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1.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-204901

ABSTRACT

A study was conducted in mid hill region of Rajouri district, J&K, India to analyze the impact lockdown amid covid-19 pandemic on weather parameters. Day and night temperature readings were recorded fortnightly from 1st March to 30th June 2020 from maximum and minimum thermometer, rainfall values from ordinary rain gauge, and soil temperature at different depth from soil thermometers and values were compared with data from 2017-2019 and normal. After analyzing the data statistically using “Descriptive statistics” in MS-Excel 2010, it was observed that within the period of lockdown, the change in day temperature was -6.66% from normal mean value, however night temperature was least affected as it changes 10.33% and rainfall pattern was 19.27% more from normal mean value. The average change in soil temperature in morning at 5 cm, 10 cm and 20 cm depth in lockdown was -4.65%, 3.74% and 2.65% as compared to year 2019 (1st March to 30th June) mean value and the change in soil temperature in evening at same depths was -5.14%, -11.30% and 0.3% from year 2019 (1st March to 30th June) depicting a slow change in values. With the significant sustainable pattern observed in day and soil temperature parameters and rainfall it can be concluded that lockdown might be an effective tool in reducing speed of climate change in future.

2.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-204893

ABSTRACT

Aim: A study was conducted in mid hill region of Jammu district, J&K to analyze the impact lockdown amid covid-19 pandemic on weather parameters so as to define it as a tool to mitigate the pace of climate change. Methodology: Day and night temperature readings were recorded fortnightly during 22nd March to 10th June 2020 from maximum and minimum thermometer, relative humidity from dry and wet bulb thermometers in stevenson screen, rainfall values from ordinary rain gauge, evaporation readings from pan evaporimeter and soil temperature at different depth from soil thermometers. Results: After analyzing the data statistically using “Descriptive statistics” in MS-Excel 2010, it was observed that after the implementation of lockdown and with the beginning of unlock down the change in day temperature was -8.07% from normal mean value, night temperature was -4.44% from normal mean value, rainfall pattern was 30.00% more from normal mean value, Relative Humidity (morning) pattern was 6.94% more from normal mean value, relative humidity (evening) pattern was 20.94% more from normal mean value, evaporation pattern was 7.66% more from normal mean value. The average change in soil temperature in morning at 5 cm, 10 cm and 20 cm depth was -3.46%, -3.84% and -7.23% as compared to year 2019 (22nd March to 10th June 2019) mean value and the change in soil temperature in evening at same depths was -7.69%, -6.31% and -4.14% from year 2019 (22nd March to 10th June 2019). Conclusion: With the variable significant pattern observed in almost all parameters, it can be concluded that lockdown might be an effective tool in mitigating pace of climate change in future.

3.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-205363

ABSTRACT

Background: Vitamin D deficiency is prevalent worldwide and it is believed to have a role as an immune modulator. However, the association between vitamin D levels and anti-thyroid peroxidase positive (TPOAb) hypothyroidism is still controversial. Aim: To elucidate the association between vitamin D levels and anti-thyroid peroxidase (TPOAb) positive hypothyroidism. Materials and Methods: Serum Vitamin D, thyroid peroxidase antibody, and thyroid function test were measured in 105 patients, who were sub-grouped into the TPOAb positive and TPOAb negative hypothyroidism category. Results: Vitamin D level, was found significantly lower in patients with TPOAb positive hypothyroidism as compared to patients TPOAb negative hypothyroidism (13.275.18vs. 17.746.03ng/ml, respectively, P<0.05), as well as between patients with TPOAb positive hypothyroidism and control group (13.275.18vs. 29.669.41 ng/ml, respectively, P<0.05). Within the patients' group, there was a significant negative correlation between serum 25 (OH) vitamin D and TSH (r=−0.438, P<0.05), anti-TPO (r=−0.275, P<0.05). Furthermore, insignificant positive correlations were recorded between serum 25 (OH) vitamin D, and each of T3, T4 (r=–0.056, 0.097, P>0.05). Conclusion: The current study observed significant low levels of 25(OH)D3 in TPOAb positive hypothyroid patients.

