endoplasmic reticulum stress and subsequent apoptosis in parathyroid cells. The next mutation, which was reported in 1992, is associated with exon skipping. The substitution of G with C in the first nucleotide of the second intron results in the exclusion of the second exon; since this exon includes the initiation codon, translation initiation is prevented. An S23P mutation and an S23X mutation at the same residue were reported in 1999 and 2012, respectively. Both mutations resulted in hypoparathyroidism. In 2008, a somatic R83X mutation was detected in a parathyroid adenoma tissue sample collected from a patient with hyperparathyroidism. In 2013, a heterozygous p.Met1_Asp6del mutation was incidentally discovered in a case-control study. Two years later, the R56C mutation was reported; this is the only reported hypoparathyroidism-causing mutation in the mature bioactive part of PTH. In 2017, another heterozygous mutation, M14K, was detected. The discovery of these eight mutations in the PTH gene has provided insights into its function and broadened our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying mutation progression. Further attempts to detect other such mutations will help elucidate the functions of PTH in a more sophisticated manner.


Subject(s)
Apoptosis , Case-Control Studies , Codon, Initiator , Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress , Exons , Humans , Hyperparathyroidism , Hypoparathyroidism , Introns , Parathyroid Diseases , Parathyroid Glands , Parathyroid Hormone , Parathyroid Neoplasms
3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-739223

ABSTRACT

The identification of disease-causing genetic variations is an important goal in the field of genetics. Advancements in genetic technology have changed scientific knowledge and made it possible to determine the basic mechanism and pathogenesis of human disorders rapidly. Many endocrine disorders are caused by genetic variations of a single gene or by mixed genetic factors. Various genetic testing methods are currently available, enabling a more precise diagnosis of many endocrine disorders and facilitating the development of a concrete therapeutic plan. In this review article, we discuss genetic testing technologies for genetic endocrine disorders, with relevant examples. We additionally describe our research on implementing genetic analysis strategies to identify novel causal mutations in hypocalcemia-related disorders.


Subject(s)
Diagnosis , Endocrine System Diseases , Endocrinology , Genetic Testing , Genetic Variation , Genetics , Genomics , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing , Humans
4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-715511

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Autosomal-dominant brachydactyly type E is a congenital abnormality characterized by small hands and feet, which is a consequence of shortened metacarpals and metatarsals. We recently encountered a young gentleman exhibiting shortening of 4th and 5th fingers and toes. Initially, we suspected him having pseudopseudohypoparathyroidism (PPHP) because of normal biochemical parameters, including electrolyte, Ca, P, and parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels; however, his mother and maternal grandmother had the same conditions in their hands and feet. Furthermore, his mother showed normal biochemical parameters. To the best of our knowledge, PPHP is inherited via a mutated paternal allele, owing to the paternal imprinting of GNAS (guanine nucleotide binding protein, alpha stimulating) in the renal proximal tubule. Therefore, we decided to further analyze the genetic background in this family. METHODS: Whole exome sequencing was performed using genomic DNA from the affected mother, son, and the unaffected father as a negative control. RESULTS: We selected the intersection between 45,490 variants from the mother and 45,646 variants from the son and excluded 27,512 overlapping variants identified from the father. By excluding homogenous and compound heterozygous variants and removing all previously reported variants, 147 variants were identified to be shared by the mother and son. Variants that had least proximities among species were excluded and finally 23 variants remained. CONCLUSION: Among them, we identified a defect in parathyroid hormone like hormone (PTHLH), encoding the PTH-related protein, to be disease-causative. Herein, we report a family affected with brachydactyly type E2 caused by a novel PTHLH mutation, which was confused with PPHP with unclassical genetic penetrance.


Subject(s)
Alleles , Brachydactyly , Carrier Proteins , Congenital Abnormalities , DNA , Exome , Fathers , Fingers , Foot , Genetic Background , Grandparents , Hand , Humans , Metacarpal Bones , Metatarsal Bones , Mothers , Parathyroid Hormone , Parathyroid Hormone-Related Protein , Penetrance , Pseudopseudohypoparathyroidism , Toes
5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-741791

ABSTRACT

No abstract available.


