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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e243534, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1278518

ABSTRACT

Abstract Selection can affect growth, changing performance and asymptotic values. However, there is little information about the growth of families in fish breeding programs. The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance and growth of families of Nile tilapia AquaAmérica. Twenty AquaAmérica families cultivated in a net cage (13.5 m3) for 181 days were evaluated. The nonlinear Gompertz regression model was fitted to the data by the weighted least squares method, taking the inverse of the variance of weight in different families and at different ages as the weighting variable. The model was adjusted to describe the growth in weight and morphometric characteristics. Two families showed highest (P<0.05) weights at both 133 days (family AA10: 743.2 g; family AA16: 741.2 g) and 181 days (family AA10: 1,422.1 g; family AA16: 1,393.4 g) of the experiment. In both experimental periods, the males showed a heavier weight, with the greatest contrast between the sexes occurring at 181 days. The analysis of the three most contrasting families (AA1, AA9 and AA14) showed that the asymptotic value for weight was higher (P<0.05) in family AA9 (3,926.3 g) than in family AA14 (3,251.6 g), but specific growth rate and age at the inflection point did not differ significantly between families. In conclusion, two of the 20 families were superior; males exhibited a greater growth, mainly in the period of 181 days; and the growth curve differed between the families, especially for asymptotic weight.


Resumo A seleção pode impactar a forma de crescimento, mudando o desempenho e os valores assintóticos. No entanto, existem poucas informações sobre o crescimento das famílias em programas de criação de peixes. O objetivo deste estudo foi examinar o desempenho e as curvas de crescimento de famílias de tilápia-do-Nilo AquaAmérica. Foram avaliadas 20 famílias AquaAmérica cultivadas em tanques-rede (13,5 m3) por 181 dias. O modelo de regressão não linear de Gompertz foi ajustado aos dados pelo método dos mínimos quadrados ponderados, tomando o inverso da variância do peso nas diferentes famílias e nas diferentes idades como variável de ponderação. O modelo foi ajustado para descrever o crescimento em peso e características morfométricas. Duas famílias apresentaram pesos maiores ​​(P <0,05) em 133 dias (família AA10: 743,2 g; família AA16: 741,2 g) e 181 dias (família AA10: 1422,1 g; família AA16: 1393,4 g) de experimento em relação a outras famílias. Em ambos os períodos experimentais, os machos apresentaram maior peso, com maior contraste entre os sexos ocorrendo aos 181 dias. A análise das três famílias mais contrastantes (AA1, AA9 e AA14) mostrou que o valor assintótico para o peso foi maior (P <0,05) na família AA9 (3926,3 g) do que na família AA14 (3251,6 g), mas a taxa de crescimento específica e a idade no ponto de inflexão não diferiu significativamente entre as famílias. Em conclusão, duas das 20 famílias eram muito superiores; machos exibiram um maior crescimento, principalmente no período de 181 dias; e a curva de crescimento diferiu entre as famílias, principalmente quanto ao peso assintótico.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Cichlids/genetics
2.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 72(6): 2321-2330, Nov.-Dec. 2020. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1142287

ABSTRACT

Objetivou-se avaliar a inclusão de níveis de lisina e metionina protegidas na dieta sobre os parâmetros nutricionais e metabólicos energéticos e hepáticos de borregas em crescimento. Utilizaram-se cinco borregas ½ sangue Dorper x Santa Inês, com aproximadamente oito meses de idade e peso médio de 50 ± 2,3kg, distribuídas em esquema quadrado latino 5x5 (cinco tratamentos, cinco animais e cinco períodos). Os tratamentos consistiram na inclusão de diferentes níveis de lisina e metionina protegidas da degradação ruminal (MicroPEARLS LM®) na ração, sendo: 0g, 8g, 16g, 24g e 32g por dia. A dieta era composta por silagem de milho e concentrado na relação 30V:70C. Realizou-se um ensaio de digestibilidade para determinar consumo e digestibilidade da matéria seca (CMS/DGMS), balanço de nitrogênio e metabólitos sanguíneos. O CMS (kg/dia) em relação ao peso metabólico apresentou equação linear positiva, sendo maior no tratamento que ofertou 32g de aminoácidos por dia, assim como o nitrogênio ingerido e o balanço de nitrogênio, sendo positivo em todos os tratamentos. Não houve diferença (P>0,05) para a digestibilidade da MS e o metabolismo energético e hepático. Lisina e metionina protegidas da degradação ruminal podem ser incluídas na ração de borregas em crescimento até 32g/dia sem causar efeitos negativos na digestibilidade da MS e no metabolismo.(AU)