4.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-210947

ABSTRACT

The present study was evaluated the effect of dietary inclusion of various feed supplements and their combination on the performance index, glucose and serum cholesterol for 6 weeks. Day-old broiler chicks (n=252) were randomly assigned to seven treatment groups, each with 3 replicates. The first treatment was designated as control (T0) in which no supplement was added to the feed, while in treatments T1; organic mineral mixture (Organomin forte), T2; organic mineral mixture (Vannamin), T3; probiotics (Microguard), T4; enzyme (Brozyme -XPR) and probiotics, T5; emulsifier (Lipigon) were provided through feed. In the T6 group, 3 percent less energy was given through feed. The weight of vital organs viz. heart, liver, gizzard, and spleen were significantly (P<0.05) increased by the feed supplements of which were in the normal range. The gut morphology was also favorably altered due to feed supplementations. This indicates that the organic mineral mixtures, probiotics, enzymes and emulsifiers, and their combinations can be used as a growth promoter in broiler diets and can improve gut health. These products show promising effects as alternatives for antibiotics as pressure to eliminate growth-promoting antibiotic use increases

7.
Indian J Ophthalmol ; 2020 Mar; 68(3): 434-440
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-197859

ABSTRACT

Purpose: To study the demographic details, risk factors, microbiological profile, and clinical outcomes of pediatric infectious keratitis cases in North India. Methods: This retrospective case series included review of medical records of pediatric patients (0–16 years) diagnosed with infectious keratitis in a tertiary care center of North India during December 2011 to January 2017 was done. Demographic details, predisposing factors, microbiological investigations, and clinical outcomes were analyzed. Results: In this time period, 104 eyes of 104 children had a diagnosis of infectious keratitis. Culture was obtained for all 104 eyes and was positive in eighty eight eyes (84.2%). The most common causative factor was trauma, seen in 77 eyes (74%). Bacteria was the most common agent isolated in culture (54.2%) followed by fungi (40.8%) and acanthamoeba (2.1%). Successful healing of the keratitis with appropriate medical treatment occurred in 84 (80.7%) eyes, while 13 (12.5%) eyes required therapeutic keratoplasty. Of the 80 eyes with documentation of both preliminary and final visual acuity, improvement of two lines was seen in 35 eyes (43.7%), stayed the same in and worsened in 17 eyes (21%). Mean time to resolution of infection on medical treatment for bacteria was 23.65 ± 4.78 days, fungi 32 ± 5.19 days, and acanthamoeba 53.67 ± 4.78 days. Conclusion: Gram positive organism is the most common etiological agent of keratitis in children in our study population which is in contrast to pediatric infective keratitis study conducted by Aruljyothi et al. in South India (2011--2013). Though less in number than bacterial keratitis, fungus also remains an important causative agent. Along with early diagnosis and immediate medical intervention, it is important to identify regional profile of organisms and risk factors for good visual and anatomical outcome.

8.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-201952

ABSTRACT

Dengue infections may present within a widely variable spectrum of clinical manifestations. However, neurologic complications in general are rare and unusual. A 19 yrs old healthy male army recruit was brought to a service hospital in South India in a state of unresponsiveness, following 12 km route march. Despite aggressive and prompt management, his condition progressively deteriorated and he finally passed away about 10 hrs after reporting to the hospital. The final cause of death was acute dengue encephalitis with raised intracranial pressure. Epidemio-clinico-pathological correlation in this case led to the conclusion that vigorous exertion with a hyper-metabolic state of fever in a setting of encephalitis led to metabolic injury, multi-organ failure, cerebral edema and intracranial hemorrhage. Encephalitis following dengue virus (DENV) infection is a rare phenomenon with the incidence ranging from 0.5% to 6.2%. Neurological features associated with DENV were first reported by Sanguansermsri et al in 1976. The rare neurologic presentations reported with DENV infection are transverse myelitis, acute encephalomyelitis, myositis, and gullain barre syndrome. As encephalitis caused by DENV mimics that caused by other pathogens it should always be kept in mind while managing encephalitis of unknown origin. Medical officers should maintain a high index of suspicion of DENV encephalitis. Training of medical officers; therefore, needs to be undertaken with regular refresher cadres, besides equipping of all peripheral facilities with rapid diagnostic kits for dengue. The same will ensure prompt detection of cases and timely referral to higher medical centres in chain. The instant case reflects an important, potentially fatal, complication of dengue. Pathophysiology of DENV encephalitis needs to be elucidated on priority through research involving all stakeholders.

9.
Indian J Ophthalmol ; 2020 Jan; 68(1): 229-231
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-197774

ABSTRACT

Corneoscleral tunnel infection is a potentially sight threatening complication of cataract surgery. Microbiological investigations are mandatory and early surgical intervention helps in achieving favourable outcomes. Fungal infection of tunnel incisions can pose a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. We report a case of post-operative tunnel infection with curvularia. Prompt surgical intervention and intensive topical therapy helped attain a good tectonic as well as visual recovery.

11.
Indian J Ophthalmol ; 2019 Dec; 67(12): 2110-2113
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-197690

ABSTRACT

Primary orbital chondromyxoid fibroma is a rarely reported entity. A 34-year-old lady presented with painless, non-axial proptosis of the left eye of 6 months duration. Orbital imaging showed a supero-temporal mass with calcific foci and bone erosion. The mass caused globe compression resulting in choroidal folds. Anterior orbitotomy with complete mass excision was performed. The histopathology revealed a chondromyxoid fibroma. At 12-months follow-up, the patient is doing fine with no clinical recurrence. Chondromyxoid fibroma is an important differential diagnosis for bony orbital tumors.

