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1.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-206290

ABSTRACT

To synthesize a series of ornidazole thiosemicarbazone analogues on the basis of literature reviews of 2-Methyl-5-nitroimidazoles and thiosemicarbazones and to evaluate all the analogues in vitro for their activity against Aspergillus niger and fumigatus. Thiosemicarbazone analogues were synthesized from oxidising ornidazole with potassium dichromate and refluxing the oxidised product with substituted thiosemicarbazide using ethanol as solvent in the acidic medium overnight. All the synthesized analogues of ornidazole showed good antifungal action against fumigatus and niger except compound C-4. Unsubstituted amine analogue C-2 has shown highest percentage inhibition (96.6%, 500 μg/ml) against fumigatus while aromatic amine with or without electronegative atom analogues C-3 and C-5 has shown highest activity against Aspergillus niger which is two times than standard drug ornidazole (100%, 1000 μg/ml).

2.
Indian J Public Health ; 2019 Dec; 63(4): 324-329
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-198148

ABSTRACT

Background: Major determinant of dengue incidence is interaction between ecology, vector bionomics, and social factors. Objectives: The objective of the study is to find out bio-eco-social determinants of Aedes breeding. Methods: Background, household, entomological, and knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) surveys were undertaken post- and premonsoon showers from May to June 2016 in urban and rural practice area of medical college. Results: A total of 181 and 204 households, 131 and 137 individuals, and 1250 and 1268 water-holding containers were included in household survey, KAP survey, and larval survey in urban slum and rural area, respectively. In both locations, maximum water-holding containers were indoors (41.4% and 61.8%, respectively); however, maximum positivity was peridomestic (63.6% and 83.1%, respectively). Pupae per container were 0.9 and 1.9 in respective locations and pupae per person were 1.2 and 2.3, respectively. Container positivity was seen in containers with rain as water source (8.8%) as well as among those who were never used (10.7%). Irregular water supply was significantly more in rural area (P < 0.05). KAP survey revealed that majority (90.1% and 71.5%, respectively) had heard about dengue, with significantly higher knowledge in urban slum, and television was the main source of information. Majority (89% and 83%, respectively) were unaware that peak biting time of Aedes is daytime. Use of mosquito repellent coils was the predominant preventive practice (46.6% and 61.2%, respectively). Pupae were reared; all were found to be Aedes aegypti. Conclusions: Despite enhanced awareness campaigns, an integrated vector management approach is required for prevention of dengue.

3.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-196408

ABSTRACT

Pediatric small round cell tumors (PSRCTs) constitute a large proportion of childhood malignancies with overlapping diagnostic and clinical features but radically different therapies. Here, we report a case of 16-year-old male child presenting with diffuse abdominal and mediastinal mass, axillary lymphadenopathy, and pleural effusion. Bone marrow aspirate showed near total replacement by small round malignant cells. The bone marrow biopsy showed interstitial infiltration by malignant cells, which were CD45? CD3? CD20? MIC2+ FLI1+ and diagnosis of Ewing's sarcoma was established. In contrast, flowcytometric immunophenotyping of the bone marrow aspirate showed CD45? cells, which were CD19+ cytCD79a+ CD10+ CD81+ CD38+ HLA-DR+ CD22+ CD20? consistent with B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL). The extended immunostaining panel on bone marrow biopsy also showed positivity for cytCD79a, CD10, CD19, and BCL-2, whereas fluorescent in-situ hybridization for EWSR1 gene rearrangement was negative. Thus, a final diagnosis of CD45? FLI1+ MIC2+ B-ALL was established. Rare cases of CD45? B-ALL with immunoreactivity for MIC2 and Friend leukemia virus integration 1 (FLI1) have posed a diagnostic challenge for PSRCTs in the recent past. This case report highlights the role of multimodality approach in establishing a correct diagnosis in CD45? PSRCTs to ensure definitive therapy and better clinical outcome.

