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J. bras. pneumol ; 49(2): e20230051, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1430666


ABSTRACT Vulnerable populations, such as migrants and refugees, have an increased risk of tuberculosis disease, especially in the first years after arrival in the host country. The presence of migrants and refugees in Brazil exponentially grew over the period between 2011 and 2020, and approximately 1.3 million migrants from the Global South were estimated to be residing in Brazil, most of whom from Venezuela and Haiti. Tuberculosis control programs for migrants can be divided into pre- and post-migration screening strategies. Pre-migration screening aims to identify cases of tuberculosis infection (TBI) and can be carried out in the country of origin (pre-entry) or in the destination country (at entry). Pre-migration screening can also detect migrants at an increased risk of developing tuberculosis in the future. High-risk migrants are then followed up in post-migration screening. In Brazil, migrants are considered a priority group for the active search for tuberculosis cases. However, there is no recommendation or plan regarding screening for TBI in migrants and refugees. Ensuring prevention, diagnosis, and treatment for TBI and tuberculosis disease in migrant populations is an important aspect of tuberculosis control and elimination. In this review article, we address epidemiological aspects and access to health care for migrants in Brazil. In addition, the migration medical screening for tuberculosis was reviewed.

RESUMO Populações vulneráveis, como imigrantes e refugiados, apresentam maior risco de tuberculose doença, especialmente nos primeiros anos após a chegada ao país de acolhimento. A presença de imigrantes e refugiados no Brasil cresceu exponencialmente no período entre 2011 e 2020, sendo estimado que aproximadamente 1,3 milhão de imigrantes do Sul Global residiam no Brasil, a maioria proveniente da Venezuela e do Haiti. Os programas de controle da tuberculose para imigrantes podem ser divididos em estratégias de triagem pré- e pós-migração. A triagem pré-migração visa identificar casos de tuberculose infecção (TBI) e pode ser realizada no país de origem (pré-entrada) ou no país de destino (no momento da entrada). A triagem pré-migração também pode detectar imigrantes com maior risco de desenvolver tuberculose no futuro. Os imigrantes de alto risco são então acompanhados na triagem pós-migração. No Brasil, os imigrantes são considerados um grupo prioritário para a busca ativa de casos de tuberculose. No entanto, não há recomendação ou plano sobre triagem para TBI em imigrantes e refugiados. Garantir a prevenção, o diagnóstico e o tratamento da TBI e da tuberculose doença em populações imigrantes é um aspecto importante do controle e eliminação da tuberculose. Neste artigo de revisão, abordamos aspectos epidemiológicos e acesso à saúde para imigrantes no Brasil. Além disso, revisou-se a triagem médica de imigrantes para tuberculose.

Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992, Impr.) ; 68(9): 1199-1203, Sept. 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1406630


SUMMARY OBJECTIVES: In tuberculosis treatment, corticosteroids are used as adjuvants, especially in meningeal/pericardial tuberculosis. In other forms of the disease, especially in severe tuberculosis requiring mechanical ventilation, its use is controversial. The aim of the present study is to assess whether the use of corticosteroids in the treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis patients in mechanical ventilation is associated with in-hospital mortality. METHODS: This is a retrospective cohort study. Tuberculosis patients >18 years requiring mechanical ventilation, admitted to the emergency department or intensive care unit, were included. Data on corticosteroid use and mortality were collected. RESULTS: In total, 467 patients were included in the analysis; 399 used corticosteroids and 68 were noncorticosteroid users. The mortality rate was higher among corticosteroid users (59.9%) than in noncorticosteroid users (41.2%) (p=0.010). The total dose of corticosteroid in prednisone equivalents was not different between survivors and nonsurvivors (median [interquartile range]: 80 mg [5-56.6 mg] vs. 80 mg [50-135 mg]; p=0.881). CONCLUSIONS: Tuberculosis patients in mechanical ventilation who used corticosteroids had a higher mortality rate than those who did not use corticosteroids. The role of corticosteroids in pulmonary tuberculosis, especially in critically ill patients, remains unclear and needs further evaluation in prospective studies.