12.
Indian J Ophthalmol ; 2019 Oct; 67(10): 1738-1740
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-197582

ABSTRACT

A 28-year-old man with a prior history of penetrating keratoplasty in the left eye for total corneal melt presented with a 3-day history of a red, painful left eye. On examination, he was found to have graft infiltrates. Microscopic examination of wet mount preparation of corneal scrapings revealed the presence of embryonated eggs of E. vermicularis. Cellophane (scotch) tape preparation from perianal region also revealed embryonated eggs of E. vermicularis as well as live adult worms. Ocular and adnexal involvement by E. vermicularis is extremely rare. Here, we report the first case of infection of a corneal graft with E. vermicularis.

13.
Int J Pharm Pharm Sci ; 2019 Oct; 11(10): 9-17
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-205956

ABSTRACT

Thyroid hormone serves as an indispensable component for the optimum functioning of various biological systems. They curb body’s metabolism, regulates the estrogen level, regulates bone turnover, essential for skeletal development and mineralization. Within the scope of knowledge, it is intimately familiar that thyroid disorders have widespread systemic manifestations, among which in hypothyroidism, even though elevated TSH (thyroid-stimulating hormone) may reduce estrogen level which in turn stimulates osteoclasts and thus cause osteoporosis, while hyperthyroidism accelerates bone turnover. Hypothyroidism does not directly interfere with the skeletal integrity, but treatment with levothyroxine for the suppression of TSH to bring the hypothyroid patient to euthyroid state for a long haul; lead to simultaneous reduction in bone mass and in (bone mineral density) BMD. After the initial relevation of the correlation between thyroid disorders and osteoporosis in numerous studies have emphasized that both hypo and hyperthyroidism either directly or indirectly affects the bone mineral density or leads to the progression of osteoporosis. Therefore the present study is aimed and so designed to review all the possible associations between them and the impact of thyroid disorders on estrogen level and bone mineral density. The main findings of this review indicate that both excesses as well as deficiency of thyroid hormone can be potentially deleterious for bone tissue.

15.
Indian J Ophthalmol ; 2019 Aug; 67(8): 1377-1380
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-197459

ABSTRACT

A 60-year-old man presented with sudden-onset proptosis of the left eye and intermittent diplopia of 2 months duration. Ophthalmic examination revealed bilateral eyelid retraction, left eye proptosis and a firm, non-tender mass (2 cm × 1.5 cm) in left supero-medial orbit with restricted extraocular movements. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography showed a well-defined, enhancing antero-medial orbital mass which was removed via anterior orbitotomy approach. The histopathology/immunohistochemistry showed adenocarcinoma; metastasis of urothelial origin. The oncology consultation and metastatic workup revealed a urinary bladder carcinoma with distant metastasis. Our patient expired within 6 months of diagnosis. The ophthalmic symptoms due to orbital metastasis may be the first presentation of some cancer patients.

16.
17.
Indian J Ophthalmol ; 2019 Jul; 67(7): 1137-1142
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-197358

ABSTRACT

Purpose: To study the clinical presentation, nasal endoscopic features, and outcomes of nasal endoscopy guided (NEG) bicanalicular intubation (BCI) in children with complex persistent congenital nasolacrimal duct obstruction (pCNLDO). Methods: A prospective, interventional study including eligible children (age ? 12 years) having complex pCNLDO. The demographics, number of previous probings, nasal endoscopy findings, and outcomes; were noted in all children who underwent NEG-BCI with Crawford's stents. Matting of eyelashes (MoE, upper, and lower eyelid), tear-film height (TFH), and fluorescein dye disappearance test (FDDT) was assessed pre and postoperatively. The minimum stent in-situ period was 12 weeks, and the minimum follow-up was 6 months (after stent removal). Results: Total 32 children (36 eyes) including 18 females (56.25%) were studied. At a mean age of 4.9 years, all children had epiphora and discharge with MoE (both upper and lower), raised TFH and positive FDDT. Previously, all children underwent conventional probing (s)- once in 12 (33.3%), twice in 18 (50%) and thrice in 6 (16.7%) eyes. The general ophthalmologists performed the majority (n = 21, 58.33%) of those. The BCI was performed under GA in all eyes, and at a mean follow-up of 8.5 months, the “complete” success was noted in 29 eyes (80.5%), 'partial' success in 4 (11.1%) and failure in 3 (8.3%). The stent prolapse was seen in three. Conclusion: NEG-BCI may provide a satisfactory resolution to complex pCNLDO after single or multiple failed probings. NEG provides confident and efficient management of coexistent intranasal complexities related to the inferior turbinate and meatus.

