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1.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 70(1): 321-326, Jan.-Feb. 2018. graf, ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1038584

ABSTRACT

The objective of this study was to describe lesions in four birds, victims of collisions with aircraft, coming from the International Airport of Recife/Guararapes Gilberto Freyre, Pernambuco, Brazil. Contused wounds were predominant in birds in this study, characterized by the presence of fractures, bruises and hematomas and justified by the blunt action promoted by the type of vulnerant agent involved (aircraft). The analysis under medico-legal veterinary aspect of lesions in bird strike is essential, because in addition to the attempt to establish a standard for differentiating the aircraft lesions, it can guide the bird strike hazard management programs at airports, since the necropsy allows the identification of the species involved or at least facilitates the obtaining biological material for identification.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Shock, Traumatic/veterinary , Wounds and Injuries/veterinary , Birds , Animals, Wild , Veterinarians , Coroners and Medical Examiners , Airports
2.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 70(2): 410-418, mar.-abr. 2018. mapas, ilus, graf, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-910391

ABSTRACT

Neste estudo, objetivou-se avaliar a qualidade ambiental de duas áreas do complexo estuarino de São Marcos, utilizando-se as alterações branquiais em Sciades herzbergii como biomarcadores de contaminação aquática. Foram realizadas coletas no período de estiagem (setembro/dezembro de 2015) e no período chuvoso (março/junho de 2016). Foram capturados 40 exemplares de S. herzbergii em dois locais distintos do complexo estuarino: A1) Porto do Itaqui Bacanga (área potencialmente impactada); A2) Igarapé do Puca, Alcântara (área controle). Foram registradas as variáveis abióticas: salinidade, temperatura, pH e oxigênio dissolvido. No laboratório, as brânquias de cada espécime foram fixadas em formol a 10% e mantidas em álcool a 70% até a execução da técnica histológica usual. As alterações branquiais identificadas nos peixes da área potencialmente contaminada foram: deslocamento do epitélio (DE), congestão (CO), aneurisma (AN), fusão lamelar (FL), hiperplasia (HI), dilatação capilar (DC), necrose (NE) e proliferação de células epiteliais (PCE). As alterações na região controle foram: deslocamento do epitélio (DE), fusão lamelar (FL), necrose (NE) e proliferação de células epiteliais (PCE). As alterações branquiais foram mais frequentes na região portuária (84%) do que na região controle (16%). Esses resultados indicam que os peixes da área potencialmente contaminada estão apresentando respostas biológicas ao estresse local.(AU)


This study aimed to compare an environmental quality of two areas of the estuarine complex of São Marcos using gills of changes in Sciades herzbergii as biomarkers of aquatic contamination. Samples were made during the dry season (September/ December 2015) and rainy season (March/ June 2016). They were captured 40 specimens of S. herzbergii at two different points of the estuarine complex: A1) Itaqui port (potentially contaminated area); A2) Igarapé do Puca, Alcântara (control area). Abiotic variables were recorded: salinity, temperature, pH and dissolved oxygen. In the laboratory, the gills of each species were fixed in 10% formaldehyde and kept in 70% alcohol until the usual histological technique was performed. The gill alterations identified in the fish of the potentially contaminated area were: epithelial displacement (DE), congestion (CO), aneurysm (AN), lamellar fusion (FL), hyperplasia (HI), capillary dilation (DC), necrosis and epithelial cell proliferation (PCE). The changes in the control region were: epithelial displacement (DE), lamellar fusion (FL), necrosis (NE) and epithelial cell proliferation (PCE). Gill alterations were more frequent in the port region (84%) than in the control region (16%). These results indicate that fish from the potentially contaminated area are presenting biological responses to local stress.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Biomarkers , Catfishes/anatomy & histology , Gills/anatomy & histology , Environmental Monitoring
3.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 70(2): 505-510, mar.-abr. 2018. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-910590