The objective was to evaluate the inclusion of protected lysine and methionine levels on the diet, over the nutritional parameters and energetic and hepatic metabolites of growing lambs. Five lambs ½ blood Dorper x Santa Inês, with approximately eight months of age and average weight of 50kg, were distributed in a 5x5 latin square scheme (five treatments and five replicates). The treatments consisted of the inclusion of different levels of lysine and methionine protected from ruminal degradation (MicroPEARLS LM®) in the diet, being: 0g, 8g, 16g, 24g and 32g. The diet was composed of corn silage and concentrated 30V:70C in the ratio. A digestibility assay was performed to determine dry matter intake and digestibility (DMI/DDMI), nitrogen balance and blood metabolites. The DMI (kg/day) in relation to the metabolic weight had a positive linear equation, being higher in treatment 32g, as well as the ingested nitrogen and nitrogen balance, being positive in all treatments. There was no difference (P>0.05) for the digestibility of DM, energetic and hepatic metabolism. Lysine and methionine protected from ruminal degradation can be included in the diet of growing lambs up to 32g without causing negative effects on DM digestibility and metabolism.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Sheep/metabolism , Energy Metabolism , Liver/metabolism , Lysine/administration & dosage , Methionine/administration & dosage , Nutrition Assessment
4.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 71(6): 2025-2033, Nov.-Dec. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1055142

ABSTRACT

O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar os efeitos da implantação de pastagem de sorgo forrageiro com diferentes arranjos populacionais no comportamento animal e na estrutura do pasto e de suas relações. Os tratamentos foram a combinação de dois espaçamentos entrelinhas e duas densidades de sementes ha-1, sendo 22 ou 44cm entrelinhas e 12 ou 24kg de sementes ha-1. Foram utilizadas 36 novilhas, com idade e peso corporal inicial de 15 meses e 262kg, respectivamente. Os tratamentos E44D24 e E22D12 apresentaram maior tempo de pastejo (469,33 e 467,78 minutos, respectivamente). Os animais do tratamento E44D24 apresentaram menor taxa de bocado (23,99 bocados minuto-1) em relação ao tratamento E22D24 (32,45 bocados minuto-1). Os animais do tratamento E44D12 apresentaram maior número de estações alimentares minuto-1 (9,21) e maior taxa de deslocamento (11,76 passos minuto-1). O espaçamento entrelinhas de plantio de 22cm aumenta o número de bocados estação-1. O aumento na densidade de sementes (24kg ha-1) e a utilização de maiores espaçamentos entrelinhas de plantio aumentam a densidade de folhas nos estratos inferior (0-30cm) e superior (acima de 60cm) do pasto. Os tratamentos E44D12 e E22D24 apresentaram maiores quantidades de colmos no estrato superior do pasto.(AU)


The objective of the study was to evaluate the effects of sorghum pasture implantation with different population arrangements in animal behavior and pasture structure and their relationships. The treatments were the combination of two row lines and two seeds per hectare densities, 22 or 44cm between rows and 12 or 24kg ha -1 of seed. 36 heifers at 15 months of age and 262kg body weight were used. The E44D24 and E22D12 treatments showed higher time of grazing (469.33 and 467.78 minutes, respectively). The animals in E44D24 treatment had lower bit rate (23.99 bites minute -1 ) compared to treatment with E22D24, a higher bit rate (32.45 bits min -1 ). The animals in E44D12 treatment presented the largest number of stations minute -1 (9.21) and higher displacement rate (11.76 steps min -1 ). The row spacing of 22cm increases the number of bits station -1 . The increase in seed density and the use of larger planting row spacing's increase the leaf density of the lower (0-30cm) and higher stratum (above 60cm) of pasture. The E44D12 and E22D24 treatment have higher amounts of stems in the upper stratum of the pasture.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Behavior, Animal , Pasture , Sorghum , Eating
5.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 71(1): 204-210, jan.-fev. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-989355