4.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-205747

ABSTRACT

Background: The International Headache Society (IHS), 2013 defined Cervicogenic Headache (CGH) as a secondary headache, which implies that headache is caused by a disorder of the cervical spine and its components bony, disc and soft tissue elements. CGH can be a perplexing pain disorder that is refractory to treatment if it is perceived. Patients with CGH exhibited decreases in the quality of life comparable to migraine-patients and patients with tension-type headache, with even lower scores for physical functioning. The objective of the study is to see the effectiveness of PRT versus ischemic compression on pressure pain threshold, range of motion, and headache disability in CGH patients. Methods: Total of 60 patients of CGH was taken based on inclusion and exclusion criteria, who were divided into three groups, i.e., PRT GROUP A, Ischemic Compression GROUP B, and CONTROL group GROUP C. Group A received PRT, Group B received Ischemic Compression and Group C received conventional treatment 3 sessions per week for 4 weeks. Results: Significant reduction in Headache disability followed by improved physical functioning measured by Headache disability index, improvement in Pressure pain threshold and measured by Pressure algometer and Range of motion measured by Universal goniometer in the group who received Positional release technique along with conventional treatment. (p < 0.05) Therefore, it is suggested that the Positional release technique reduces Headache disability, Improves Pressure pain threshold and range of motion in college-going students with Cervicogenic headache. Conclusion: PRT is an effective approach to improve the Pressure pain threshold, Headache disability, and Range of motion, thus improving the patient's physical functioning.

5.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-183634

ABSTRACT

Aim: A pharmacoeconomic analysis to determine the relative cost-effectiveness of timolol 0.5%, brinzolamide 1% and brimonidine 0.2% eye drops in treatment of Primary Open Angle Glaucoma (POAG)/ocular hypertension (OHT). Settings and Design: Comparative, open, randomized, parallel group prospective study. Materials and Methods: 60 patients of POAG or ocular hypertension were included in this study. Time period of study was 6 weeks. 60 eyes of 60 patients were included in the study. Patients were divided randomly into 3 groups of 20 each. Patients in group A, B and C received timolol, brinzolamide and brimonidine respectively. One drop of each medication was instilled twice a day at 9 am and 9 pm daily for 6 weeks. IOP was measured on day 0 at 9 am (before administration of drugs) and then at 11 am, to get baseline IOP. IOP was again measured on subsequent visits at 9 am and 11 am. Treatment outcome was number of mm Hg fall in IOP induced by the study drug. The daily cost of each drug was calculated by maximum retail price and the average number of drops per bottle. The cost‑effectiveness was then calculated as the cost of drug/mm Hg fall in IOP. Statistics: Paired ‘t’ test was used to analyze the parameters within the group. Independent samples t‑test was used to compare the efficacy of drugs with each other. Results: The % reduction of brimonidine, timolol and brinzolamide at end of 6 weeks was 21.43 ± 3.06%, 24.87 ± 2.46% and 18.78 ± 1.73% respectively. Timolol was superior in efficacy to other two drugs. The difference was statistically significant between the efficacy of timolol and brinzolamide (p < 0.001) as well as timolol and brimonidine (p = 0.003). There was no statistical significant difference in the efficacy of brimonidine when compared to brinzolamide (p=0.26). Timolol (5.87 ± 0.83 Rs/mm lowering after 6 weeks) was found to be most cost-effective followed by brimonidine (46.83 ± 7.37) and then brinzolamide (60.49 ± 6.77) in lowering IOP. Conclusion: All three drugs under the present study are useful in the treatment of POAG/OHT, but timolol is a better choice than other two drugs because of greater reduction in IOP and greater cost-effectiveness.

6.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-183572

ABSTRACT

Aim: A pharmacoeconomic analysis to determine the relative cost-effectiveness of timolol 0.5%, brinzolamide 1% and brimonidine 0.2% eye drops in treatment of Primary Open Angle Glaucoma (POAG)/ocular hypertension (OHT). Settings and Design: Comparative, open, randomized, parallel group prospective study. Materials and Methods: 60 patients of POAG or ocular hypertension were included in this study. Time period of study was 6 weeks. 60 eyes of 60 patients were included in the study. Patients were divided randomly into 3 groups of 20 each. Patients in group A, B and C received timolol, brinzolamide and brimonidine respectively. One drop of each medication was instilled twice a day at 9 am and 9 pm daily for 6 weeks. IOP was measured on day 0 at 9 am (before administration of drugs) and then at 11 am, to get baseline IOP. IOP was again measured on subsequent visits at 9 am and 11 am. Treatment outcome was number of mm Hg fall in IOP induced by the study drug. The daily cost of each drug was calculated by maximum retail price and the average number of drops per bottle. The cost‑effectiveness was then calculated as the cost of drug/mm Hg fall in IOP. Statistics: Paired ‘t’ test was used to analyze the parameters within the group. Independent samples t‑test was used to compare the efficacy of drugs with each other. Results: The % reduction of brimonidine, timolol and brinzolamide at end of 6 weeks was 21.43 ± 3.06%, 24.87 ± 2.46% and 18.78 ± 1.73% respectively. Timolol was superior in efficacy to other two drugs. The difference was statistically significant between the efficacy of timolol and brinzolamide (p < 0.001) as well as timolol and brimonidine (p = 0.003). There was no statistical significant difference in the efficacy of brimonidine when compared to brinzolamide (p=0.26). Timolol (5.87 ± 0.83 Rs/mm lowering after 6 weeks) was found to be most cost-effective followed by brimonidine (46.83 ± 7.37) and then brinzolamide (60.49 ± 6.77) in lowering IOP. Conclusion: All three drugs under the present study are useful in the treatment of POAG/OHT, but timolol is a better choice than other two drugs because of greater reduction in IOP and greater cost-effectiveness.

