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Clinics ; 76: e2495, 2021.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153965


BACKGROUND: Even students with previous academic success may face challenges that affect their academic performance. Many medical schools offer programs to students at the risk of academic failure, to ensure that they succeed in the course. OBJECTIVE AND METHODS: In this report we describe a pioneering academic tutoring program developed at a Brazilian medical school and discuss the initial results of the program based on the feedback from tutors and data regarding the progression of students in the medical course. RESULTS: In 2018, 33 students enrolled into the program. Students' performance difficulties were mainly associated with mental health problems and socioeconomic vulnerability. Of the 33 students, 27 (81.8%) were assisted by the Mental Health Support Service and 16 (48.5%) were assisted by the Social Assistance Service. In addition to the planning academic activity class load, tutors were able to assist students in solving socioeconomic issues, carrying out personal support interventions with the promotion of self-esteem, and presenting suggestions for behavioral changes in their routine. For most students (72%), the action plan proposed by the tutors was successful. Eight of the 14 (57%) students in the fourth year progressed to the final two years of in-hospital practical training (internship). CONCLUSIONS: The Academic Tutoring Program showed positive results for most of the students. Close monitoring and tutor intervention allowed students with poor academic performance to overcome the low performance cycle. These important tasks demand time and energy from tutors, and institutional recognition of these professionals is essential for the successful maintenance of the program.

Humans , Students, Medical , Peer Group , Schools, Medical , Teaching , Brazil
EClinicalMedicine ; 35: 1-13, 2021. ilus
Article in Portuguese | ColecionaSUS, LILACS, ColecionaSUS, SES-SP, CONASS, SESSP-IALPROD, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1222994


Background: COVID-19 in children is usually mild or asymptomatic, but severe and fatal paediatric cases have been described. The pathology of COVID-19 in children is not known; the proposed pathogenesis for severe cases includes immune-mediated mechanisms or the direct effect of SARS-CoV-2 on tissues. We describe the autopsy findings in five cases of paediatric COVID-19 and provide mechanistic insight into the mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of the disease. Methods: Children and adolescents who died with COVID-19 between March 18 and August 15, 2020 were autopsied with a minimally invasive method. Tissue samples from all vital organs were analysed by histology, electron microscopy (EM), reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and immunohistochemistry (IHC). Findings: Five patients were included, one male and four female, aged 7 months to 15 years. Two patients had severe diseases before SARS-CoV-2 infection: adrenal carcinoma and Edwards syndrome. Three patients were previously healthy and had multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) with distinct clinical presentations: myocarditis, colitis, and acute encephalopathy with status epilepticus. Autopsy findings varied amongst patients and included mild to severe COVID-19 pneumonia, pulmonary microthrombosis, cerebral oedema with reactive gliosis, myocarditis, intestinal inflammation, and haemophagocytosis. SARSCoV- 2 was detected in all patients in lungs, heart and kidneys by at least one method (RT-PCR, IHC or EM), and in endothelial cells from heart and brain in two patients with MIS-C (IHC). In addition, we show for the first time the presence of SARS-CoV-2 in the brain tissue of a child with MIS-C with acute encephalopathy, and in the intestinal tissue of a child with acute colitis. Interpretation: SARS-CoV-2 can infect several cell and tissue types in paediatric patients, and the target organ for the...(AU)

Phenotype , Autopsy
Article in Portuguese | ColecionaSUS, LILACS, ColecionaSUS, SES-SP, CONASS, SESSP-IALPROD, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1247788