ABSTRACT

Objetivou-se com este estudo pesquisar a ocorrência de anticorpos anti-Toxoplasma gondii em carcarás (Caracara plancus) capturados no Aeroporto Internacional do Recife/Guararapes Gilberto Freyre, Pernambuco, Brasil. Foram analisadas 115 amostras de soros sanguíneos pelo teste de aglutinação modificada (IgG, MAT≥25) utilizando taquizoítos inativados em formalina. Do total de amostras analisadas, 5,21% (6/115) foram positivas para presença de anticorpos anti-T. gondii, 16,67% com título 1:25 (1/06) e 83,33% (5/06) com título 1:50. A ocorrência de anticorpos em carcarás procedentes de região aeroportuária fomenta a preocupação em relação a aspectos ainda pouco elucidados, relacionados principalmente à inserção de aves silvestres na cadeia epidemiológica da toxoplasmose conectada à ação antrópica, tornando próxima a interação entre animais silvestres, domésticos e o homem. Dessa forma, é notória a necessidade de estudos relacionados à dinâmica de transmissão entre os diferentes genótipos existentes nessa tríade e sua relação com o meio ambiente, a fim de determinar a influência dessa espécie animal na cadeia epidemiológica da toxoplasmose.(AU)


The objective of this study was to investigate the occurrence of antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii in carcarás (Caracara plancus) captured in the Recife/Guararapes Gilberto Freyre International Airport, in the State of Pernambuco, Brazil. 115 samples of blood sera were tested by the Modified Agglutination Test technique (IgG, MAT > 25) using tachyzoites inactivated in formalin. Of the total of the analyzed samples, 5,21% (6/115) were positive for the presence of antibodies against T. gondii, 16,67% with a titer of 1:25 (1/06) and 83,33% (5/06) with a titration of 1:50. The occurrence of antibodies in caracaras coming from airport region generate concern about aspects still poorly understood, mainly related to the inclusion of wild birds in the epidemiological chain of toxoplasmosis connected to human action, making close interaction between wild animals, domestic and man. Thus, the need for studies related to the dynamics of transmission between the different existing genotypes in this triad is evident as is its relationship with the environment to determine the influence of this animal species in the epidemiological chain of toxoplasmosis.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Falconiformes/immunology , Raptors/immunology , Toxoplasma/immunology , Toxoplasmosis, Animal
4.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 69(4): 870-876, jul.-ago. 2017. graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-876619

ABSTRACT

O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o efeito da suplementação mineral injetável extra de cobre (Cu) e zinco (Zn) sobre a resposta imunológica de vacas Nelore no período pré-parto. Foram avaliadas 60 vacas prenhes, as quais foram divididas em dois tratamentos, por meio da distribuição aleatória em delineamento inteiramente ao acaso. Aos 75 dias antes do parto, as vacas do tratamento testemunha (T) receberam soro fisiológico como placebo e os animais suplementados (S) receberam mineral injetável via subcutânea (75mg de cobre e 250mg de zinco, em dose única). Foram realizadas três coletas de sangue, duas antes da data prevista para o parto (75 e 10 dias) e uma 30 dias após o parto. Os teores de Cu, Zn, ceruloplasmina, imunoglobulinas G (IgG) e M (IgM) foram analisados durante as três coletas. A atividade fagocitária foi avaliada aos 30 dias pós-parto. Os dados foram examinados mediante análise de variância, com o uso do pacote estatístico do SAS, e os dados individuais da atividade fagocitária pelo PROC GLM. Os dados de Cu, Zn, IgG e IgM foram analisados como medidas repetidas no tempo de coleta por meio do PROC MIXED, com o nível de significância de 5%. Os teores de Cu, Zn, IgM, IgG, ceruloplasmina e a atividade fagocitária das vacas não sofreram influência dos tratamentos (P>0,05). O fornecimento de Cu e Zn injetável, nas doses utilizadas, aos 75 dias antes do parto para vacas Nelore, em dietas suficientes, não alterou os teores de Cu, Zn, ceruloplasmina e a resposta imunológica até 30 dias após o parto.(AU)