7.
Indian J Public Health ; 2019 Jun; 63(2): 143-146
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-198112

ABSTRACT

According to the World Health Organization, between 8% and 38% of health workers suffer physical violence at some point in their careers. This multicentric study was conducted to find the prevalence, perceived risk factors, and measures to prevent workplace violence among doctors. The sample consisted of all 2nd- and 3rd-year resident doctors (n = 305) from three colleges in Uttar Pradesh. An anonymous, pretested in a similar setting, self-administered questionnaire was used. 69.5% of doctors reported to have experienced violence in one or other form in the past 1 year. In most incidents, relatives and attendants (69.3%) were involved in violence. No action was taken immediately in regard to violence in 35.3% of instances; 60.3% of study participants reported that they had repeated disturbing memories, thoughts, or images of the attack. Nonavailability of medicines (38.6%) and less staff (36.7%) were cited as top reasons behind violence.

8.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-188684

ABSTRACT

Shone complex is an extremely rare and severe congenital heart disease characterized by left -heart obstruction at multiple levels namely supravalvular mitral ring, parachute mitral valve, subaortic stenosis and coarctation of the aorta. We in the present case describe a patient of shone complex who underwent successful coarctoplasty with the help of BIB (balloon in balloon) dilatation catheter and covered CP (cheatham platinum) stent. The role of interventional cardiologist is to diagnose and choose the right approach for the specific patient, whether surgery, balloon or stent.

9.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-191900

ABSTRACT

Recent scientific evidence suggests there is high prevalence of Vitamin D deficiency in India. There is paucity of scientific data on Vitamin D status in population residing at high altitude regions in India. Hence, the present study was undertaken to determine Vitamin D status of adult population residing at altitude of 4000 meter and above in Himachal Pradesh, India.

10.
Indian J Med Microbiol ; 2018 Mar; 36(1): 26-31
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-198748

ABSTRACT

Background: Staphylococcus aureus is one of the top six most common etiologic agents of nosocomial, community and livestock acquired bacterial infections. These infections although initially were described as a major problem in hospitals have now also become a serious threat in community not only in India but also worldwide. Its prevalence varies depending on the health-care setting, country or a particular region. Thus to better understand the epidemiology of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) in a particular geographical location, it is important to study the variations in the population using molecular tools. Methods: This prospective study was carried out in the Department of Microbiology of Shree Guru Gobind Singh Tricentenary (SGT) Medical College. Staphylococcal protein A (spa) typing was done on 250 S. aureus isolates obtained from various clinical specimens including pus, wound swabs, urine, catheters, blood and cerebrosspinal fluid from both indoor and outdoor patients of SGT Hospital, Budhera, Gurgaon. Results: The selected region of the spa gene of all 250 isolates which includes 87 MRSA and 163 methicillin-susceptible S. aureus were amplified. The spa gene was detected in 248 out of 250 isolates (99.2%), whereas in 2 isolates (0.8%), it remained undetected and referred as non-typable isolates. The 248 S. aureus isolates were typed into 39 spa types, which clustered into six different spa clonal clusters and eight singletons. Conclusion: High diversity observed within S. aureus isolates indicated that many different strains circulate in the study region or in the hospital. The results would contribute in the understanding of epidemiology related to S. aureus spread and prevention.