Subject(s)
Osteoporosis
6.
Journal of Korean Diabetes ; : 123-133, 2016.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-726743

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to assess the psychological well-being and treatment satisfaction in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus in a general hospital in Korea. METHODS: This study included 440 type 2 diabetes patients above 20 years of age. Well-Being Questionnaire-12 (WBQ-12) and Diabetes Treatment Satisfaction Questionnaire were used to survey well-being and treatment satisfaction, respectively. WBQ-12 consists of 4 categories: negative well-being (NWB), energy (ENE), positive well-being (PWB), and general well-being (GWB). RESULTS: There were significant associations between NWB scores and women, low education, low-income, and number of hospital admissions. Significant associations were also identified between ENE scores and men, higher education, insulin nonusers, high-income, compliance with recommended exercise, number of medications, satisfaction with treatment time, and poor glycemic control. PWB scores were significantly associated with high-income, satisfaction with waiting and treatment times, compliance with recommended diet and exercise, and number of medications. GWB scores were significantly associated with men, higher education, high-income, satisfaction with waiting and treatment times, compliance with recommended exercise, and number of medications. Treatment satisfaction was significantly associated with age, satisfaction with waiting and treatment times, compliance with recommended diet and exercise, and duration of diabetes. CONCLUSION: Diabetes care requires psychosocial support in addition to medical care. Unlike Western studies, our study found that satisfaction with waiting and treatment times had a strong correlation with well-being and treatment satisfaction in diabetes patients.


Subject(s)
Compliance , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Diet , Education , Female , Hospitals, General , Humans , Insulin , Korea , Male , Morinda , Outpatients
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-195405

ABSTRACT

Pachydermoperiostosis (PDP), or primary hypertrophic osteoarthropathy, is a rare genetic disease affecting both skin and bones. Both autosomal dominant with incomplete penetrance and recessive inheritance of PDP have been previously confirmed. Recently, hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase (HPGD) and solute carrier organic anion transporter family member 2A1 (SLCO2A1) were reported as pathogenic genes responsible for PDP. Both genes are involved in prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) degradation. We aimed to identify responsible genes for PDP and the clinical features in Korean patients with PDP. Six affected individuals and their available healthy family members from three unrelated Korean families with PDP were studied. All of the patients displayed complete phenotypes of PDP with finger clubbing, pachydermia, and periostosis. Mutation analysis revealed a novel heterozygous mutation in the SLCO2A1 gene at nucleotide 302 causing a substitution of the amino acid isoleucine to serine at codon 101 (p.IIe101Ser) in affected individuals. We also identified known SLCO2A1 mutations, one homozygous for c.940+1G>A, and another compound heterozygous for c.940+1G>A and c.1807C>T (p.Arg603*) from two PDP families. Genetic analyses of the PDP patients showed no abnormality in the HPGD gene. Our study further supports the role of mutations in the SLCO2A1 gene in the pathogenesis of PDP and could provide additional clues to the genotype-phenotype relations of PDP.


Subject(s)
Bone and Bones/diagnostic imaging , Child, Preschool , DNA Mutational Analysis , Exons , Heterozygote , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Organic Anion Transporters/genetics , Osteoarthropathy, Primary Hypertrophic/diagnostic imaging , Pedigree , Phenotype , Polymorphism, Genetic , Positron-Emission Tomography , Young Adult
8.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-726907