The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of extra injectable mineral supplementation of copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) on the immune response of Nellore cows in pre-partum period. Sixty pregnant cows were randomly distributed in a completely randomized design in two treatments. In the control treatment (T), cows received saline as placebo, and supplemented treatment (S) received mineral injection (75mg copper and 250mg of zinc, single dose) subcutaneously, 75 days prior to parturition. Blood was sampled three times, two before the expected date of parturition (75 and 10 days) and another at 30 days postpartum. Analyses were performed for Cu, Zn, ceruloplasmin, immunoglobulin G (IgG) and M (IgM) in the three periods and the phagocytic activity in the last period (30 days postpartum). The experimental data were subjected to analysis of variance using the statistical package SAS, being that the individual data phagocytic activity were analyzed by PROC GLM, and the Cu, Zn, IgG and IgM were analyzed as repeated measures in the time, using the PROC MIXED, with the significance level of 5%. The Cu, Zn, IgM, IgG, ceruloplasmin and the phagocytic activity of the cows were not affected by treatments (P>0.05). The supply of injectable Cu and Zn, at the doses used, 75 days before parturition to Nellore cows in sufficient diets, did not alter the serum contents of Cu, Zn, ceruloplasmin and the immune response up to 30 days after parturition.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Pregnancy , Cattle , Dietary Minerals , Dietary Supplements/analysis , Immunity , Immunoglobulins , Copper , Phagocytes , Zinc
5.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec ; 66(6): 1822-1830, 12/2014. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-735760

ABSTRACT

Foram utilizadas três vacas não lactantes fistuladas no rúmen com o objetivo de determinar os parâmetros de degradação ruminal in situ da matéria seca (MS) e do amido de grãos de sorgo sob diferentes formas de processamento: 1) Seco e moído (2mm); 2) Seco, moído (3mm), reidratado com aspersão de água sobre o material, e imediatamente ensilado por 30 dias; 3) Seco, inteiro, reidratado por três dias em tubo PVC e, em seguida, moído a 5mm; 4) Seco, inteiro, reidratado por três dias em tubo PVC com aplicação de ar comprimido e, em seguida, moído a 5mm; 5) Seco, inteiro, reidratado por três dias em tubo PVC e, em seguida, moído a 5mm, e ensilado por 30 dias; 6) Seco, inteiro, reidratado por três dias em tubo PVC com aplicação de ar comprimido, moído a 5mm e ensilado por 30 dias. Os teores de proteína bruta, amido, e fibra em detergente neutro (% da MS) variaram de 9,8 a 10,8%; 59,5 a 67,5%; e de 16,1 a 19,3%, respectivamente. Os teores de umidade nos grãos que foram reidratados variaram de 35,8 a 43,9% da MS. A taxa e a extensão de degradação do amido e a degradabilidade potencial da MS foram semelhantes (P>0,05) entre tratamentos. Os grãos de sorgo reidratados com aplicação de ar comprimido, moídos e ensilados (tratamento 6) apresentaram degradabilidade efetiva (DE) da MS e DE do amido sob taxa de passagem ruminal de 2%/h, semelhantes (P>0,05) às observadas para o tratamento 5 (sem aplicação de ar comprimido), e superiores (P<0,05) às dos demais processamentos. Sob taxas de passagem no rúmen de 5 e 8%/h, as DE do amido estimadas para os grãos processados no tratamento 6 foram superiores (P<0,05) às obtidas para os demais tratamentos. O processamento de reidratação por três dias com aplicação de ar comprimido e ensilagem por trinta dias aumentou a degradabilidade efetiva da matéria seca e do amido dos grãos de sorgo, e sua utilização pode ser recomendada para animais em níveis intermediário e elevado de desempenho...


Used three non-lactating cows fistulated in the rumen in order to determine the parameters of in situ ruminal degradation of dry matter (DM) and starch grain sorghum under different forms of processing: 1) Dried and ground (2mm); 2) Dry, crushed (3mm), rehydrated with water spray on the material and immediately ensiled for 30 days, 3) Dry, round, rehydrated for three days in PVC pipe and then crushed to 5mm, 4 ) Dry, full-rehydrated for three days in PVC tube with application of compressed air and then ground to 5mm; 5) Dry, full-rehydrated for three days in PVC pipe and then ground to 5mm, and ensiled for 30 days; 6) Dry, full-rehydrated for three days in PVC tube with application of compressed air, ground to 5mm and ensiled for 30 days. The crude protein, starch, and neutral detergent fiber (% of DM) ranged from 9.8 to 10.8%, 59.5 to 67.5%, and 16.1 to 19.3%, respectively. The moisture in the grains that were rehydrated ranged from 35.8 to 43.9% DM. The rate and extent of starch degradation and the degradability of MS were similar (P>0.05) between treatments. The grain sorghum rehydrated with application of compressed air, ground and ensiled (treatment 6), showed effective degradability (ED) of DM, and DE starch under ruminal passage rate of 2%/h, similar (P>0.05 ) those observed for treating 5 (without application of compressed air) and higher (P<0.05) to the other processing. Under rumen passage rates of 5 and 8%/h, the estimated NDs starch for processed grains in treatment 6 were higher (P<0.05) than those obtained for the other treatments. Processing rehydration for three days with compressed air application and silage for thirty days increased the effective degradability of dry matter and starch grain sorghum, and its use can be recommended for animals in intermediate and high performance...