The ability of the new coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 to spread and contaminate is one of the determinants of the COVID-19 pandemic status. SARS-CoV-2 has been detected in saliva consistently, with similar sensitivity to that observed innasopharyngeal swabs. We conducted ultrasound-guided postmortem biopsies in COVID-19 fatal cases. Samples ofsalivary glands (SGs; parotid, submandibular, and minor) were obtained. We analyzed samples using RT-qPCR, immu-nohistochemistry, electron microscopy, and histopathological analysis to identify SARS-CoV-2 and elucidate qual-itative and quantitative viral proles in salivary glands. The study included 13 female and 11 male patients, with amean age of 53.12 years (range 8­83 years). RT-qPCR for SARS-CoV-2 was positive in 30 SG samples from18 patients (60% of total SG samples and 75% of all cases). Ultrastructural analyses showed spherical 70­100 nm viral particles, consistent in size and shape with the Coronaviridae family, in the ductal lining cell cytoplasm,acinar cells, and ductal lumen of SGs. There was also degeneration of organelles in infected cells and the presence of acluster of nucleocapsids, which suggests viral replication in SG cells. Qualitative histopathological analysis showedmorphologic alterations in the duct lining epithelium characterized by cytoplasmic and nuclear vacuolization, as wellas nuclear pleomorphism. Acinar cells showed degenerative changes of the zymogen granules and enlarged nuclei.Ductal epithelium and serous acinar cells showed intense expression of ACE2 and TMPRSS receptors. An anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody was positive in 8 (53%) of the 15 tested cases in duct lining epithelial cells and acinar cellsof major SGs. Only two minor salivary glands were positive for SARS-CoV-2 by immunohistochemistry. Salivaryglands are a reservoir for SARS-CoV-2 and provide a pathophysiological background for studies that indicate theuse of saliva as a diagnostic method for COVID-19 and highlight this biological uid's role in spreading the disease.© 2021 The Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Salivary Glands, Minor , Water Reservoirs , Coronavirus , Betacoronavirus
Clinics ; 73: e370, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-952815


OBJECTIVES: Most thyroid diseases are nodular and have been investigated using ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB), the reports of which are standardized by the Bethesda System. Bethesda category III represents a heterogeneous group in terms of lesion characteristics and the malignancy rates reported in the literature. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the differences in the malignancy rates among Bethesda III subcategories. METHODS: Data from 1,479 patients who had thyroid surgery were reviewed. In total, 1,093 patients (89.6% female, mean age 52.7 (13-89) years) were included, and 386 patients were excluded. FNAB results (based on Bethesda Class) and histopathological results (benign or malignant) for coincident areas were collected. Bethesda III patients were subcategorized according to cytopathological characteristics (FLUS: follicular lesion of undetermined significance, Bethesda IIIA; AUS: atypia of undetermined significance, Bethesda IIIB). Data were correlated to obtain the malignancy rates for each Bethesda category and the newly defined subcategory. RESULTS: FNAB results for these patients were as follows: Bethesda I: 3.1%; Bethesda II: 18.6%; Bethesda III: 35.0%; Bethesda IV: 22.1%; Bethesda V: 4.1%; and Bethesda VI: 17.1%. The malignancy rates for Bethesda Class IIIB were significantly higher than those for Bethesda Class IIIA (p<0.001) and Bethesda Class IV (p<0.001). Bethesda Class IIIA showed significantly lower malignancy rates than Bethesda Class III overall (p<0.001) CONCLUSIONS: Improvements of the Bethesda System should consider this subcategorization to better reflect different malignancy rates, which may have a significant impact on the decision-making process.

Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Thyroid Gland/pathology , Thyroid Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Thyroid Nodule/diagnostic imaging , Thyroid Gland/diagnostic imaging , Thyroid Neoplasms/classification , Thyroid Neoplasms/pathology , Retrospective Studies , Ultrasonography , Thyroid Nodule/classification , Thyroid Nodule/pathology , Risk Assessment , Biopsy, Fine-Needle , Diagnosis, Differential , Image-Guided Biopsy
Acta cir. bras ; 31(4): 278-285, Apr. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-781333