ABSTRACT

Diabetes mellitus is a major risk factor for urinary tract infection (UTI); emphysematous pyelonephritis (EP), a complication of UTIs, often occurs in patients with underlying, poorly controlled diabetes mellitus. We report the case of an 87-year-old woman with EP in type 2 diabetes mellitus who developed pneumatosis cystoides intestinalis (PCI) with portal venous gas. PCI is a radiographic finding, which is found in a linear or cystic form of gas in the submucosa or subserosa of the bowel wall. PCI has two common presentations. Primary PCI is a benign idiopathic condition. Secondary PCI is associated with a wide variety of gastrointestinal and non-gastrointestinal diseases. PCI with portal venous gas in particular is associated with ischemic gastrointestinal disease. Initial pre-enhanced abdominopelvic computed tomography showed EP in the right kidney without PCI. Newly occurring PCI and hepatic portal venous gas were found in the right ascending colon after EP improved. This is a rare case of PCI accompanied by emphysematous pyelonephritis in type 2 diabetes mellitus. The patient's general condition improved with intravenous antibiotics and fluid therapy without a surgical approach. However, she was discharged without further treatment because the family refused any further evaluations and treatments.


Subject(s)
Aged, 80 and over , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Colon, Ascending , Diabetes Mellitus , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Female , Fluid Therapy , Gastrointestinal Diseases , Humans , Kidney , Pneumatosis Cystoides Intestinalis , Pyelonephritis , Risk Factors , Urinary Tract Infections
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-39634

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) is a rare inherited disorder characterized by the simultaneous occurrence of endocrine tumors in target tissues (mainly the pituitary, endocrine pancreas, and parathyroid glands). MEN1 is caused by mutations in the MEN1 gene, which functions as a tumor suppressor and consists of one untranslated exon and nine exons encoding the menin protein. This condition is usually suspected when we encounter patients diagnosed with tumors in multiple endocrine organs, as mentioned above. METHODS: A 65-year-old woman who underwent surgery for a pancreatic tumor (serous cystadenoma) 5 years previously was referred to our hospital due to neurologic symptoms of diplopia and left ptosis. Brain magnetic resonance imaging revealed a 3.4-cm lesion originating from the cavernous sinus wall and extending into the sellar region. It was thought to be a nonfunctioning tumor from the results of the combined pituitary function test. Incidentally, we found that she also had a pancreatic tumor, indicating the necessity of genetic analysis for MEN1. RESULTS: Genomic analysis using peripheral leukocytes revealed a heterozygous c.1621G>A mutation in the MEN1 gene that was previously reported to be either a pathogenic mutation or a simple polymorphism. We pursued a stereotactic approach to the pituitary lesion, and microscopic findings of the tumor revealed it to be an intrasellar cavernous hemangioma, a rare finding in the sellar region and even rarer in relation to oculomotor palsy. The patient recovered well from surgery, but refused further evaluation for the pancreatic lesion. CONCLUSION: There is great emphasis placed on genetic testing in the diagnosis of MEN1, but herein we report a case where it did not assist in diagnosis, hence, further discussion on the role of genetic testing in this disease is needed. Also, in cases of pituitary tumor with cranial nerve palsy, despite its low prevalence, intrasellar cavernous hemangioma could be suspected.


Subject(s)
Aged , Brain , Cavernous Sinus , Cranial Nerve Diseases , Diagnosis , Diagnostic Errors , Diplopia , Exons , Female , Genetic Testing , Hemangioma, Cavernous , Humans , Islets of Langerhans , Leukocytes , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 1 , Neurologic Manifestations , Paralysis , Pituitary Function Tests , Pituitary Neoplasms , Prevalence
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-212600

ABSTRACT

Isolated hypoparathyroidism (IH) shows heterogeneous phenotypes and can be caused by defects in a variety of genes. The goal of our study was to determine the clinical features and to analyze gene mutations in a large cohort of Korean patients with sporadic or familial IH. We recruited 23 patients. They showed a broad range of onset age and various values of biochemical data. Whole exome sequencing was performed on two affected cases and one unaffected individual in a family. All coding exons and exon-intron borders of GCMB, CASR, and prepro-PTH were sequenced using PCR-amplified DNA. In one family who underwent the whole exome sequencing analysis, approximately 300 single nucleotide changes emerged as candidates for genetic alteration. Among them, we identified a functional mutation in exon 2 of GCMB (C106R) in two affected cases. Besides, heterozygous gain-of-function mutations in the CASR gene were found in other subjects; D410E and P221L. We also found one single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the prepro-PTH gene, five SNPs in the CASR gene, and four SNPs in the GCMB gene. The current study represents a variety of biochemical phenotypes in IH patients with the molecular genetic diagnosis of IH.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Asians/genetics , Cohort Studies , Heterozygote , Humans , Hypoparathyroidism/diagnosis , Middle Aged , Nuclear Proteins/genetics , Parathyroid Hormone/genetics , Phenotype , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Receptors, Calcium-Sensing/genetics , Registries , Republic of Korea , Transcription Factors/genetics , Young Adult
12.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-190950