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Cattle , Fluid Therapy/veterinary , Rumen/abnormalities , Sorghum , Starch/administration & dosage , Silage/analysis , Silage/adverse effects
6.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec ; 66(6): 1687-1694, 12/2014. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-735765

ABSTRACT

Neste estudo objetivou-se validar dois órgãos (brânquia e fígado) de Hoplias malabaricus para análise de biomarcadores de contaminação aquática na Área de Proteção Ambiental (APA) do Maracanã em São Luís-MA. Exemplares de traíra foram capturados em uma lagoa de policultivo e no Rio Ambude, localizados na APA do Maracanã. A biometria foi realizada em laboratório. Brânquias e o fígado de cada espécime foram fixados em formol a 10% e mantidos em álcool a 70% até a execução da técnica histológica usual. Cortes de aproximadamente 5µm de espessura foram corados em hematoxilina e eosina (HE). Os resultados referentes à biometria dos peixes capturados durante o período de estiagem indicaram que o comprimento total e padrão dos exemplares foram maiores quando comparados com os indivíduos do período chuvoso. As alterações hepáticas identificadas foram: lipidose, necrose, infiltração leucocitária, vacuolização do citoplasma, hemossiderina e centro de melanomacrófagos. Constataram-se as seguintes lesões branquiais: fusão lamelar, aneurisma lamelar, deslocamento e necrose do epitélio, proliferações de células do muco e dilatação capilar. As respostas biológicas de H. malabaricus, registradas em nível branquial e hepático, podem ser caracterizadas como biomarcadores de contaminação aquática. As brânquias mostraram-se como os melhores órgãos para esse tipo de análise na espécie. Esses resultados indicam que os peixes da região apresentam a saúde comprometida por poluentes presentes nos ambientes analisados...


The aim of the present work was to validate two organs (liver and gill) of Hoplias malabaricus for analysis of aquatic contamination biomarkers in the Maracanã Environmental Protected Area (APA) in São Luís-MA. Trahira animals were captured in a pond polyculture and Ambude River located in Maracanã APA. Biometric analysis was performed in the laboratory. Gills and liver of each specimen were fixed in 10% formalin and kept in 70% alcohol to running the usual histological technique. Cuts of approximately 5μm thick were stained with hematoxylin and eosin (HE). The results concerning the biometrics of the fish caught during the dry season indicated that the total and standard length were higher when compared to the rainy season. The liver changes identified were: lipidosis, necrosis, leukocyte infiltration, vacuolization of the cytoplasm, hemosiderin and melanomacrophages centres. We found the following gill lesions: melting lamellar, lamellar aneurysm displacement, necrosis of the epithelium, proliferation of mucous cells and capillary dilation. The biological responses of H. malabaricus, recorded in gill and liver level, can be characterized as biomarkers of aquatic contamination. The gills appeared as the best organs for this kind of analysis in the species. These results indicate that the fish have health problems caused by pollutants present in the analyzed environments...


Subject(s)
Animals , Environmental Monitoring , Fishes , Histology , Water Quality , Gills/injuries , Erythrinus/analysis , Erythrinus/adverse effects , Water Microbiology
7.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 46(10): 839-843, 24/set. 2013. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-688562

ABSTRACT

Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) is a chronic systemic mycosis caused by the inhalation of the thermally dimorphic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis as well as the recently described P. lutzii. Because the primary infection occurs in the lungs, we investigated the differential involvement of the right and left lungs in experimental P. brasiliensis infection. Lungs were collected from C57BL/6 mice at 70 days after intravenous infection with 1×106 yeast cells of a virulent strain of P. brasiliensis (Pb18). The left lung, which in mice is smaller and has fewer lobes than the right lung, yielded increased fungal recovery associated with a predominant interleukin-4 response and diminished synthesis of interferon-γ and nitric oxide compared with the right lung. Our data indicate differential involvement of the right and left lungs during experimental PCM. This knowledge emphasizes the need for an accurate, standardized protocol for tissue collection during studies of experimental P. brasiliensis infection, since experiments using the same lungs favor the collection of comparable data among different mice.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Lung Diseases, Fungal/microbiology , Lung/microbiology , Paracoccidioides , Paracoccidioidomycosis/microbiology , Disease Models, Animal , Interferon-gamma/analysis , /analysis , /analysis , Nitric Oxide/analysis , Time Factors
8.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec ; 64(2): 341-348, abr. 2012. tab
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: lil-622486