ABSTRACT

Aspergillus fumigatus, A. flavus e A. niger são os mais importantes agentes etiológicos da aspergilose, relevante micose aviária, com tratamento ineficaz e altas taxas de mortalidade. Em vista da importância da aspergilose, da necessidade de prospectar novos fármacos e do potencial terapêutico do óleo essencial de Origanum vulgare L. (OEO), o orégano, objetivou-se avaliar a sensibilidade in vitro de isolados clínicos de Aspergillus spp. em relação ao OEO. O óleo foi obtido por hidrodestilação em Clevenger, e a análise química realizada por cromatografia de massa (GC/MS). Observaram-se 15 diferentes compostos ativos, sendo 4-terpineol, hidrato de sabinene e timol os majoritários. Nos testes de microdiluição em caldo (Reference..., 2008), todos os isolados (n= 23) foram sensíveis ao OEO: A. fumigatus teve CIM entre 28,125mg/mL (0,1875%) e 450mg/mL (3,0%), A. flavus entre 112,5mg/mL (0,75%) e 450mg/mL, e A. niger 112,5mg/mL. CFM variou de 112,5mg/mL a 450mg/mL nos isolados de A. fumigatus, de 225mg/mL (1,5%) a 450mg/mL em A. flavus, e foi de 450mg/mL em A. niger. CIM e CFM foram idênticos em 6/14 isolados, o que demonstra que o óleo com a mesma concentração pode ter capacidade fungistática e fungicida. CIM 90 correspondeu à CIM máxima. Os resultados demonstram a atividade anti-Aspergillus do OEO, com CIM 90 de 450mg/mL (3%).(AU)


Aspergillus fumigatus, A. flavus and A. niger are the most important etiological agents of aspergillosis, a relevant avian mycosis, with innefective treatment and high mortality rates. Due the importance of aspergillosis, the necessity of prospection of new drugs and the therapeutic potential of the essential oil of Origanum vulgare L. (OEO), popularly known as oregano, aims to evaluate the in vitro sensitivity of Aspergillus spp. opposing to OEO. The oil was obtained by hydrodistillation in Clevenger, and the chemical analysis performed by mass chromatography (GC/MS). 15 different active compounds were observed, being 4-terpineol (18.4%), sabinene hydrate (15.6%) and thymol (13.6%), the majority components. In the in vitro susceptibility test, all strains showed sensitivity to OEO, MIC of Aspergillus fumigatus ranged from 28,125mg/mL (0,1875%) to 450mg/mL (3,0%), A. flavus 112,5mg/mL (0,75%) to 450mg/mL, and A. niger 112,5mg/mL. MFC ranged from 112,5mg/mL to 450mg/mL in the A. fumigatus isolates, 225mg/mL (1,5%) to 450mg/mL in A. flavus, and 450mg/mL for A. niger. The MIC and FMC values were identical in 6/14 of the isolated subjects, demonstrating that the oil with the same concentration can have fungistatic and fungicidal capacity. The results demonstrates anti-Aspergillus activities of OEO with CIM90 de 450mg/mL (3%).(AU)


Subject(s)
Aspergillus/enzymology , Oils, Volatile/chemical synthesis , Origanum/analysis , Noxae
6.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 69(5): 1114-1124, set.-out. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-877287

ABSTRACT

Seminal plasma contains serine proteases and serine protease inhibitor, which are involved in mammalian fertilization, and the inhibitors can be applied to prevent cold-induced sperm capacitation. The effects of different concentrations of two serine protease inhibitors were analyzed, Plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 - PAI-1 (70ƞg, 140ƞg and 210 ƞg) and Antipain (10µg, 50µg and 100µg) as supplementation to bovine semen cryopreservation extender. The effects of the inhibitors on the sperm parameters (sperm kinetics - CASA, acrosome integrity, plasma membrane integrity, mitochondrial membrane potential, sperm defects and acrosome reaction rate) were evaluated in the post-thaw semen. Cryopreservation of sperm with Antipain decreased post-thaw kinetic parameters of MP, VSL, LIN, SRT and the percentage of hyper-activated sperm while PAI-1 (210 ƞg) decreased VSL and LIN. Antipain and PAI-1 had no effect on the integrity parameters of the plasma membrane, mitochondrial membrane potential and sperm defects. Sperm cryopreserved in the presence of Antipain and PAI-1 (70 and 140 ƞg) preserved acrosome integrity, as they were able to complete the in vitro acrosome reaction. In conclusion, the serine protease inhibitors, Antipain and PAI-1 (70 and 140ƞg) are able to preserve the acrosome integrity of cryopreserved bovine sperm.(AU)