J. bras. pneumol ; 48(2): e20220087, 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1375735


ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to describe country-specific lockdown measures and tuberculosis indicators collected during the first year of the COVID-19 pandemic. Data on lockdown/social restrictions (compulsory face masks and hand hygiene; international and local travel restrictions; restrictions to family visits, and school closures) were collected from 24 countries spanning five continents. The majority of the countries implemented multiple lockdowns with partial or full reopening. There was an overall decrease in active tuberculosis, drug-resistant tuberculosis, and latent tuberculosis cases. Although national lockdowns were effective in containing COVID-19 cases, several indicators of tuberculosis were affected during the pandemic.

RESUMO O objetivo deste estudo foi descrever as medidas de confinamento específicas de cada país e os indicadores de tuberculose coletados durante o primeiro ano da pandemia de COVID-19. Dados referentes a confinamento/restrições sociais (uso obrigatório de máscaras faciais e higiene obrigatória das mãos; restrições a viagens internacionais e locais; restrições a visitas familiares e fechamento das escolas) foram coletados de 24 países em cinco continentes. A maioria dos países implantou múltiplos confinamentos, com reabertura parcial ou total. Houve uma redução geral dos casos de tuberculose ativa, tuberculose resistente e tuberculose latente. Embora os confinamentos nacionais tenham sido eficazes na contenção dos casos de COVID-19, vários indicadores de tuberculose foram afetados durante a pandemia.

J. bras. pneumol ; 48(2): e20210515, 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1375737


ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate lung function in a cohort of patients with a history of pulmonary tuberculosis in Brazil, as well as to evaluate the decline in lung function over time and compare it with that observed in similar cohorts in Mexico and Italy. Methods: The three cohorts were compared in terms of age, smoking status, pulmonary function test results, six-minute walk test results, and arterial blood gas results. In the Brazilian cohort, pulmonary function test results, six-minute walk test results, and arterial blood gas results right after the end of tuberculosis treatment were compared with those obtained at the end of the follow-up period. Results: The three cohorts were very different regarding pulmonary function test results. The most common ventilatory patterns in the Brazilian, Italian, and Mexican cohorts were an obstructive pattern, a mixed pattern, and a normal pattern (in 58 patients [50.9%], in 18 patients [41.9%], and in 26 patients [44.1%], respectively). Only 2 multidrug-resistant tuberculosis cases were included in the Brazilian cohort, whereas, in the Mexican cohort, 27 cases were included (45.8%). Mean PaO2 and mean SaO2 were lower in the Mexican cohort than in the Brazilian cohort (p < 0.0001 and p < 0.002 for PaO2 and SaO2, respectively). In the Brazilian cohort, almost all functional parameters deteriorated over time. Conclusions: This study reinforces the importance of early and effective treatment of drug-susceptible tuberculosis patients, because multidrug-resistant tuberculosis increases lung damage. When patients complete their tuberculosis treatment, they should be evaluated as early as possible, and, if post-tuberculosis lung disease is diagnosed, they should be managed and offered pulmonary rehabilitation because there is evidence that it is effective in these patients.

RESUMO Objetivo: Avaliar a função pulmonar em uma coorte de pacientes com história de tuberculose pulmonar no Brasil, bem como avaliar o declínio da função pulmonar ao longo do tempo e compará-lo com o observado em coortes semelhantes no México e Itália. Métodos: As três coortes foram comparadas quanto à idade, tabagismo, testes de função pulmonar, teste de caminhada de seis minutos e gasometria arterial. Na coorte brasileira, os resultados dos testes de função pulmonar, do teste de caminhada de seis minutos e da gasometria arterial logo após o término do tratamento da tuberculose foram comparados com os obtidos no fim do período de acompanhamento. Resultados: As três coortes foram muito diferentes quanto aos resultados dos testes de função pulmonar. Os padrões ventilatórios mais comuns nas coortes brasileira, italiana e mexicana foram o padrão obstrutivo, o padrão misto e o padrão normal [em 58 pacientes (50,9%), em 18 pacientes (41,9%) e em 26 pacientes (44,1%), respectivamente]. Apenas 2 casos de tuberculose multirresistente foram incluídos na coorte brasileira, ao passo que na coorte mexicana foram incluídos 27 casos (45,8%). As médias da PaO2 e SaO2 foram mais baixas na coorte mexicana do que na brasileira (p < 0,0001 e p < 0,002 para PaO2 e SaO2, respectivamente). Na coorte brasileira, quase todos os parâmetros funcionais se deterioraram ao longo do tempo. Conclusões: Este estudo reforça a importância do tratamento precoce e eficaz de pacientes com tuberculose sensível, pois a tuberculose multirresistente aumenta o dano pulmonar. Quando o tratamento da tuberculose é concluído, os pacientes devem ser avaliados o quanto antes e, caso se estabeleça o diagnóstico de sequelas pulmonares da tuberculose, é preciso tratá-los e oferecer-lhes reabilitação pulmonar, pois há evidências de que ela é eficaz nesses pacientes.