PURPOSE: To investigate gender differences in the evolution of the inflammatory process in rats subjected to brain death (BD). METHODS: Adult Wistar rats were divided into three groups: female; ovariectomized female; and male rats. BD was induced using intracranial balloon inflation and confirmed by maximal pupil dilatation, apnea, absence of reflex, and drop of mean arterial pressure. Six hours after BD, histological evaluation was performed in lungs, heart, liver and kidneys, and levels of inflammatory proteins, estrogen, progesterone, and corticosterone were determined in plasma. RESULTS: In the lungs, females presented more leukocyte infiltration compared to males (p<0.01). Ovariectomized female rat lungs were more hemorrhagic compared to other groups (p<0.001). In the heart, females had higher leukocyte infiltration and tissue edema compared to males (p<0.05). In the liver and kidneys, there were no differences among groups. In female group estradiol and progesterone were sharply reduced 6 hours after BD (p<0.001) to values observed in ovariectomized females and males. Corticosterone levels were similar. CONCLUSIONS: Sex hormones influence the development of inflammation and the status of organs. The increased inflammation in lungs and heart of female rats might be associated with the acute reduction in female hormones triggered by BD.

Animals , Male , Female , Brain Death/pathology , Sex Characteristics , Kidney/pathology , Liver/pathology , Lung/pathology , Myocardium/pathology , Organ Specificity , Progesterone/blood , Reference Values , Time Factors , Ovariectomy , Sex Factors , Rats, Wistar , Edema/pathology , Estradiol/blood , Chemokine CXCL1/analysis , Chemokine CXCL2/analysis , Inflammation/pathology
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 73(6): 499-505, 06/2015. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-748186


Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is the main cause of trauma-related deaths. Systemic hypotension and intracranial hypertension causes cerebral ischemia by altering metabolism of prostanoids. We describe prostanoid, pupilar and pathological response during resuscitation with hypertonic saline solution (HSS) in TBI. Method Fifteen dogs were randomized in three groups according to resuscitation after TBI (control group; lactated Ringer’s (LR) group and HSS group), with measurement of thromboxane, prostaglandin, macroscopic and microscopic pathological evaluation and pupil evaluation.Result Concentration of prostaglandin is greater in the cerebral venous blood than in plasma and the opposite happens with concentration of thromboxane. Pathology revealed edema in groups with the exception of group treated with HSS.Discussion and conclusion There is a balance between the concentrations of prostaglandin and thromboxane. HSS prevented the formation of cerebral edema macroscopically detectable. Pupillary reversal occurred earlier in HSS group than in LR group.

O traumatismo cranioencefálico (TCE) é a principal causa de morte relacionada ao trauma. O choque hemorrágico e hipertensão intracraniana causam isquemia cerebral alterando o metabolismo de prostanóides. Neste estudo, relatamos o comportamento dos prostanóides, resposta pupilar e patologia durante a reposição volêmica com solução salina hipertônica (SSH) no TCE. Método Quinze cachorros foram randomizados em três grupos (controle, grupo de Ringer lactato e grupo de SSH) e foram avaliados tromboxane, prostaglandina, avaliação patológica macroscópica e microscópica e status pupilar.Resultado A concentração de prostaglandina é maior no sangue cerebral em comparação ao plasma, e o inverso ocorre com o tromboxane. A patologia revelou edema em todos os grupos, com exceção do grupo tratado com SSH.Discussão e conclusão Existe um equilíbrio entre concentrações cerebrais e plasmáticas de prostaglandina e tromboxane. A SSH protegeu o cérebro da formação de edema pós traumático.

Animals , Dogs , Male , Brain Injuries/drug therapy , Fluid Therapy/methods , Prostaglandins F/blood , Pupil/physiology , Saline Solution, Hypertonic/therapeutic use , Shock, Hemorrhagic/therapy , Brain Edema/prevention & control , Brain Injuries/metabolism , Brain/metabolism , Brain/pathology , Cerebrovascular Circulation/physiology , Hemodynamics/physiology , Intracranial Pressure , Isotonic Solutions/therapeutic use , Random Allocation , Reproducibility of Results , Shock, Hemorrhagic/metabolism , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome , /blood
Clinics ; 70(5): 373-379, 05/2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-748273