ABSTRACT

Fifteen female canines with mammary tumors and 6 normal females were used to study mutations in exons 4 to 8 of the p53 gene. DNA samples from the tumors, respective adjacent normal mammary tissue and mammary glands from healthy animals were sequenced and analyzed for the presence of mutations. Mutations were found in 71.8% of the samples and the most frequent were missense mutations. The most attacked exons in the mammary tumor were 5, 7 and 8, with 23.4, 31.6 and 23.4% mutations, respectively. Canine mammary tumors are related to mutations in gene p53 and mutations mostly occur in the region of the protein that is linked to the DNA in the cell nucleus, which can change the functionality of the cell and propitiate tumor growth. Despite being macroscopically normal, the mammary tissue adjacent to the tumors has mutations that can lead to recurrence if not removed together with the tumor.


Para estudar as mutações nos exos 4 a 8 do gene p53, foram utilizados 15 tumores mamários, mamas normais das mesmas cadelas e seis mamas de cadelas normais. O DNA extraído das amostras de tecido foi sequenciado e analisado para a presença de mutações. Em 71,8% das amostras obtidas foram observadas mutações, sendo as "missense" as mais frequentes. Os exons mais comprometidos foram 5, 7 e 8 com 23,4, 31,6 e 23,4% de mutações, respectivamente. O estudo conclui que tumores mamários caninos têm relação com mutações no gene p53 e que as mutações ocorrem com maior frequência nas regiões da proteína que estão ligadas ao DNA no núcleo celular. Isto pode alterar a funcionalidade da proteína e propiciar o crescimento do tumor. As mamas adjacentes aos tumores, apesar da aparência macroscópica normal, apresentaram mutações, que podem representar recidivas se a mama não for retirada juntamente com o tumor.

9.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 40(1): 194-198, Jan.-Mar. 2009. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-513141

ABSTRACT

The objective of this study was to isolate and identify the aerobic bacterial microflora from the oral cavity mucosa and cloaca's samples, collected from Broad-snouted caiman (Caiman latirostris), born and bred in captivity at Parque Zoológico Arruda Câmara, João Pessoa, Paraíba, Brazil. The most common bacteria were Staphylococcus sp. (14.74%), Corynebacterium sp. (13.68%), Escherichia coli (13.68%) and Shigella sp. (11.58%), and the less common were Citrobacter sp. (1.05%), Klebsiella pneumoniae (1.05%) and Salmonella sp. (1.05%).This emphasizes the importance of these microorganisms' participation in infectious processes (sepsis) and injuries caused by crocodilians.


O presente estudo teve como objetivo isolar e identificar a microflora bacteriana aeróbica presente na mucosa da cavidade oral e da cloaca de exemplares de jacarés-de-papo-amarelo(Caiman latirostris) nascidos e criados em cativeiro no Parque Zoológico Arruda Câmara, localizado na cidade de João Pessoa - PB. As bactérias mais freqüentes foram Staphylococcus sp.(14,74%), Corynebacterium sp. (13,68%), Escherichia coli (13,68%) e Shigella sp. (11,58%), e as menos prevalentes foram Citrobacter sp.(1,05%), Klebsiella pneumoniae (1,05%) e Salmonella sp. (1,05%). Ressalta-se a importância da participação desses microrganismos em processos infecciosos (septicemias) e em feridas provocadas por crocodilianos.