J. bras. pneumol ; 47(2): e20210054, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1250200


ABSTRACT Early, accurate diagnosis of tuberculosis is one of the major pillars of the control of the disease. The purpose of this consensus statement is to provide health professionals with the most current, useful evidence for the diagnosis of tuberculosis in Brazil. To that end, the Tuberculosis Committee of the Brazilian Thoracic Association brought together 14 members of the Association with recognized expertise in tuberculosis in Brazil to compose the statement. A nonsystematic review of the following topics was carried out: clinical diagnosis, bacteriological diagnosis, radiological diagnosis, histopathological diagnosis, diagnosis of tuberculosis in children, and diagnosis of latent tuberculosis infection.

RESUMO O diagnóstico precoce e adequado da tuberculose é um dos pilares mais importantes no controle da doença. A proposta deste consenso brasileiro é apresentar aos profissionais da área de saúde um documento com as evidências mais atuais e úteis para o diagnóstico da tuberculose. Para tanto, a Comissão de Tuberculose da Sociedade Brasileira de Pneumologia e Tisiologia reuniu 14 membros da Sociedade com reconhecida experiência em tuberculose no Brasil. Foi realizada uma revisão não sistemática dos seguintes tópicos: diagnóstico clínico, diagnóstico bacteriológico, diagnóstico radiológico, diagnóstico histopatológico, diagnóstico da tuberculose na criança e diagnóstico da tuberculose latente.

Humans , Child , Tuberculosis , Brazil , Health Personnel , Consensus
J. bras. pneumol ; 47(2): e20210044, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1250196


ABSTRACT On April 1st, 2020, COVID-19 surpassed tuberculosis regarding the number of deaths per day worldwide. The combination of tuberculosis and COVID-19 has great potential for morbidity and mortality. In addition, the COVID-19 pandemic has had a significant impact on the diagnosis and treatment of tuberculosis. In this review article, we address concurrent tuberculosis and COVID-19, with particular regard to the differences between Brazil and Europe. In addition, we discuss priorities in clinical care, public health, and research.

RESUMO Em 1º de abril de 2020, a COVID-19 ultrapassou a tuberculose em número de óbitos por dia no mundo. A associação da tuberculose com a COVID-19 apresenta grande potencial de morbidade e mortalidade. Além disso, a pandemia de COVID-19 tem tido um impacto significativo no diagnóstico e tratamento da tuberculose. Neste artigo de revisão, abordamos tuberculose e COVID-19 concomitantes, com particular atenção às diferenças entre Brasil e Europa. Além disso, discutimos as prioridades em atendimento clínico, saúde pública e pesquisa.

Humans , Tuberculosis/diagnosis , Tuberculosis/drug therapy , Tuberculosis/epidemiology , COVID-19 , Brazil/epidemiology , Europe/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
Clin. biomed. res ; 40(1): 1-6, 2020.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1104373