OBJECTIVE: Intestinal ischemia-reperfusion injury occurs in several clinical conditions and after intestinal transplantation. The aim of the present study was to investigate the phenomena of apoptosis and cell proliferation in a previously described intestinal ischemia-reperfusion injury autograft model using immunohistochemical markers. The molecular mechanisms involved in ischemia-reperfusion injury repair were also investigated by measuring the expression of the early activation genes c-fos and c-jun, which induce apoptosis and cell proliferation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty adult male Wistar rats were subjected to surgery for a previously described ischemia-reperfusion model that preserved the small intestine, the cecum and the ascending colon. Following reperfusion, the cecum was harvested at different time points as a representative segment of the intestine. The rats were allocated to the following four subgroups according to the reperfusion time: subgroup 1: 5 min; subgroup 2: 15 min; subgroup 3: 30 min; and subgroup 4: 60 min. A control group of cecum samples was also collected. The expression of c-fos, c-jun and immunohistochemical markers of cell proliferation and apoptosis (Ki67 and TUNEL, respectively) was studied. RESULTS: The expression of both c-fos and c-jun in the cecum was increased beginning at 5 min after ischemia-reperfusion compared with the control. The expression of c-fos began to increase at 5 min, peaked at 30 min, and exhibited a declining tendency at 60 min after reperfusion. A progressive increase in c-jun expression was observed. Immunohistochemical analyses confirmed these observations. CONCLUSION: The early activation of the c-fos and c-jun genes occurred after intestinal ischemia-reperfusion injury, and these genes can act together to trigger cell proliferation and apoptosis. .

Animals , Mice , Rats , Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress , Fatty Acids/metabolism , Hepatocytes/physiology , Unfolded Protein Response , Acetylcysteine/metabolism , Cell Line, Tumor , Cells, Cultured , Glutathione/metabolism , Hepatocytes/metabolism , Oxidation-Reduction , Protein Folding
Clinics ; 69(10): 683-687, 10/2014. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-730468


Objective: The aim of the present work is to analyze the differences and similarities between the elements of a conventional autopsy and images obtained from postmortem computed tomography in a case of a homicide stab wound. Method: Comparison between the findings of different methods: autopsy and postmortem computed tomography. Results: In some aspects, autopsy is still superior to imaging, especially in relation to external examination and the description of lesion vitality. However, the findings of gas embolism, pneumothorax and pulmonary emphysema and the relationship between the internal path of the instrument of aggression and the entry wound are better demonstrated by postmortem computed tomography. Conclusions: Although multislice computed tomography has greater accuracy than autopsy, we believe that the conventional autopsy method is fundamental for providing evidence in criminal investigations. .

Adult , Humans , Male , Autopsy/methods , Homicide , Multidetector Computed Tomography/methods , Wounds, Stab/pathology , Wounds, Stab , Feasibility Studies , Forensic Medicine/methods , Imaging, Three-Dimensional/methods , Observer Variation , Reproducibility of Results , Thoracic Injuries/pathology , Thoracic Injuries
Clinics ; 67(12): 1455-1461, Dec. 2012. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-660475


OBJECTIVE: During the neonatal and infancy periods, some chronic liver diseases may lead to progressive hepatic fibrosis, which is a condition that can ultimately result in the loss of organ function and severe portal hypertension necessitating hepatic transplantation. In a previous report, pharmacological interventions were demonstrated to modulate hepatic fibrosis induced by bile duct ligation in young rats. The administration of pentoxifylline or prednisolone, or the combination of both, resulted in reduced fibrogenesis in portal spaces. The objectives of the present study were to evaluate the expression of transforming growth factor β and vascular endothelial growth factor after bile duct ligation in young rats and to assess the effect of those same drugs on cytokine expression. METHODS: In this experimental study, 80 young rats (21 or 22 days old) were submitted either to laparotomy and common bile duct ligation or to sham surgery. The animals were allocated into four groups according to surgical procedure, and the following treatments were administered: (1) common bile duct ligation + distilled water, (2) sham surgery + distilled water, (3) common bile duct ligation + pentoxifylline, or (4) common bile duct ligation + prednisolone. After 30 days, a hepatic fragment was collected from each animal for immunohistochemical analysis using monoclonal antibodies against transforming growth factor β and vascular endothelial growth factor. Digital morphometric and statistical analyses were performed. RESULTS: The administration of pentoxifylline reduced the transforming growth factor β-marked area and the amount of transforming growth factor β expressed in liver tissue. This effect was not observed after the administration of prednisolone. There was a significant reduction in vascular endothelial growth factor expression after the administration of either drug compared with the non-treatment group. CONCLUSIONS: The administration of pentoxifylline to cholestatic young rats resulted in the diminished expression of transforming growth factor β and vascular endothelial growth factor in liver tissue. The administration of steroids resulted in the diminished expression of vascular endothelial growth factor only. These pathways may be involved in hepatic fibrogenesis in young rats submitted to bile duct ligation and exposed to pentoxifylline or prednisolone.