Subject(s)
Animals , Alligators and Crocodiles , Bacteria, Aerobic/isolation & purification , Bacterial Infections/veterinary , Mouth , Mouth Mucosa , Sepsis , Methods , Methods
10.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 40(3): 391-399, Mar. 2007. graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-441761

ABSTRACT

Chagas' disease, caused by the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi, is a major cause of cardiovascular disability in countries where it is endemic. Damage to the heart microvasculature has been proposed to be an important factor in the pathogenesis of heart dysfunction. Endothelin-1 (ET-1) is a potent vasoconstrictor and exerts its effects via specific ET A and ET B receptors. A few studies have suggested a role for ET-1 and its receptors in the pathogenesis of Chagas' disease. We investigated the effects of treatment with bosentan, an ET A/ET B receptor antagonist, on the course of T. cruzi infection (Y strain) in C57Bl/6 mice. Treatment with bosentan (100 mg kg-1 day-1) was given per os starting day 0 after infection until sacrifice. Bosentan significantly increased myocardial inflammation, with no effects on parasitemia. Although the total number of nests was similar, a lower number of intact amastigote nests was found in the heart of bosentan-treated animals. Bosentan failed to affect the infection-associated increase in the cardiac levels of the cytokines IFN-g and TNF-a and the chemokines CCL2/MCP-1, CCL3/MIP-1a and CCL5/RANTES. In vitro, pre-incubation with ET-1 (0.1 æM) 4 h before infection enhanced the uptake of the parasites by peritoneal macrophages, and this effect was abrogated when macrophages were pre-treated with bosentan (1 æM) 15 min before incubation with ET-1. However, ET-1 did not alter killing of intracellular parasites after 48 h of in vitro infection. Our data suggest that bosentan-treated mice have a delay in controlling parasitism which is compensated for exacerbated inflammation. Infection is eventually controlled in these animals and lethality is unchanged, demonstrating that ET-1 plays a minor role in the protection against acute murine T. cruzi infection.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Mice , Chagas Cardiomyopathy/metabolism , Endothelin-1/physiology , Parasitemia/metabolism , Receptors, Endothelin/antagonists & inhibitors , Sulfonamides/pharmacology , Trypanosoma cruzi/physiology , Acute Disease , Chagas Cardiomyopathy/parasitology , Chagas Cardiomyopathy/pathology , Cytokines/analysis , Disease Models, Animal , Parasitemia/immunology , Trypanosoma cruzi/isolation & purification
11.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec ; 57(6): 726-731, dez. 2005. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-436493

ABSTRACT

Estudaram-se a ocorrência e os fatores predisponentes à artrite encefalite caprina (CAEV) no Rio Grande do Norte. O questionário epidemiológico aplicado a 42 proprietários de 11 municípios produtores de leite avaliou o grau de instrução escolar do proprietário, a origem dos animais, o tipo de criação, as enfermidades mais freqüentes e o manejo sanitário, em geral, bem como as taxas de morbidade e mortalidade. Prevalência de 11 % de infecção pelo CAEV foi observada nos rebanhos, com animais soropositivos em todos os municípios pesquisados. As condições de criação mostraram que há fatores que predispõem à introdução ou disseminação da doença na região estudada.


Subject(s)
Goats , Virus Diseases , Arthritis-Encephalitis Virus, Caprine/isolation & purification
12.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 31(1): 89-104, Jan. 1998. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-212543

ABSTRACT

Toxoplasma gandii and Trypanosoma cruzi are intracellular parasites which, as part of their life cycle, induce a potent cell-mediated immunity (CMI) maintained by Th1 lymphocytes and IFN-gamma. In both cases, induction of a strong CMI is thought to protect the host against rapid parasite multiplication and consequent pathology and lethality during the acute phase of infection. However, the parasitic infection is not eliminated by the immune system and the vertebrate host serves as a parasite reservoir. In contrast, Leishmania sp, which is a slow growing parasite, appears to evade induction of CMI during early stages of infection as a strategy for surviving in a hostile environment (i.e., inside the macrophages which are their obligatory niche in the vertebrate host). Recent reports show that the initiation of IL-12 synthesis by macrophages during these parasitic infections is a key event in regulating CMI and disease outcome. The studies reviewed here indicate that activation/inhibition of distinct signaling pathways and certain macrophage functions by intracellular protozoa are important events in inducing/modulating the immune response of their vertebrate hosts, allowing parasite and host survival and therefore maintaining parasite life cycles.