11.
Indian J Public Health ; 2018 Mar; 62(1): 65-67
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-198029

ABSTRACT

There has been an increase in the consumption of junk food (JF) among school-aged children (SAC) possibly leading to obesity and diet-related diseases among them. We do not have evidence on consumption of JF in rural areas; hence, we conducted a study to assess the consumption of JF by SAC in rural, Himachal Pradesh. A total of 425 children in the age group of 12� years studying in 30 government schools (clusters) were included. The clusters were selected using population proportionate to size sampling methodology. We found high prevalence (36%) of consumption of JF among SAC during the last 24 h. Efforts should be taken to reduce the consumption of JF by promotion of healthy dietary habits and educating children about the ill effects of JF.

12.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-192018

ABSTRACT

Background: Intestinal parasitism(IP) remains a common problem in school going children. Aims & Objectives: To study the prevalence IP infestation in school going children and to study the relation with type of water supply and sanitation. Material and Methods: A cross sectional study was carried out and a total of 461 stool samples were collected from children under ten years of age from various schools of Rishikesh. The normal saline and iodine mounts of fresh and saturated salt solution concentrated samples were examined. Modified Ziehl Neelsen staining was done for detection of coccidian parasites. The statistical significance within gender, age, drinking water supply, sanitation and other socio-demographic parameters was assessed by Chi-square test. Results: 112 (24.3%) out of 461 were positive for intestinal parasites. Giardia lamblia was the commonest parasite (15.2%) followed by Hymenolepis nana (2.38%), Hookworm (2.17%), Enterobius vermicularis (2.17%), Entamoeba histolytica (2.17%), Ascaris lumbricoides (0.86%), and Cryptosporidium parvum (0.86%). Conclusions: Due to lack of proper sanitation & education along with low socioeconomic background, IP infections are still prevalent among school children. Regular awareness program on promoting good health, maintenance of proper personal hygiene and carrying out regular deworming in schools should be instituted for control.

13.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-192010

ABSTRACT

Background: Adolescent obesity is becoming a major public health problem in urban areas of India and its prevalence is increasing in all socioeconomic groups irrespective of religion, region and caste. Aims & Objectives: To find out prevalence of overweight & obesity among adolescents and to study its association with sociodemographic factors. Material & Methods: This cross-sectional study was carried out in the area covered by Urban Health and Training Centre of Lala Lajpat Rai Memorial Medical College, Meerut. Sample size was estimated by keeping the prevalence as 10% with 95% confidence interval and relative precision of 20%. A total of 872 adolescents were selected randomly using proportional allocation method. Results: The prevalence of overweight was found to be 17.4% and obesity 6.9%. The prevalence was significantly higher among females and in those belonging to nuclear families as well as higher socioeconomic status. Conclusion: The prevalence of overweight and obesity is quite high in the urban area and there is a need to develop an effective programme for the prevention of obesity in these areas.

14.
Indian J Med Microbiol ; 2016 Oct-Dec; 34(4): 529-532
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-181124

ABSTRACT

The prevalence of fungal spores in the hospital air is essential to understand the hospital‑acquired fungal infections. Air conditioners (ACs) used in hospitals may either reduce spores in air or be colonised by fungi and aid in its dissemination. The present study was conducted to assess the fungal spore burden in AC and non‑AC areas. We found a high fungal spore count in air irrespective of whether the area was AC or non‑AC. The most predominant species isolated were Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus fumigatus. Such high concentrations of pathogenic fungi in air may predispose individuals to develop disease.

15.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-672338

ABSTRACT

Antibiotics are the chemotherapeutic agents that kill or inhibit the pathogenic microorganisms. Re-sistance of microorganism to antibiotics is a growing problem around the world due to indiscriminate and irrational use of antibiotics. In order to overcome the resistance problem and to safely use antibiotics, the correct measurement of potency and bioactivity of antibiotics is essential. Microbiological assay and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method are used to quantify the potency of antibiotics. HPLC method is commonly used for the quantification of potency of antibiotics, but unable to determine the bioactivity; whereas microbiological assay estimates both potency and bioactivity of antibiotics. Additionally, bioassay is used to estimate the effective dose against antibiotic resistant microbes. Simultaneously, microbiological assay addresses the several parameters such as minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC), minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC), mutation prevention concentration (MPC) and critical concentration (Ccr) which are used to describe the potency in a more informative way. Microbiological assay is a simple, sensitive, precise and cost effective method which gives reproducible results similar to HPLC. However, the HPLC cannot be a complete substitute for microbiological assay and both methods have their own significance to obtain more realistic and precise results.