Animals , Rats , Cholestasis/drug therapy , Glucocorticoids/pharmacology , Liver Cirrhosis, Experimental/prevention & control , Pentoxifylline/pharmacology , Phosphodiesterase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Prednisolone/pharmacology , Transforming Growth Factor beta/metabolism , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A/metabolism , Cholestasis/metabolism , Disease Models, Animal , Immunohistochemistry , Liver Cirrhosis, Experimental/etiology , Liver Cirrhosis, Experimental/metabolism , Liver/drug effects , Liver/metabolism , Random Allocation
Acta cir. bras ; 27(7): 465-470, jul. 2012. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-640094


PURPOSE: To evaluate histopathological alterations triggered by brain death and associated trauma on different solid organs in rats. METHODS: Male Wistar rats (n=37) were anesthetized with isoflurane, intubated and mechanically ventilated. A trepanation was performed and a balloon catheter inserted into intracraninal cavity and rapidly inflated with saline to induce brain death. After induction, rats were monitored for 30, 180, and 360 min for hemodynamic parameters and exsanguinated from abdominal aorta. Heart, lung, liver, and kidney were removed and fixed in paraffin to evaluation of histological alterations (H&E). Sham-operated rats were trepanned only and used as control group. RESULTS: Brain dead rats showed a hemodynamic instability with hypertensive episode in the first minute after the induction followed by hypotension for approximately 1 h. Histological analyses showed that brain death induces vascular congestion in heart (p<0.05), and lung (p<0.05); lung alveolar edema (p=0.001), kidney tubular edema (p<0.05); and leukocyte infiltration in liver (p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Brain death induces hemodynamic instability associated with vascular changes in solid organs and compromises most severely the lungs. However, brain death associated trauma triggers important pathophysiological alterations in these organs.

OBJETIVO: Avaliar as alterações histopatológicas desencadeadas pela morte encefálica e pelo trauma associado em diferentes órgãos sólidos em ratos. MÉTODOS: Ratos Wistar machos (n=37) foram anestesiados com isoflurano, entubados e mecanicamente ventilados. Foi realizada trepanação e um cateter foi inserido na cavidade intracraniana e insuflado rapidamente para induzir morte encefálica. Após a indução, os ratos foram monitorados por 30, 180 e 360 min para parâmetros hemodinâmicos e exsanguinados pela aorta abdominal. Coração, pulmão, fígado e rim foram removidos e fixados em parafina para avaliação de alterações histológicas (H&E). Ratos falso-operados foram apenas trepanados e usados como grupo controle. RESULTADOS: Ratos com morte encefálica apresentaram instabilidade hemodinâmica com episódio hipertensivo no primeiro minuto após a indução seguido de hipotensão por aproximadamente 1 hora. Análises histológicas demonstraram que a morte encefálica induz congestão vascular no coração (p<0,05) e pulmão (p<0,05); edema alveolar (p=0,001); edema tubular (p<0,05); e infiltrado leucocitário no fígado (p<0,05). CONCLUSÕES: A morte encefálica induz instabilidade hemodinâmica associada com mudanças vasculares em órgãos sólidos e compromete mais severamente os pulmões. Contudo, o trauma associado à morte encefálica desencadeia importantes alterações fisiopatológicas naqueles órgãos.