Introduction: Registries of spondyloarthritis (SpA) patients' follow-up provided evidence that tumor necrosis factor inhibitors (TNFi) increase the incidence of active tuberculosis infection (TB). However, most of these registries are from low burden TB areas. Few studies evaluated the safety of biologic agents in TB endemic areas. This study compares the TB incidence rate (TB IR) in anti-TNF-naïve and anti-TNF-experienced subjects with SpA in a high TB incidence setting.Methods: In this retrospective cohort study, medical records from patients attending a SpA clinic during 13 years (2004 to 2016) in a university hospital were reviewed. The TB IR was calculated and expressed as number of events per 105 patients/year; the incidence rate ratio (IRR) associated with the use of TNFi was calculated.Results: A total of 277 patients, 173 anti-TNF-naïve and 104 anti-TNF-experienced subjects, were evaluated; 35.7% (N = 35) of patients who were prescribed an anti-TNF drug were diagnosed with latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI). Total follow-up time (person-years) was 1667.8 for anti-TNF-naïve and 394.9 for anti-TNF-experienced patients. TB IR (95% CI) was 299.8 (37.4-562.2) for anti-TNF naïve and 1012.9 (25.3-2000.5) for anti-TNF experienced subjects. The IRR associated with the use of TNFi was 10.4 (2.3- 47.9).Conclusions: In this high TB incidence setting, SpA patients exposed to anti-TNF therapy had a higher incidence of TB compared to anti-TNF-naïve subjects, although the TB incidence in the control group was significant.(AU)

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Tuberculosis/chemically induced , Tuberculosis/epidemiology , Biological Products/adverse effects , Antirheumatic Agents/adverse effects , Spondylarthritis/drug therapy , Tumor Necrosis Factor Inhibitors/adverse effects , Spondylitis, Ankylosing/drug therapy , Biological Products/therapeutic use , Arthritis, Psoriatic/drug therapy , Incidence , Retrospective Studies , Follow-Up Studies , Antirheumatic Agents/therapeutic use , Endemic Diseases , Latent Tuberculosis/drug therapy , Tumor Necrosis Factor Inhibitors/therapeutic use
J. bras. pneumol ; 46(2): e20200009, 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1090798


ABSTRACT Given the global burden of tuberculosis, shortened treatment regimens with existing or repurposed drugs are needed to contribute to tuberculosis control. The long duration of treatment of drug-susceptible tuberculosis (DS-TB) is associated with nonadherence and loss to follow up, and the treatment success rate of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is low (approximately 50%) with longer regimens. In this review article, we report recent advances and ongoing clinical trials aimed at shortening regimens for DS-TB and MDR-TB. We discuss the role of high-dose rifampin, as well as that of clofazimine and linezolid in regimens for DS-TB. There are at least 5 ongoing clinical trials and 17 observational studies and clinical trials evaluating shorter regimens for DS-TB and MDR-TB, respectively. We also report the results of observational studies and clinical trials evaluating a standardized nine-month moxifloxacin-based regimen for MDR-TB. Further studies, especially randomized clinical trials, are needed to evaluate regimens including newer drugs, drugs proven to be or highly likely to be efficacious, and all-oral drugs in an effort to eliminate the need for injectable drugs.

RESUMO Em virtude da carga global da tuberculose, esquemas mais curtos de tratamento com medicamentos já existentes ou reaproveitados são necessários para contribuir para o controle da doença. A longa duração do tratamento da tuberculose sensível (TBS) está relacionada com não adesão e perda de seguimento, e a taxa de sucesso do tratamento da tuberculose multirresistente (TBMR) é baixa (de aproximadamente 50%) com esquemas mais longos. Neste artigo de revisão, relatamos avanços recentes e ensaios clínicos em andamento cujo objetivo é encurtar os esquemas de tratamento de TBS e TBMR. Discutimos o papel da rifampicina em altas doses, assim como o da clofazimina e linezolida em esquemas de tratamento de TBS. Relatamos também os resultados de estudos observacionais e ensaios clínicos de avaliação de um esquema padronizado de nove meses à base de moxifloxacina para o tratamento de TBMR. Mais estudos, especialmente ensaios clínicos randomizados, são necessários para avaliar esquemas que incluam medicamentos mais novos, medicamentos comprovadamente ou provavelmente eficazes e medicamentos exclusivamente orais na tentativa de dispensar o uso de medicamentos injetáveis.