ABSTRACT

Type B insulin resistance syndrome is rare autoimmune disease that is characterized by various abnormalities of glycemic homeostasis, from hyperglycemia caused by extreme insulin resistance to fasting hypoglycemia. It can combine with other autoimmune diseases, most commonly systemic lupus erythematosus. It usually occurs in women and accompanies acanthosis nigricans, hyperandrogenism, and, in many cases, ovary dysfunction. The diagnosis of type B insulin resistance syndrome is based largely on the presence of insulin receptor autoantibodies and hyperglycemia, or hypoglycemia and hyperinsulinemia. In some cases, patients with the type B insulin resistance have been successfully treated with immunosuppressive therapy and plasmapheresis. We experienced type B insulin resistance syndrome in a patient with chronic hepatitis B and used only plasmapheresis for treatment. The immunosuppressive therapy was omitted due to the state of activation of chronic hepatitis B. We present this case with a review of relevant literature.


Subject(s)
Acanthosis Nigricans , Autoantibodies , Autoimmune Diseases , Female , Hepatitis B, Chronic , Hepatitis, Chronic , Homeostasis , Humans , Hyperandrogenism , Hyperglycemia , Hyperinsulinism , Hypoglycemia , Insulin , Insulin Resistance , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic , Ovary , Plasmapheresis , Receptor, Insulin
13.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-108691

ABSTRACT

No abstract available.


Subject(s)
Endocrinology
14.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-108684

ABSTRACT

Patients with hyperthyroidism can develop left ventricular dysfunction and heart failure, but severe pulmonary hypertension association with hyperthyroidism is rarely seen. Herein, we describe the case of a 27-year-old female who presented with abdominal distension accompanied by pulmonary arterial hypertension and Graves' disease. Her pulmonary arterial hypertension was improved by treating the hyperthyroidism and pulmonary artery hypertension. Additionally, the patient's symptoms of right-side heart failure improved after pulmonary arterial pressure was reduced. Hyperthyroidism should be regarded as a reversible cause of associated pulmonary arterial hypertension.


Subject(s)
Adult , Arterial Pressure , Ascites , Female , Graves Disease , Heart Failure , Humans , Hypertension , Hypertension, Pulmonary , Hyperthyroidism , Pulmonary Artery , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left
15.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-34108

ABSTRACT

No abstract available.


Subject(s)
Hypoparathyroidism
16.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-34106

ABSTRACT

No abstract available.


Subject(s)
Adrenocortical Carcinoma
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-201617

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: It is known that diabetes and stress are directly or indirectly related, and that it is important to evaluate stress in patients with diabetes. The relationship between Korean diabetics and diabetes-related stress has never been reported. The objective of this study was to develop a stress questionnaire suitable for use with Korean diabetics and to evaluate its utility. METHODS: This study subjects were 307 Korean diabetics, aged 40 to 74 years old, who visited the Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism at Gachon University Gil Hospital, Yeungnam University Medical Center, and Inha University Hospital in Korea between March 2006 and February 2008. We developed a Korean version of Polonsky's Problem Areas in Diabetes (PAID) stress questionnaire (PAID-K) and used it to assess degrees of stress in our sample of Korean patients. We evaluated the utility of the questionnaire and analyzed the relationships between clinical characteristics of the study subjects and degrees of stress. RESULTS: Cronbach's alpha for PAID-K was 0.95, and PAID-K scores were significantly correlated with Hypoglycemia Fear Survey scores (r=0.44, P<0.05) and State Trait Anxiety Inventory-6 scores (r=0.21, P<0.05). PAID-K scores were significantly higher in patients with longer durations of diabetes, patients using insulin, and female patients (P=0.02, P=0.038, and P=0.001, respectively). The score also tended to increase as HbA1c levels increased, except for very high HbA1c levels (above 11%) (P for trend<0.05). CONCLUSION: We developed the PAID-K questionnaire and demonstrated its utility to evaluate levels of stress in diabetic patients in Korea.