Animals , Male , Rats , Brain Death/pathology , Kidney/pathology , Liver/pathology , Lung/pathology , Brain Death/physiopathology , Disease Models, Animal , Heart/physiopathology , Hemodynamics/physiology , Kidney/physiopathology , Liver/physiopathology , Lung/physiopathology , Myocardium/pathology , Random Allocation , Rats, Wistar , Time Factors
Clinics ; 65(4): 363-367, 2010. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-546310


INTRODUCTION: Actinic cheilitis (AC) is considered to be a pre-malignant lesion or an incipient and superficial form of lip squamous cell carcinoma. It is commonly found in individuals whose occupational activities are related to chronic sun exposure and the definitive diagnosis is performed with biopsy. Althoug Exfoliative cytology has been used as a screening procedure to evaluate cancer of the oral cavity no studies have proposed the use of exfoliative cytologic analysis to evaluate and diagnose AC. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate lower lip lesions on fishermen related to chronic solar exposure using clinical, cytologic and histopathologic analyses. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Smears taken from the vermilion of the lower lips of 125 fishermen and 30 control individuals were subjected to cytologic analysis. RESULTS: The harvested cells were sufficient for cytologic analysis in 83.2 percent of the samples. Sixteen fishermen exhibited prominent lower lip lesions that justified biopsy and histological studies. In total, 4 specimens were malignant (3.2 percent), and 12 displayed epithelial dysplasia, demonstrating that the prevalence of epithelial dysplasia and malignant lesions was high among the fishermen population. These conditions were strongly associated with infiltration and blurring of the vermilion margin of the lower lip. CONCLUSION: The cytologic analysis was not useful for detecting epithelial dysplasia or malignant alterations.

Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/pathology , Cheilitis/pathology , Lip Neoplasms/pathology , Lip/pathology , Precancerous Conditions/pathology , Biopsy , Brazil , Chi-Square Distribution , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/etiology , Cheilitis/etiology , Lip Neoplasms/etiology , Occupational Exposure/adverse effects , Precancerous Conditions/etiology , Statistics, Nonparametric , Sunlight/adverse effects
Arq. gastroenterol ; 45(1): 38-45, jan.-mar. 2008. ilus, graf, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-482005


RACIONAL: O processo patológico mais discutido na gênese da cirrose hepática é a fibrose progressiva, porém alterações na vasculatura do órgão têm sido apontadas como elementos fundamentais na fisiopatologia da doença e de suas complicações, como hipertensão portal, insuficiência hepática e carcinoma hepatocelular. OBJETIVO: Avaliar a densidade microvascular em 35 casos de necropsias de pacientes com cirrose hepática mediante pesquisa imunoistoquímica do marcador endotelial CD34 a fim de comparar os informes obtidos mediante semi-quantificação com aqueles registrados por método quantitativo morfométrico, além de relacionar as alterações vasculares encontradas com os principais agentes causais, padrões de lesão e complicações clínicas da doença. MÉTODOS: Foram estudados 35 casos de cirrose obtidos retrospectivamente de necropsias realizadas no SVOC/USP no período de março de 2002 a junho de 2003. Os casos foram reagrupados segundo padrão anatomopatológico em esteatohepatite e hepatite crônica. A microvasculatura foi avaliada através da reação imunoistoquímica com anticorpo anti-endotelio clone CD34, QBend. RESULTADOS: Observou-se associação significativa entre a abordagem semi-quantitativa e a quantificação morfométrica da densidade de vasos no parênquima, o mesmo não ocorrendo no septo. Não foram detectadas associações específicas entre a neovascularização e os tipos de complicação da hepatopatia aqui estudados. O principal achado foi que a neoformação vascular no parênquima é significantemente maior nas cirroses associadas a hepatites crônicas do que nas esteatohepatites. CONCLUSÃO: Todos esses achados requerem necessários estudos clínicos para avaliar a hipótese de que o estudo do rearranjo da microcirculação hepática, através de marcadores como o CD34, pode ser fator prognóstico em pacientes cirróticos.