A criopreservação é parcialmente prejudicial à fertilidade do sêmen de bovinos e induz mudanças semelhantes à capacitação em espermatozoides. O plasma seminal contém serina-proteases e inibidores de serina-proteases que estão envolvidos na fertilização de mamíferos, e os inibidores podem ser aplicados para evitar uma capacitação espermática induzida pelo frio. Analisaram-se os efeitos de diferentes concentrações de dois inibidores de serina-proteases, inibidor do ativador do plasminogênio 1 - PAI-1 (70ƞg, 140ƞg e 210ƞg) e antipaína (10µg, 50µg e 100µg) na suplementação ao diluidor de criopreservação de sêmen bovino. Trinta e seis ejaculados de quatro bovinos Curraleiro Pé-Duro foram usados para criopreservação. Os efeitos dos inibidores sobre os parâmetros dos espermatozoides (cinética espermática - CASA, integridade acrossomal, integridade da membrana plasmática, potencial de membrana mitocondrial, defeitos espermáticos e taxa de reação acrossomal) foram avaliados no sêmen pós-descongelamento. A criopreservação de espermatozoides com antipaína diminuiu os parâmetros cinéticos pós-descongelamento de MP, VSL, LIN, SRT e a porcentagem de espermatozoides hiperativados, PAI-1 (210ƞg) diminuiu VSL e LIN. Antipaína e PAI-1 não tiveram efeitos nos parâmetros de integridade da membrana plasmática, no potencial de membrana mitocondrial e nos defeitos espermáticos. Espermatozoides criopreservados na presença de antipaína e PAI-1 (70 e 140ƞg) preservaram a integridade acrossomal, assim como foram capazes de completar a reação acrossômica in vitro. Em conclusão, os inibidores de serina-proteases, antipaína e PAI-1 (70 e 140ƞg) são capazes de preservar a integridade acrossomal de espermatozoides criopreservados de bovinos.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Cattle , Acrosome , Antipain/antagonists & inhibitors , Cryopreservation/veterinary , Plasminogen Activators/antagonists & inhibitors , Serine Proteinase Inhibitors/analysis , Cryopreservation/methods , Semen Analysis/veterinary , Semen Preservation/veterinary
7.
Rev. bras. plantas med ; 18(1,supl.1): 307-315, 2016. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-782978

ABSTRACT

RESUMO O presente estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a atividade antibacteriana, antioxidante e citotóxica da espécie Opuntia cochenillifera (L.) Mill. Foi realizada a prospecção fitoquímica e espectroscopia de absorção de infravermelho (IV) dos extratos etanólicos brutos e frações dos cladódios grande e pequeno. A atividade antioxidante foi avaliada pelo método da capacidade sequestradora de radicais livres utilizando o radical sintético 2,2-difenil-1-picrilhidrazila (DPPH). A atividade citotóxica foi obtida através do método colorimétrico do Metiltetrazolium (MTT). Já a atividade antibacteriana foi avaliada pelo método de microdiluição em caldo para determinar a concentração inibitória mínima (CIM) frente às estirpes bacterianas Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa e Escherichia coli. A prospecção fitoquímica revelou principalmente a presença de fenóis, esteroides livres, alcaloides, alcanos, além de outras classes químicas. O IV apresentou grupos funcionais como alcanos, carbonilas, grupos de metila, duplas ligações de carbono, grupamentos alquilamina, entre outros. Sobre a citotoxicidade na concentração de 100 μg/mL, os dois extratos brutos, todas as frações do cladódio grande e as frações de clorofórmio e metanol do cladódio pequeno não apresentaram toxicidade. Os extratos brutos e frações do cladódio grande e pequeno, não demonstraram atividade antibacteriana e nem antioxidante. Esses resultados podem fornecer suporte para pesquisas futuras, visando outras atividades biológicas da presente espécie vegetal.