Subject(s)
Academic Medical Centers , Aged , Anxiety , Diabetes Mellitus , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Endocrinology , Female , Humans , Hypoglycemia , Insulin , Korea , Stress, Psychological , Surveys and Questionnaires
18.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-121311

ABSTRACT

Thanks to advances in assay techniques and routine measurements in serum chemical analysis, primary hyperparathyroidism has become far more frequently detected, and the number of asymptomatic patients has substantially increased. In the majority of patients (85%), a solitary adenoma is the underlying cause of primary hyperparathyroidism. Surgical excision is the treatment of choice for most cases of primary hyperparathyroidism; this procedure has a relatively high success rate. In the past decade, improvements in preoperative imaging have played a major role in a targeted operative approach, which allows for minimally invasive surgery to be performed. The success of parathyroid surgery depends on the accurate preoperative localization of parathyroid adenoma. In this study, we report the case of a 54 year-old woman with primary hyperparathyroidism who presented with left buttock and leg pain. For localization of the parathyroid lesion, an ultrasonography and a 99mTc-sestamibi scan were initially performed, but these attempts failed to localize the lesion. We then carried out contrast-enhanced CT; thereafter, a single parathyroid adenoma was detected. Therefore, in patients with negative results on both ultrasonography and 99mTc-sestamibi scan, contrast-enhanced CT may prove helpful for preoperative parathyroid localization.


Subject(s)
Adenoma , Buttocks , Female , Humans , Hyperparathyroidism, Primary , Leg , Parathyroid Neoplasms , Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-121309

ABSTRACT

Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is one of the most common autosomal dominant inherited disorders affecting the nervous system. NF1 is associated with mutations in the NF1 gene, which is located on chromosome sub-band 17q11.2 and contains 57 exons spanning approximately 300 kb of genomic DNA. NF1 is caused by a loss of function mutation of the NF1 gene, a tumor suppressor gene, which encodes for neurofibromin, a GTPase-activating protein (GAP) involved in the negative regulation of Ras activity. The GAP-related domain, which is encoded for by exons 20-27a, is one of the most important functional domains in neurofibromin. The cysteine-serine-rich domain has been recognized as an important functional domain in NF1-related pheochromocytomas. As the result of many genetic analyses of NF1-related pheochromocytomas, pheochromocytoma has generally been recognized as a true component of NF1. We recently experienced two families with NF1 accompanied by pheochromocytoma. The proband of family 1 is a 31-year-old female diagnosed with NF1 and pheochromocytoma. Gene analysis of the proband and her sister showed that the mutation of the NF1 gene (c.7907+1G>A) led to the skipping of exon 53 during NF1 mRNA splicing. The proband of family 2 is a 48-year-old male who was diagnosed with the same condition. Gene analysis demonstrated the mutation of the NF1 gene (c.5206-8C>G) with missplicing of exon 37. These novel germline mutations did not fall into the GAP-related nor the cysteine-serine-rich domains, but into the C-terminal area of the NF1 gene. This suggests that the correlation between the genotype and phenotype of NF1-related pheochromocytoma is somewhat difficult to characterize. Further studies will be necessary to confirm the function of the C-terminal area of the NF1 gene and its contribution to the development of NF1 and pheochromocytoma.


Subject(s)
Adult , DNA , Exons , Female , Genes, Neurofibromatosis 1 , Genes, Tumor Suppressor , Genotype , Germ-Line Mutation , GTPase-Activating Proteins , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Nervous System , Neurofibromatoses , Neurofibromatosis 1 , Neurofibromin 1 , Phenotype , Pheochromocytoma , RNA, Messenger , Siblings
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