Subject(s)
Immunity, Cellular/physiology , Protozoan Infections/immunology , Protozoan Infections/physiopathology , Cytokines/physiology , Leishmania , Toxoplasma , Trypanosoma cruzi
13.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 31(1): 111-5, Jan. 1998.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-212545

ABSTRACT

Host resistance to Trypanosoma cruzi infection in dependent on both natural and acquired immune responses. During the early acute phase of infection in mice, natural killer (NK) cell-derived IFN-gamma is involved in controlling intracellular parasite replication, mainly through the induction of nitric oxide biosynthesis by activate macrophages. We have shown that IL-12, a powerful inducer of IFN-gamma production by NK cells, is synthesized soon after trypomastigote-macrophage interaction. The role of IL-12 in the control of T. cruzi infection in vivo was determined by treating infected mice with anti-IL-12 monoclonal antibody (mAb) and analyzing both parasitemia and mortality during the acute phase of infection. The anti-IL-12 mAb-treated mice had higher levels of parasitemia and mortality compared to control mice. Also, treatment of infected mice with mAb spectific for IFN-gamma or TNF-alpha inhibited the protective effect of exogenous IL-12. On the other hand, TGF-beta and IL-10 produced by infected macrophages inhibited the induction and effects of IL-12. Therefore, while IL-12, TNF-alpha and IFN-gamma correlate with resistance to T. cruzi infection, TGF-beta and IL-10 promote susceptibility. These results provide support for a role of innate immunity in the control of T. cruzi infection. In addition to its protective role, IL-12 may also be involved in the modulation of T. cruzi-induced myocarditis, since treatment of infected mice with IL-12 or anti-IL-12 mAb leads to an enhanced or decreased inflammatory infiltrate in the heart, respectively. Understanding the role of the cytokine produced during the acute phase of T. cruzi infection and their involvement in protection and pathogenesis would be essential to devise new vaccines or therapies.


Subject(s)
Mice , Animals , Disease Models, Animal , Interleukin-12/physiology , Trypanosoma cruzi/pathogenicity , Trypanosomiasis/immunology , Trypanosomiasis/physiopathology , Immunity, Innate
14.
Rev. bras. ortop ; 32(3): 249-53, mar. 1997. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-209248

ABSTRACT

Os autores estudaram as medidas biométricas de nove tálus de sete pacientes portadores de artrogripose múltipla congênita com as de nove tálus de oito pacientes com pé eqüinovaro congênito idiopático. Como grupo-controle foram utilizados 12 tálus de seis cadáveres humanos adultos sem deformidades aparentes. Foram avaliados o comprimento, a altura média do corpo, o formato da tróclea, os ângulos do colo com o corpo talar nos planos horizontal e sagital e o peso. Após análise estatística, demonstraram que o tálus no pé artrogripótico tem menor peso, a tróclea menos deformada e o colo menos desviado medialmente que no pé eqüinovaro idiopático.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Arthrogryposis , Biometry , Foot Deformities , Talipes , Talus/anatomy & histology , Statistics, Nonparametric
15.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 29(4): 473-7, Apr. 1996. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-163888

ABSTRACT

Patients with advanced cervical cancer have deficient natural killer (NK) cell activity, usually as a consequence of tumor invasion, which results in tumor NK cell sequestration. The reason for the occurrence of such alterations in patients under chemotherapy is unknown. We evaluated the activity and number of NK cells and T cell subpopulations in ten patients before and three weeks after neoadjuvant chemotherapy (CT). The schedule used was cis-platinum (100 Mg/M2 per cycle) and bleomycin (15 mg/cycle), repeated every 28 days. Although there were similar levels of NK cells before and after CT in both groups, we observed greater cytotoxicity of peripheral blood lymphocytes and increased levels of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells (P<0.01) in five patients who presented a good clinical response when compared to the group with a poor response. IL- 12, known to increase NK cell activity when added to peripheral blood lymphocyte cultures, markedly increased lytic activity before and after CT only in the group with a good clinical response. These results suggest that NK cells from the poorly responding patient group express less lytic activity per NK cell and are insensitive to IL- 12 stimulation, probably as a result of reduced IL-12 receptor expression or a defective intracellular transduction mechanism. The present findings may be useful as a prognostic factor in clinical practice and also provide support for human clinical trials of IL- 12 and neoadjuvant CT for the treatment of malignant cervical tumors.