ABSTRACT The purpose of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial, antioxidant, and cytotoxic activity of Opuntia cochenillifera (L.) Mill. A phytochemical screening and infrared (IR) absorption spectroscopy were performed in the crude ethanolic extracts and fractions of large and small cladodes. The antioxidant activity was evaluated through the qualitative method of free-radical scavenging capacity using the synthetic radical 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH). The cytotoxic activity was obtained by the cell viability assay using methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT). Antibacterial activity was evaluated by broth microdilution method to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) against the bacterial strains Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Escherichia coli. The phytochemical screening mainly revealed the presence of phenols, flavonoids, free steroids, alkaloids, alkanes, and other chemical classes. The IR spectroscopy presented functional groups such as alkanes, carbonyls, methyl groups, carbon double bonds, and alkylamino groups, among others. Regarding cytotoxicity in the concentration of 100 μg/mL, neither the crude extracts, the fractions of the large cladode, nor the chloroform and methanol fractions of small cladode presented toxicity. The crude ethanolic extracts and fractions of large and small cladode showed no antibacterial or antioxidant activity. These results may provide support for future research aimed at other biological activities of this plant species.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents/analysis , Antioxidants/analysis , Cytotoxins , Opuntia/classification , Chemistry
8.
Rev. bras. plantas med ; 18(2,supl.1): 597-604, 2016. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-830061

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Este trabalho analisa o efeito larvicida do óleo Zingiber officinale Roscoe contra larvas em terceiro estágio do mosquito Aedes aegypti. Extraiu-se quantitativamente o óleo essencial por hidrodestilação e calculou-se a CL50 do óleo, a partir dos métodos de Reed-Muench e Pizzi, respectivamente. O óleo essencial obteve CL50 de 76,07 (±2,24) μg mL-1 e rendimento de 0,52% m/v. Os resultados indicam que o óleo essencial avaliado é composto por substâncias que propiciam efeito larvicida contra Aedes aegypti.


ABSTRACT This study analyzes the larvicidal effect of the oil of Zingiber officinale Roscoe against larvae in third stage of the mosquito Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus 1792). The essential oil was extracted quantitatively by hydrodistillation and we calculated the oil’s LC50 from Reed-Muench (1938) and Pizzi (1950) methods, respectively. The essential oil obtained LC50 of 76.07 (±2.24) ug mL-1, and yield of 0.52% m/v. The results indicate that the essential oil assessed has substances that provide larvicidal effect against Aedes aegypti.


Subject(s)
Aedes/classification , Larvicides/classification , Oils, Volatile/analysis , Ginger/classification
9.
Rev. bras. plantas med ; 15(4,supl.1): 670-674, 2013. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-700020

ABSTRACT

A pimenta-de-macaco (Piper aduncum L. - Piperaceae) é uma espécie usada na medicina popular em quase todo o Brasil e apresenta alto teor de óleo essencial (2,5 a 4,0%) rico em dilapiol - éter fenílico com ação inseticida. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo contribuir para o sistema de cultivo da espécie P. aduncum nas condições de Manaus - AM. O experimento foi realizado na área experimental da Embrapa Amazônia Ocidental. O delineamento utilizado foi o de blocos casualizados com quatro repetições, cada repetição com quatro plantas na área útil. Sete densidades de plantas (0,5 m x 0,5 m; 1,0 m x 0,5 m; 1,0 m x 1,0 m; 1,5 m x 1,0 m; 1,5 m x 1,5 m; 2,0 m x 1,5 m e 2,0 m x 2,0 m, E1 a E7, respectivamente) e três épocas de corte (C1 - 6 meses após transplantio; C2 - rebroto de C1 aos 6 meses - plantas com idade de 12 meses, no campo; C3 - rebroto de C2 aos 6 meses - plantas com 18 meses, no campo), portanto em esquema fatorial. Foi observado que o segundo corte (C2) apresentou maior produção, no espaçamento E4. Não houve diferença estatística para o teor de óleo essencial em C1, independente da densidade de plantas. Com relação ao rendimento (produção) em óleo essencial, o melhor foi observado com o corte C2, nos espaçamentos E3 e E4, com 76,0 kg/ha e 88 kg/ha, respectivamente, contendo até 85,6% de dilapiol no óleo. Assim, a melhor condição de cultivo nas condições de teste foi observada para o período de corte C2 e espaçamentos de 1,0 m x 1,0 m, e de 1,0 m x 1,5 m.