Humans , Tuberculosis/drug therapy , Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant/drug therapy , Antitubercular Agents/therapeutic use , Rifampin/therapeutic use , Clinical Protocols , Clinical Trials as Topic , Clofazimine/therapeutic use , Linezolid/therapeutic use
J. bras. pneumol ; 46(2): e20180419, 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1090796


ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate the radiological presentation of patients with pulmonary tuberculosis diagnosed in the emergency department and to investigate its association with the time to diagnosis. Methods: This was a prospective observational study involving patients diagnosed with pulmonary tuberculosis in the emergency department of a tertiary university hospital in southern Brazil. Chest X-rays taken on admission were evaluated by a radiologist. The various patterns of radiological findings and locations of the lesions were described. The main study outcome was the total time elapsed between the initial radiological examination and the diagnosis of tuberculosis. Results: A total of 78 patients were included in the study. The median time from chest X-ray to diagnosis was 2 days, early and delayed diagnosis being defined as a time to diagnosis < 2 days and ≥ 2 days, respectively. Sputum smear positivity was associated with early diagnosis (p = 0.005), and positive culture was associated with delayed diagnosis (p = 0.005). Early diagnosis was associated with the presence of sputum (p = 0.03), weight loss (p = 0.047), cavitation (p = 0.001), and consolidation (p = 0.003). Pulmonary cavitation was found to be an independent predictor of early diagnosis (OR = 3.50; p = 0.028). Conclusions: There is a need for tuberculosis-specific protocols in emergency departments, not only to avoid delays in diagnosis and treatment but also to modify the transmission dynamics of the disease.

RESUMO Objetivo: Avaliar a apresentação radiológica de pacientes com tuberculose pulmonar diagnosticada no serviço de emergência e investigar sua associação com o tempo para o diagnóstico. Métodos: Estudo observacional prospectivo envolvendo pacientes diagnosticados com tuberculose pulmonar no serviço de emergência de um hospital universitário terciário no sul do Brasil. As radiografias de tórax realizadas na admissão foram avaliadas por um radiologista. Foram descritos os diferentes padrões de achados radiológicos e as localizações das lesões. O desfecho principal do estudo foi o tempo total decorrido entre o exame radiológico inicial e o diagnóstico de tuberculose. Resultados: Um total de 78 pacientes foi incluído no estudo. A mediana de tempo entre a radiografia de tórax e o diagnóstico foi de 2 dias, sendo os diagnósticos precoce e tardio definidos como tempo para o diagnóstico < 2 dias e ≥ 2 dias, respectivamente. A positividade da baciloscopia de escarro associou-se ao diagnóstico precoce (p = 0,005), e a cultura positiva associou-se ao diagnóstico tardio (p = 0,005). O diagnóstico precoce associou-se à presença de escarro (p = 0,03), perda de peso (p = 0,047), cavitação (p = 0,001) e consolidação (p = 0,003). A cavitação pulmonar foi um preditor independente de diagnóstico precoce (OR = 3,50; p = 0,028). Conclusões: Há necessidade de protocolos específicos para tuberculose nos serviços de emergência, não apenas para evitar atrasos no diagnóstico e no tratamento, mas também para modificar a dinâmica de transmissão da doença.

Humans , Sputum/microbiology , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/diagnosis , Emergency Service, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Time Factors , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/diagnostic imaging , X-Rays , Brazil , Prospective Studies , Delayed Diagnosis
J. bras. pneumol ; 45(2): e20190023, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1002432


ABSTRACT Most people infected by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) do not have any signs or disease symptoms, a condition known as latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI). The introduction of biological agents, mainly tumor necrosis factor (TNF) inhibitors, for the treatment of immune-mediated diseases such as Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) and other rheumatic diseases, increased the risk of reactivation of LTBI, leading to development of active TB. Thus, this review will approach the aspects related to LTBI in patients with rheumatologic diseases, especially those using iTNF drugs. For this purpose it will be considered the definition and prevalence of LTBI, mechanisms associated with diseases and medications in use, criteria for screening, diagnosis and treatment. Considering that reactivation of LTBI accounts for a large proportion of the incidence of active TB, adequate diagnosis and treatment are crucial, especially in high-risk groups such as patients with rheumatologic diseases.