Subject(s)
Humans , Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia/drug therapy , Interleukin-12/physiology , Killer Cells, Natural/physiology , Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia/complications , Chemotherapy, Adjuvant/adverse effects , Flow Cytometry , Killer Cells, Natural/drug effects
16.
Rev. bras. farmacogn ; 5(1): 113-141, 1996. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: lil-539563

ABSTRACT

Em busca da solução para o serio problema da transmissão transfusional da doença de Chagas em nosso meio, realizamos a avaliação de produtos naturais corn atividade tripanosomicida. Os testes "in vitro" foram realizados incubando-se a 4°C, sangue de camundongos contendo ± 10(6)/ ml formas tripomastigotas de Trypanosoma cruzi corn os extratos vegetais. Após diferentes períodos de incubação, frações sangüíneas foram examinadas em microscopia de fase. Os extratos que apresentaram atividade tripanosomicida ate 48 horas de incubação, foram examinados em microscopia eletrônica corn intuito de verificarmos sua toxicidade contra os elementos normais do sangue. Foram testados 242 extratos obtidos de 81 vegetais a 56 demonstraram atividade.


Considering the serius problem of blood transfusion transmission of Chagas disease in our environment, we realized the evalution of natural products against Chagas diseases. The tests were realized "in vitro" by in incubation at 4ºC mouse blood having ± 10(6)/ml of Trypanosoma cruzi, sample "y" and "Colombina" with the plant extracts. After different times of incubation, blood fractions were examined by phase microscopy. The drugs that showed activity until 48 hours of incubation, were examined by electron microscopy to virify the toxicity to blood elements. The tests were realized with 242 extracts from 81 plants and 56 extracts showed activity against T. cruzi.

17.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 23(3/4): 263-74, 1990. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-91745

ABSTRACT

1. Intraperitoneal inection of viable BCG resulted in the formation of peritoneal granulomas in mice. Granuloma-bearing animals presented a specific immunosuppression of delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) to BCG. 2. The transplantation of peritoneal granulomas induced by BCG to animals preiously sensitized with BCG suppressed the DTH response to this antigen in the recipient animals to the same extent as observed in animals with granulomas induce by the injection of BCG. No suppresion was observed in animals transplanted with granulomas induced by either Cytodex or talc. 3. The hypersensitivity reaction to Brucella abortus and the acute inflammatory reaction produced by carrageenin were not affected by granuloma transplantation. 4. Granulomas collected from animals treated with a lethal dose of irradiation maintained the capacity to suppress DTH in recipient animals. 5. These results suggest that response observed in granuloma recipients is modulated by cells within the granuloma


Subject(s)
Mice , Animals , Granuloma/immunology , Hypersensitivity, Delayed , Immunosuppression Therapy , Mycobacterium bovis/immunology , Injections, Intraperitoneal , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Time Factors
18.
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 34(1): 79-82, 1984.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-23431

ABSTRACT

Os autores analisam os problemas de cirurgia buco-maxilofacial (com destaque a ortognatica) e enfatizam a oportunidade da extubacao, ja que e obrigatoria a intubacao nasotraqueal e fixacao adequada do sistema ventilatorio, com o anestesista a distancia da cabeceira. Ao final da cirurgia e feita fixacao dos maxilares.Apos inducao venosa ou intubacao acordado e feita ventilacao manual com enfase em sistemas ventilatorios compactos (tipo Bain). Dos agentes usados o que tem mais probabilidade de vir a ser interrompido, face ao uso de adrenalina, e o halotano.O destaque fica em funcao dos riscos para a patencia e isolamento da via area que uma extubacao intempestiva pode propiciar. Para suplantar os perigos para o paciente e para o trabalho do cirurgiao, recomenda-se a manutencao mais prolongada do tubo e ajuda da analgesia narcotica seja por administracao titulada ou residual (do periodo per anestesico


Subject(s)
Anesthesia, Dental , Maxillofacial Prosthesis
19.
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 34(4): 243-5, 1984.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-23797

ABSTRACT

Foi estudada a acao da lidocaina venosa na atenuacao dos efeitos cardiovasculares da intubacao em 25 pacientes ASA I, propostos para anestesia com intubacao traqueal feita com auxilio de alfadiona/succinilcolina apos pre-medicacao com diazepinico e pre-oxigenacao, comparada com igual numero de casos com tecnica identica (exceto no uso do anestesico local via venosa). Nao se constatou diferenca significativa nos parametros observados nos dois grupos (frequencia cardiaca e pressao arterial).


Subject(s)
Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Humans , Male , Female , Alfaxalone Alfadolone Mixture , Intubation, Intratracheal , Lidocaine , Succinylcholine , Arterial Pressure , Heart Rate
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