Pimenta-de-macaco (monkey pepper - Piper aduncum L. - Piperaceae) is a species used in folk medicine throughout Brazil, containing an essential oil (2.5 to 4.0% yield) rich in dillapiole, an arylpropanoid with insecticide action. The objective of this research was to improve the cultivation system of P. aduncum in local conditions of Manaus, AM. The study was conducted in the experimental fields of Embrapa Western Amazon, and used randomized blocks with four replicates, each replicate with four plants in its testing area. Seven plant densities (0.5 m x 0.5 m; 1.0 m x 0.5 m; 1.0 m x 1.0 m; 1.5 m x 1.0 m; 1.5 m x 1.5 m; 1.5 m 2.0 m; 2.0 m x 2.0 m, E1 to E7 respectively) and three cutting periods (C1 - 6 months after transplanting, C2 - regrowth of C1 after 6 months (plants with 12 months in the field) and C3 - regrowth of C2 after 6 months (plants with 18 months in the field), therefore in a factorial scheme. A larger production was observed in the second cutting (C2) in the plant density E4. There were no statistical differences in the essential oil content in C1, regardless of densities. In relation to the essential oil yield, the best result was observed for the cutting period C2 in the E3 and E4 densities, 76.0 kg/ha and 88 kg/ha, respectively, with a dillapiole content of up to 85.6%. Therefore, the best cultivation condition according to the test was observed for the cutting after 12 months of transplantation and plant density of 1.0 m x 1.0 m or 1.5 m x 1.5 m.


Subject(s)
Cleome/growth & development , Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Agricultural Cultivation , Plants, Medicinal
10.
J. venom. anim. toxins incl. trop. dis ; 17(2): 150-158, 2011. ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-587774

ABSTRACT

In the present work, the effect of Bothrops moojeni venom fractions on Leishmania promastigotes was evaluated. The snake venom was fractionated into five protein fractions (E1 to E5), by ion exclusion chromatography, that were used to treat Leishmania amazonensis and Leishmania braziliensis promastigote forms whereas the viability and nitric oxide production were evaluated. It was observed that E5 venom fraction strongly inhibited Leishmania amazonensis nitric oxide production, while in Leishmania braziliensis the nitric oxide production was enhanced in all doses. Bothrops moojeni crude venom reduced the viability of both parasites in a dose-dependent manner and a peptide of 64 kDa was apparently degraded. Bothrops moojeni E5 venom fraction only reduced the viability and nitric oxide production of Leishmania amazonensis and no protein degradation was observed. Thus, these results suggest that Bothrops moojeni E5 venom fraction may offer components with a promising antileishmanial therapeutic application.


Subject(s)
Animals , Bothrops , Leishmania , Nitric Oxide , Crotalid Venoms/therapeutic use
11.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 40(1): 77-80, Jan. 2007. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-439670

ABSTRACT

The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of the oral ingestion of an extract of the herb Uncaria tomentosa (cat's claw) on the biodistribution of the radiobiocomplex sodium pertechnetate (Na99mTcO4) in rats. The animals (male Wistar rats, 2 months old, 180-220 g), were treated (1 mL) with an U. tomentosa extract (32 mg/mL, N = 5) or 0.9 percent NaCl solution (control, N = 5) for 7 days. After this period, Na99mTcO4 (3.7 MBq, 0.3 mL) was injected through the ocular plexus and after 10 min the rats were killed, the organs isolated and counted in a well-gamma counter. A significant (P < 0.05) alteration in Na99mTcO4 uptake i) from 0.57 ± 0.008 to 0.39 ± 0.06 percentATI/organ (P < 0.05) and from 0.57 ± 0.17 to 0.39 ± 0.14 percentATI/g (P < 0.05) was observed in the heart, ii) from 0.07 ± 0.02 to 0.19 ± 0.07 percentATI/g in the pancreas, and iii) from 0.07 ± 0.01 to 0.18 ± 0.07 percentATI/g (P < 0.05) in muscle after treatment with this extract. Although these results were obtained with animals, caution is advisable in the interpretation of the nuclear medicine examination when the patient is using this herb. This finding is probably an example of drug interaction with a radiopharmaceutical, a fact that could lead to misdiagnosis of the examination in clinical practice with unexpected consequences for the patient.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Cat's Claw/chemistry , Radiopharmaceuticals/pharmacokinetics , /pharmacokinetics , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Rats, Wistar , Tissue Distribution/drug effects
12.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 37(7): 1035-1042, July 2004. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-360933

