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Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-210940


Infectious diarrhoea in neonates of animals is one of the most common and economically important conditions encountered in the livestock industry. Faecal samples (n=210) from diarrhoeic neonatal goat-kids of different livestock sheds of ICAR-CIRG, Makhdoom, Mathura (U.P.), were aseptically collected, and immediately processed for isolation of bacterial pathogens and parasitic evaluation. A total of 178 isolates of E. coli from 210 samples were identified on the basis of cultural, morphological, biochemical and molecular characteristics. Out of 178 E. coli isolates, 3.93 % (7/178) isolates were identified as STEC by PCR amplification of stx-1 and stx-2 gene. A total of 64 isolates of E. coli were sent to National Salmonella and Escherichia Centre, Central Research Institute, Kasauli for the serotyping. The common serogroups of E. coli responsible for neonatal diarrhoea in goat-kids were identified as O36, O26, O59, O29, O43, O91, O82, O9 and O171, out of which, 46.15% were O36, O26 and O59. Cryptosporidium spp. infection was detected in 46 samples out of 148 faecal samples by ZN staining and nested PCR.Based on cultural, morphological, biochemical and molecular characteristics,16 isolates of Salmonella spp. and 5 of Klebsiella spp. were identified from 210 fecal samples. The present study concluded that E. coli followed by Cryptosporidium spp. and Salmonella spp. were the prevalent infectious agents associated with neonatal diarrhoea in goat-kids

Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-210857


Faecal samples (n=300) from diarrhoeic neonatal goat-kids of different livestock sheds of ICAR-CIRG, Makhdoom, and field goat-kids of Mathura, UP were aseptically collected, and used for E. coli isolation. On the basis of cultural, morphological, biochemical and molecular characteristics, a total of 193 E. coli isolates were identified from 300 fecal samples. Out of 140 E. coli isolates, only 90 isolates could be serotyped at National Salmonella and Escherichia Centre, Central Research Institute, Kasauli, and the most common serogroups responsible for neonatal diarrhoea were found as O88 (n=11), O22 (n=10), O11 (n=8) and O83 (n=7). Congo red dye agar test was done to determine invasiveness of the isolates, and 77.20% (149/193)E. coli isolates showed Congo red binding activity. Identification of shiga toxin producing E. coli (STEC) was done by PCR amplification of its stx-1 gene, and 5.69% (11/193) isolates were identified as STEC. Pathotype specific primers were used to amplify bundle forming pilus (bfpA) gene of enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC), and 35.23% (68/193) isolates were identified as EPEC. A multiplex PCR was performed to detect labile toxin producing enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC-lt), stable toxin producing enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC-st) and enteroinvasive E. coli (EIEC), and 24.35% (47/193), 2.59% (5/193) and 2.07% (4/193) isolates were determined as ETEC-st, ETEC-lt and EIEC, respectively. EPEC and ETEC-st were found as the most prevalent pathotypes associated with neonatal diarrhoea in goat-kids whereas; O88 and O22 were observed as the most common serogroups in causing diarrhoea in the neonatal goat-kids.

Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-176384


Background & objectives: The epidemiology of dengue fever (DF) is complex in the Indian subcontinent as all the four serotypes are circulating. This study reports observations on dengue cases from a virus diagnostic laboratory of a north Indian tertiary care hospital catering to areas in and around Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh. Methods: Serum samples were obtained from suspected cases of dengue referred to the virus diagnostic laboratory during 2011 to 2013, and detailed history was taken on a pre-structured datasheet. All samples were tested for anti-dengue virus (DV) IgM antibodies and DV-non structural protein 1 antigen (NS1Ag) by ELISA. NS1Ag positive samples were tested further by conventional RT-PCR for DV-RNA detection and serotyping. Results: Of the 4019 suspected patients of dengue, 886 (22%) showed laboratory evidence of dengue virus infection. Of these, 19, 17 and 27 per cent were positive in 2011, 2012 and 2013, respectively. Children and adults were similarly affected by dengue in all the three years. Males were more commonly affected than females. The predominant DV serotype detected was DV-2, DV-1 and DV-3 in 2011, 2012 and 2013, respectively. DV-4 serotype was not detected. About half the cases positive for DV infection, showed symptoms of dengue with warning signs/ severe dengue. A distinct seasonality with increase in number of dengue cases in the post monsoon period was seen. Interpretation & conclusions: Change in circulating serotype of dengue virus; a distinct adult dengue involvement; and a remarkable number of cases presenting with severe dengue manifestations are the main findings of this study.

Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-158895


Hepatitis C virus is one of the main cause of chronic hepatitis in developing countries. The current study was done to evaluate the efficacy of the third generation ELISA compared to nested RT- PCR for establishing the diagnosis of hepatitis C virus (HCV) in patients on hemodialysis. This descriptive, cross-sectional study was carried out on 237 Hemodialysis patients in Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh. The retrospective demographic data of the subjects was collected and the patient’s serum samples were analyzed by ELISA & RT-PCR for HCV. In the present study, of total 21 HCV positive either by ELISA or PCR 12 (57.14%) were positive for both RT-nested PCR and ELISA. Total four (19.05%) patients were positive for HCV by RT-nested PCR and negative by ELISA while five (23.81%) patients were negative for RT-nested PCR and positive for ELISA. PCR method is accredited as a specific and reliable method suitable for screening of HCV and is recommended for establishing exact and final diagnosis of these patients. However third generation ELISA assays have many advantages in the diagnostic setting including ease of automation, ease of use, relative cost-effectiveness, and low variability.

Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-145373


Background & objectives: Dengue virus (DV) infection has emerged as a major health problem in north India. Here, we report the annual trend of dengue virus infection as seen in Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, during 2008-2010. Methods: Blood samples from clinically suspected cases of dengue virus infection were collected and history was taken on structured clinical data sheet. All samples were tested for dengue IgM by antibody capture ELISA. Selected samples were tested by conventional RT-PCR for dengue virus RNA. Weather information was continuously recorded from website of world weather information service. Results: There was a gradual increase in number of dengue fever cases with increased occurrence in 2010. Cases referred in January - December 2008 were 398 (54.5% anti DV IgM positive), in January - December 2009 were 599 (51.9% anti DV IgM positive) and in January - December 2010 were 1602 (64.9% anti DV IgM positive). Serotypes circulating in years 2008, 2009 and 2010 were DV-2 & DV-3, DV -1, 2 & 3 and DV-1 and DV-2 respectively. There is no statistical significant correlation between weather data and increasing dengue positive cases. Interpretation & conclusions: Increased cases of dengue fever were seen in 2010, which was not correlated with any change in environmental factors. A change in circulating serotypes was noted.