16.
Indian J Med Microbiol ; 2015 Apr; 33(2): 221-224
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-159523

ABSTRACT

Background: There is a huge need to develop molecular typing methods which are simple to perform, rapid and cost effective to confirm clonality of nosocomial isolates in outbreak situations. Objectives: The aim of the study was to investigate a hospital outbreak of multi-drug resistant (MDR) Klebsiellapneumoniae septicemia in a paediatric surgery intensive care unit (PSICU) using a repetitive extragenic palindromic polymerase chain reaction (REP‑PCR). Materials and Methods: MDR Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates from an outbreak of nosocomial sepsis were typed byREP‑PCR using consensus primers. Isolates from different intensive care units (ICUs) but with similar antibiogram were also genotyped for comparison. Results and Conclusion: A cluster of twelve MDR K Pneumoniae septicemia cases was identified at the PSICU by genotyping using REP‑PCR. Surveillance cultures failed to pick up any source of infection. REP‑PCR was found to be a rapid and simple tool for investigation outbreaks in hospitals. Due to early detection we could initiate infection control practices with focus on hand washing and prevent the further transmission of the organism.

18.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-672144

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to develop and validate a simple, sensitive, precise and cost-effective one-level agar diffusion (5t1) bioassay for estimation of potency and bioactivity of Levofloxacin in pharmaceutical preparation which has not yet been reported in any pharmacopoeia. Among 16 microbial strains, Bacillus pumilus ATCC-14884 was selected as the most significant strain against Levofloxacin. Bioassay was optimized by investigating several factors such as buffer pH, inoculums concentration and reference standard concentration. Identification of Levofloxacin in commercial sample Levoflox tablet was done by FTIR spectroscopy. Mean potency recovery value for Levofloxacin in Levoflox tablet was estimated as 100.90%. A validated bioassay method showed linearity (r2 ? 0.988), precision (Interday RSD ? 1.05%, between analyst RSD ? 1.02%) and accuracy (101.23%, RSD ? 0.72%). Bioassay was correlated with HPLC using same sample and estimated potencies were 100.90%and 99.37%, respectively. Results show that bioassay is a suitable method for estimation of potency and bioactivity of Levofloxacin pharmaceutical preparations.

19.
Indian J Ophthalmol ; 2014 Dec ; 62 (12): 1136-1140
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-155817

ABSTRACT

Aims: The aim was to compare efficacy and cost‑effectiveness of bimatoprost 0.03% and brimonidine 0.2% in primary open‑angle glaucoma (POAG)/ocular hypertension (OHT). Settings and Design: Open, randomized, cross‑over, comparative study. Materials and Methods: Forty patients of POAG or OHT with intraocular pressure (IOP) <30 mm Hg were included in the study after a written informed consent. The patients were divided randomly into two groups of 20 patients each. Patients of group A were administered bimatoprost 0.03% eye drops once daily, and those of group B brimonidine 0.2% eye drops twice daily for a period of 4 weeks. After a washout period of 4 weeks, the patients were crossed over that is, group A was administered brimonidine 0.2% and group B bimatoprost 0.03%. Fall in IOP at 4 weeks was recorded. The daily cost of each drug was calculated by maximum retail price and the average number of drops per bottle. The cost‑effectiveness was then calculated as the cost of drug/mm Hg fall in IOP. Statistics: Independent samples t‑test was used to compare the efficacy of both drugs. Results: IOP lowering with bimatoprost (8.9 ± 1.598 mm Hg) was significantly (P < 0.0001) higher than brimonidine (6.55 ± 1.26 mm Hg). The number of drops/ml were 33.43 ± 0.52 and 25.49 ± 0.26, respectively, for bimatoprost and brimonidine. Treatment with bimatoprost was costlier than brimonidine with daily costs/eye Rs. 4.02 ± 0.06 and 3.14 ± 0.03, yearly costs/eye Rs. 1467.46 ± 20.74 and 1147.75 ± 11.15, respectively. Bimatoprost was more cost‑effective than brimonidine with the cost‑effectiveness ratio (CER) respectively Rs. 13.10 ± 2.61/mm Hg and Rs. 13.96 ± 2.86/mm Hg. Incremental CER Rs. 10.43/mm Hg implies lower costs/mm Hg extra IOP lowering by bimatoprost than Rs. 13.96 for brimonidine. Conclusion: In spite of being costlier, bimatoprost is more efficacious and cost‑effective than brimonidine.

20.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-184039

ABSTRACT

We report a case of 50 years female suffering from compression neuropathy due to ossification of ligamentum flavum. This ossification of ligamentum flavum usually presents with neuropathy in the setting of thoracic spinal stenosis

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