ABSTRACT

Protein malnutrition induces structural, neurochemical and functional alterations in the central nervous system, leading to behavioral alterations. In the present study, we used the elevated plus-maze (EPM) as a measure of anxiety to evaluate the interaction between acute immobilization and housing conditions on the behavior of malnourished rats. Pups (6 males and 2 females) were fed by Wistar lactating dams receiving a 6 percent (undernourished) or 16 percent (well-nourished) protein diet. After weaning, the animals continued to receive the same diets ad libitum until 49 days of age when they started to receive a regular lab chow diet. From weaning to the end of the tests on day 70, the animals were housed under two different conditions, i.e., individual or in groups of three. On the 69th day, half of the animals were submitted to immobilization for 2 h, while the other half were undisturbed, and both groups were tested 24 h later for 5 min in the EPM. Independent of other factors, protein malnutrition increased, while immobilization and social isolation per se decreased, EPM exploration. Analysis of the interaction of diet vs immobilization vs housing conditions showed that the increased EPM exploration presented by the malnourished group was reversed by acute immobilization in animals reared in groups but not in animals reared individually. The interaction between immobilization and housing conditions suggests that living for a long time in social isolation is sufficiently stressful to reduce the responses to another anxiogenic procedure (immobilization), while living in groups prompts the animals to react to acute stress. Thus, it is suggested that housing condition can modulate the effects of an anxiogenic procedure on behavioral responses of malnourished rats in the EPM.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Rats , Immobilization , Malnutrition , Anxiety , Exploratory Behavior , Rats, Wistar
13.
Genet. mol. res. (Online) ; 3(1): 181-194, Mar. 2004.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-417574

ABSTRACT

Chromobacterium violaceum is a Gram-negative bacterium found in a wide variety of tropical and subtropical ecosystems. The complete genome sequence of C. violaceum ATCC 12472 is now available, and it has considerable biotechnological potential for various applications, such as environmental detoxification, as well as medical and agricultural use. We examined the biotechnological potential of C. violaceum for environmental detoxification. Three operons, comprising the ars operon, involved in arsenic resistance, the cyn operon, involved in cyanate detoxification, and the hcn operon, encoding a cyanase, responsible for biogenic production of cyanide, as well as an open reading frame, encoding an acid dehalogenase, were analyzed in detail. Probable catalytic mechanisms for the enzymes were determined, based on amino acid sequence comparisons and on published structural information for these types of proteins


Subject(s)
Biotechnology , Chromobacterium/genetics , Bacterial Proteins/genetics , Arsenic/metabolism , Arsenic/pharmacology , Base Sequence , Biodegradation, Environmental , Chromobacterium/metabolism , Cyanides/metabolism , Open Reading Frames/genetics , Hydrolases/metabolism , Molecular Sequence Data , Operon/genetics , Bacterial Proteins/metabolism , Drug Resistance, Bacterial/genetics
14.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 34(3): 353-357, Mar. 2001. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-281616

ABSTRACT

The objective of the present study was to assess intestinal permeability in patients with infection caused by Strongyloides stercoralis. Twenty-six patients (16 women and 10 men), mean age 45.9, with a diagnosis of strongyloidiasis were evaluated. For comparison, 25 healthy volunteers (18 women and 7 men), mean age 44.9, without digestive disorders or intestinal parasites served as normal controls. Intestinal permeability was measured on the basis of urinary radioactivity levels during the 24 h following oral administration of chromium-labeled ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (51Cr-EDTA) expressed as percentage of the ingested dose. The urinary excretion of 51Cr-EDTA was significantly reduced in patients with strongyloidiasis compared to controls (1.60 + or - 0.74 and 3.10 + or - 1.40, respectively, P = 0.0001). Intestinal permeability is diminished in strongyloidiasis. Abnormalities in mucus secretion and intestinal motility and loss of macromolecules could explain the impaired intestinal permeability