RESUMO A maioria das pessoas infectadas por Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) não possui sinais ou sintomas da doença, quadro conhecido como infecção latente por tuberculose (ILTB). A introdução de agentes biológicos, sobretudo inibidores do fator de necrose tumoral (iTNF), para o tratamento de doenças imunomediadas, como artrite reumatoide (AR) e outras doenças reumatológicas, aumentou o risco de reativação de ILTB, levando ao desenvolvimento de tuberculose (TB) ativa. Assim, esta revisão abordará os aspectos relacionados à ILTB em pacientes com doenças reumatológicas, especialmente naqueles em uso de medicamentos iTNF. Para tanto, serão considerados a definição e a prevalência de ILTB, os mecanismos associados às doenças e às medicações em uso, bem como os critérios para rastreamento, diagnóstico e tratamento da ILTB. Como a reativação da ILTB é responsável pela grande proporção de casos de TB ativa, o diagnóstico e o tratamento adequados são cruciais, principalmente em grupos de alto risco, como os pacientes com doenças reumatológicas.

Humans , Rheumatic Diseases/complications , Rheumatic Diseases/drug therapy , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/antagonists & inhibitors , Latent Tuberculosis/etiology , Tuberculin Test , Risk Factors , Antirheumatic Agents/adverse effects , Latent Tuberculosis/diagnosis , Latent Tuberculosis/drug therapy , Interferon-gamma Release Tests
J. bras. pneumol ; 45(2): e20180420, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1002435


ABSTRACT Objective: Most studies of tuberculosis originate from high-income countries with a low incidence of tuberculosis. A review of the scientific production on tuberculosis in Latin American countries, most of which are low- or middle-income countries (some with high or intermediate tuberculosis incidence rates), would improve the understanding of public health challenges, clinical needs, and research priorities. The aims of this systematic review were to determine what has been published recently in Latin America, to identify the leading authors involved, and to quantify the impact of international collaborations. Methods: We used PubMed to identify relevant manuscripts on pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB), drug-resistant tuberculosis (DR-TB), or multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB), published between 2013 and 2018. We selected only studies conducted in countries with an annual tuberculosis incidence of ≥ 10,000 reported cases and an annual MDR-TB incidence of ≥ 300 estimated cases, including Brazil, Peru, Mexico, Colombia, and Argentina. Articles were stratified by country, type, and topic. Results: We identified as eligible 395 studies on PTB and 188 studies on DR/MDR-TB-of which 96.4% and 96.8%, respectively, were original studies; 35.5% and 32.4%, respectively, had an epidemiological focus; and 52.7% and 36.2%, respectively, were conducted in Brazil. The recent Latin American Thoracic Association/European Respiratory Society/Brazilian Thoracic Association collaborative project boosted the production of high-quality articles on PTB and DR/MDR-TB in Latin America. Conclusions: Most of the recent Latin American studies on tuberculosis were conducted in Brazil, Mexico, or Peru. Collaboration among medical societies facilitates the production of scientific papers on tuberculosis. Such initiatives are in support of the World Health Organization call for intensified research and innovation in tuberculosis.

RESUMO Objetivo: A maioria dos estudos sobre tuberculose é proveniente de países de alta renda com baixa incidência de tuberculose. Uma revisão da produção científica sobre tuberculose na América Latina, região onde a maioria dos países é de baixa ou média renda, alguns com alta ou média incidência de tuberculose, seria útil para entender as necessidades clínicas e de saúde pública, bem como as prioridades de pesquisa. O objetivo desta revisão sistemática foi identificar o que foi publicado recentemente na América Latina, os principais autores envolvidos e o impacto das colaborações internacionais. Métodos: O PubMed foi usado para identificar manuscritos relevantes sobre tuberculose pulmonar (TBP) e tuberculose resistente ou multirresistente publicados entre 2013 e 2018. Foram selecionados apenas os estudos realizados em países com incidência anual de tuberculose ≥ 10.000 casos notificados e incidência anual de tuberculose multirresistente ≥ 300 casos estimados, incluindo Brasil, Peru, México, Colômbia e Argentina. Os artigos foram estratificados por país, tipo e tópico. Resultados: Foram identificados 395 estudos sobre TBP e 188 sobre tuberculose resistente/multirresistente, dos quais 96,4% e 96,8%, respectivamente, eram estudos originais; 35,5% e 32,4%, respectivamente, concentravam-se em epidemiologia; 52,7% e 36,2%, respectivamente, haviam sido realizados no Brasil. O recente projeto colaborativo da Asociación Latinoamericana de Tórax/European Respiratory Society/Sociedade Brasileira de Pneumologia e Tisiologia impulsionou a produção de artigos de alta qualidade sobre TBP e tuberculose resistente/multirresistente na América Latina. Conclusões: A maioria dos estudos recentes sobre tuberculose na América Latina foi realizada no Brasil, México ou Peru. A colaboração entre sociedades médicas facilita a produção de artigos científicos sobre tuberculose. Iniciativas assim atendem ao pedido da Organização Mundial da Saúde de intensificação das pesquisas e inovações na área de tuberculose.