BAKGROUND: Fibrosis has been the most cited variable in cirrhosis, but major alterations in hepatic vascularization have been pointed as basic elements in the physiopathology of the illness and its complications as portal hypertension, hepatic failure and hepatocellular carcinoma. METHODS: The present study aims at assessing microvascular density in 35 cases of necropsies of cirrhotic patients by immunohistochemical detection of endothelial marker CD34, comparing semi-quantification with morphometric quantitative method, also searching for a possible relation of vascular alterations with the main causal agents, injury patterns and major clinical complications. RESULTS: A significant association was detected between semi-quantitative and quantitative approach of microvessel density in parenchyma, but not in septa. No significant association was detected between neovascularization and any specific clinical complication of cirrhosis. Under our standpoint, the main achievement of the present study was the demonstration that the vascular neoformation in hepatic parenchyma is significantly higher in cirrhosis associated with chronic hepatitis than in cirrhosis resulting from steatohepatitis. CONCLUSION: These findings require further clinical studies to assess the hypothesis that the rearrangement of liver microcirculation through the detection of CD34 might be relevant in prognostic assessment of cirrhotic patients.

Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , /metabolism , Liver Cirrhosis/pathology , Liver/blood supply , Neovascularization, Pathologic/pathology , Autopsy , /analysis , Immunohistochemistry , Liver Cirrhosis/complications , Liver/pathology , Retrospective Studies
Clinics ; 63(1): 51-58, 2008. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-474928


OBJECTIVE: Evaluating the interaction between mother or caregiver and infant through the Clinical Indicators of Risks in Infant Development and investigating whether local and cultural influences during infant development affect these clinical indicators. INTRODUCTION: The Clinical Indicators of Risks in Infant Development was created in order to fully assess infants' development and the subjective relationship between the babies and their caregivers. The absence of two or more Clinical Indicators of Risks in Infant Developments suggests a possibly inadequate mental development. Given the continental size of Brazil and its accentuated cultural differences, one might question how trustworthy these indicators can be when applied to each of the geographical regions of the country. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study with 737 infants from the capitals of 9 Brazilian states. The size of the initial sample population was based on a pilot study carried out in the cities of São Paulo and Brasília. The ages of children were grouped: 0-3 months, 4-7 months, 8-11 months and 12-18 months. The chi-square test was used together with analyses by the statistical software SPSS 13.0. RESULTS: Statistical analysis of results from the different municipalities against the total sample did not reveal any statistically significant differences. Municipalities represented were Belém (p=0.486), Brasília (p=0.371), Porto Alegre (p=0.987), Fortaleza (p=0.259), Recife (p=0.630), Salvador (0.370), São Paulo (p=0.238), Curitiba (p=0.870), and Rio de Janeiro (p= 0.06). DISCUSSION: Care for mental development should be considered a public health issue. Its evaluation and follow-up should be part of the already available mother-child assistance programs, which would then be considered to provide "full" care to children. CONCLUSIONS: Local habits and culture did not affect the results of the Clinical Indicators of Risks in Infant Development indicators. Clinical...

Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Caregivers , Child Development , Cultural Characteristics , Health Surveys , Maternal Behavior , Brazil , Cities , Cross-Sectional Studies , Health Status , Socioeconomic Factors
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 40(1): 76-77, jan.-fev. 2007. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-449175


Tuberculosis is an important cause of mortality due to its high prevalence, considering that one third of the worldÆs population is infected with the tuberculosis bacillus. We report the first case of carcinomatous lymphangitis associated with active pulmonary tuberculosis. Carcinomatous lymphangitis is a rare event that may be confounded with tuberculosis because of its radiographic and clinical characteristics.

Tuberculose é uma causa importante de mortalidade devido a sua alta prevalência, uma vez que um terço da população mundial encontra-se infectada com o bacilo da tuberculose. Nós relatamos o primeiro caso de linfangite carcinomatosa associada à tuberculose pulmonar ativa. A linfangite carcinomatosa é um evento raro que pode ser confundida com tuberculose pelos aspectos clínicos e radiológicos.

Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Carcinoma/complications , Lung Neoplasms/complications , Lymphangitis/complications , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/complications , Carcinoma/drug therapy , Carcinoma/secondary , Diagnosis, Differential , Lung Neoplasms/drug therapy , Lung Neoplasms/secondary , Lymphangitis/drug therapy , Ovarian Neoplasms/pathology , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/drug therapy