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Chromium Radioisotopes/pharmacokinetics , Edetic Acid/pharmacokinetics , Intestinal Absorption , Strongyloides stercoralis , Strongyloidiasis/parasitology , Case-Control Studies , Chromium Radioisotopes , Chromium Radioisotopes/urine , Edetic Acid , Edetic Acid/urine , Intestinal Mucosa/metabolism , Permeability , Strongyloidiasis/diagnosis
15.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 45(2): 99-104, abr.-jun. 1999. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-233418

ABSTRACT

Objetivo. Contribuir para o achado do óstio de Wirsung durante a técnica da papiloesfincteroplastia, prevenindo a pancreatite aguda pós-operatória. Casuística e Método. Foram estudados 27 pacientes submetidos a papilo-esfincteroplastia por coledocolitíase com ou sem odite. Após a papiloesfincterotomia (PET) terapêutica, por via duodenal, realizou-se estudo da localizaçao do óstio do ducto de Wirsung. A PET transforma a ampola de Vater em um triângulo isósceles, cujas medidas foram obtidas através de compasso. Utilizando-as, o óstio do Wirsung poderá ser facilmente identificado e caracterizado no trans-operatório, antes de se fazer a sutura muco-mucosa da papila seccionada. Resultados. O óstio geralmente é encontrado medialmente na metade esquerda do triângulo e a uma distância média de 0,19cm a 0,25cm acima da base do triângulo, considerando-se a ausência ou presença de inflamaçao, respectivamente. Conclusao. A determinaçao transoperatória das distâncias padronizadas neste estudo, permite a detecçao e cateterizaçao segura do óstio do Wirsung na presença ou nao de odite.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Pancreatic Ducts/surgery , Sphincterotomy, Endoscopic , Sphincterotomy, Transduodenal , Ampulla of Vater/surgery , Intraoperative Period , Pancreatitis/prevention & control , Sex Distribution , Sphincterotomy, Endoscopic/methods
17.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 30(9): 1093-105, Sept. 1997. ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-200000

ABSTRACT

We studied the distribution of NADPH-diaphorase activity in the visual cortex of normal adult New World monkeys (Saimiri sciureus) using the malic enzyme "indirect" method. NADPH-diaphorase neuropil activity had a heterogeneous distribution. In coronal sections, it had a clear laminar pattern that was coincident with Nissl-stained layers. In tangential sections, we observed blobs in supragranular layers of V1 and stripes throughout the entire V2. We quantified and compared the tangential distribution of NADPH-diaphorase and cytochrome oxidade blobs in adjacent sections of the supragramular layers of V1. Although their spatial distributions were rather similar, the two enzymes did not always overlap. The histochemical reaction also revealed two different types of stained cells: a slightly stained subpopulation and a subgroup of deeply stained neurons resembling a Golgi impregnation. These neurons were sparsely spined non-pyramidal cells. Their dendritic arbors were very well stained but their axons were not always evident. In the gray matter, heavily stained neurons showed different dendritic arbor morphologies. However, most of the strongly reactive cells lay in the subjacent white matter, where they presented a more homogenous morphology. Our results demonstrate that the pattern of NADPH-diaphorase activity is similar to that previously described in Old World monkeys.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , NADPH Dehydrogenase/analysis , Saimiri/physiology , Visual Cortex/anatomy & histology , Visual Cortex/enzymology
18.
s.l; s.n; 1997. 1 p.
Non-conventional in Portuguese | LILACS-Express | LILACS, SES-SP, HANSEN, HANSENIASE, SESSP-ILSLACERVO, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1236194
19.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec ; 48(2): 141-6, abr. 1996. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-256994

ABSTRACT

Descreve-se um caso de um asinino, de 14 anos de idade, pesando 350kg, apresentando disúria e aumento de volume do conduto prepucial. Após exame clínico, constatou-se uma fimose adquirida devido a um traumatismo na regiäo e aumento de volume no conduto prepucial. Ao constatar-se ser um cálculo, o animal foi encaminhado para cirurgia, sendo realizada uma postoplastia para correçäo da fimose e remoçäo do cálculo de 1.870 gramas. Findo o período pós-operatório rotineiro, o animal retornou às funçöes fisiológicas e de trabalho


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Urinary Calculi/veterinary , Equidae/surgery , Phimosis/veterinary
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