Periodicals as Topic/statistics & numerical data , Publishing/statistics & numerical data , Societies, Medical/statistics & numerical data , Tuberculosis , International Cooperation , Time Factors , Biomedical Research/statistics & numerical data , Latin America
J. bras. pneumol ; 45(2): e20180324, 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1002436


ABSTRACT Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB) continue to challenge physicians and public health specialists. Global treatment outcomes continue to be unsatisfactory, positive outcomes being achieved in only 54% of patients. Overall outcomes are even worse in patients infected with highly resistant strains. Treating MDR-/XDR-TB is difficult because of frequent adverse events, the long duration of drug regimens, the high costs of second-line drugs, chronic post-infectious sequelae, and loss of organ function. Ongoing research efforts (studies and trials) have various aims: increasing the rates of treatment success; understanding the potentialities of new and repurposed drugs; shortening the treatment duration; and reducing the rates of adverse events. It is hoped that better access to rapid diagnostics, increased awareness, and treatments that are more effective will reduce the rate of complications and of lung function impairment. This article aims to discuss the management of severe tuberculosis (defined as that which is potentially life threatening, requiring higher levels of care) and its sequelae, from intensive care to the postoperative period, rehabilitation, and recovery. We also discuss the nonpharmacological interventions available to manage chronic sequelae and improve patient quality of life. Because the majority of MDR-/XDR-TB cases evolve to lung function impairment (typically obstructive but occasionally restrictive), impaired quality of life, and low performance status (as measured by walk tests or other metrics), other interventions (e.g., smoking cessation, pulmonary rehabilitation, vaccination/prevention of secondary bacterial infections/exacerbations, complemented by psychological and nutritional support) are required.

RESUMO A tuberculose multirresistente e a tuberculose extensivamente resistente ainda são um desafio para médicos e especialistas em saúde pública. Os desfechos globais do tratamento ainda são insatisfatórios; apenas 54% dos pacientes têm um desfecho positivo. Os desfechos globais são ainda piores em pacientes infectados por cepas altamente resistentes. O tratamento da tuberculose multirresistente/extensivamente resistente é difícil em virtude dos eventos adversos frequentes, da longa duração dos esquemas terapêuticos, do alto custo dos medicamentos de segunda linha, das sequelas pós-infecciosas crônicas e da perda da função orgânica. Esforços de pesquisa (estudos e ensaios) estão em andamento e têm diversos objetivos: aumentar as taxas de sucesso do tratamento; compreender o potencial de medicamentos novos e reaproveitados; encurtar o tratamento e reduzir as taxas de eventos adversos. Espera-se que melhor acesso ao diagnóstico rápido, maior conhecimento e terapias mais eficazes reduzam as complicações e o comprometimento da função pulmonar. O objetivo deste artigo é discutir o tratamento da tuberculose grave (potencialmente fatal, que necessita de níveis maiores de atenção) e suas sequelas, desde a terapia intensiva até o pós-operatório, reabilitação e recuperação. São também discutidas as intervenções não farmacológicas disponíveis para tratar sequelas crônicas e melhorar a qualidade de vida dos pacientes. Como a maioria dos casos de tuberculose multirresistente/extensivamente resistente resulta em comprometimento da função pulmonar (obstrução principalmente, mas às vezes restrição), qualidade de vida prejudicada e desempenho reduzido (medido por meio de testes de caminhada ou outros), são necessárias outras intervenções (cessação do tabagismo, reabilitação pulmonar, vacinação e prevenção de infecções bacterianas secundárias/exacerbações, por exemplo, complementadas por apoio psicológico e nutricional).

Humans , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/complications , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/therapy , Disease Management , Severity of Illness Index , Risk Factors , Treatment Outcome , Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant/complications , Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant/therapy , Critical Care , Antitubercular Agents/therapeutic use