18.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-188972

ABSTRACT

Aim: The aim of our study was to evaluate increasing occurrence of pterygium in young individuals and to suggest methods for its prevention. Methods: This was a hospital based prospective observational study carried out for a period of one year. A total of 30 eyes of 25 patients were taken who were diagnosed to have pterygium on slit lamp examination. All patients were less than 20 years of age. Patients who presented with complaints of irritation, redness and mass in the eyes were included in our study. Patients with history of trauma and chemical injuries were excluded in this study. All selected patients underwent detailed ophthalmic examination including visual acuity, refraction, slit lamp examination and fundus evaluation. The side, progression, position, autorefractometry and keratometry were noted in each and every patient. Results: A total of 30 eyes of 25 patients were included in our study among which 21 (84.0%) were males and rest 4 (16.0%) females. All of our patients belonged to age group 11-20 yrs. The complaint of pterygium was found more in patients who belonged to rural background (18, 72.0%). 5 (20.0%) patients had bilateral pterygium and rest 20 (80.0%) had complaint in only one eye. Majority of our patients had pterygium on nasal side (21, 84.0%), 3 of them on temporal side (12.0%) and one on both sides (4.0%). Majority of them had concern with cosmesis followed by diminution in vision and irritation in the eyes. Almost all of them (24, 96.0%) spent their time outdoors while work and play. Pterygium was graded as grade 1 when it just touched the limbus, grade 2 when pterygium was at half the distance between the limbus and pupillary margin, grade 3 when pterygium reached the pupillary margin and grade 4 when it crossed the visual axis to the other side. All of our patients had grade 1 and 2 pterygium. Conclusion: The prevalence of pterygium has been on a rise in these recent years in young individuals. Hence, adequate precautions like wearing protective glasses, hooded caps, brimmed hats etc. should be advised to young individuals in order to prevent them from pterygium. All of them should be educated for safety measures in order to prevent pterygium and hence to lead a good quality of life.

19.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-196331

ABSTRACT

Background: Cytological examination of pericardial effusion fluids is important in diagnosing the etiology of underlying disease, staging, and prognosis of cancer. Aims and Objectives: (1) To study cytological evaluation of pericardial effusions in various pathological conditions in a tertiary care center. (2) To analyze their frequency and clincopathological correlation of the diagnosis. Materials and Methods: Our study was a retrospective study performed in the Department of Pathology from 1st January 2012 to 31st December 2016. The study sample included all the pericardial effusions submitted in the pathology department for cytological evaluation. Clinical details and relevant parameters correlated with clinical findings. Each fluid underwent cytospin and cytocentrifuge along with preparation of conventional smears. Results: Of 120 cases, 80% were of benign effusion and 20% were of malignant effusion. Male-to-female ratio was 1.44:1 with patient age ranging from 3 to 90 years. Conclusion: Benign effusions can been seen in younger age group and malignant ones in the older age group. The preliminary pericardial fluid analysis in resource-limited settings is the most convenient and cost-effective method for accurate diagnosis. It reduces the demand of invasive investigations and its complications. At times, it is the first test to point toward underlying malignant process thereby affecting the prognosis, survival, and treatment outcome of the patient.

20.
Int J Pharm Pharm Sci ; 2019 Jun; 11(6): 94-100
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-205814

ABSTRACT

Objective: The present study was conducted to screen the cytotoxicity and initiation of apoptosis in MCF-7 human breast tumour cells using the Indian sponge Acanthostylotela cornuta of the Gulf of Mannar. Methods: The crude methanol extract of A. cornuta was fractionated using a reversed phase silica gel column chromatography. The purity of the active fraction of bromopyrrole alkaloids was confirmed with Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GCMS). The bromopyrrole alkaloids induce apoptotic changes in MCF-7 cells were studied with electrophoresis, caspase assay, and different staining analysis. The MCF-7 cells were analyzed by Flow cytometry to determine their DNA content. Results: Bromopyrrole alkaloids of A. cornuta showed cytotoxicity against MCF-7 human breast tumour cells with the IC50 value of 8.0μg/ml. The bromopyrrole compounds induced cells exhibited scatted red fluorescence, showing the presence of several residual bodies and condensation of chromatin. Caspase-3, pro-caspase-9, caspase-9 and Poly-ADP-Ribose-Polymerase (PARP) activity were occurred in bromopyrrole alkaloids treated tumour cell. The cell cycle arrest is conceivable that the compound prevented the progression of cell cycle through the G phase resulting from inhibition of survival, leading them to undergo apoptosis. Conclusion: Bromopyrrole alkaloids of A. cornuta possess antitumor activity which was arrested the G phase in cell cycle that clearly indicated its nature as that of antitumour drugs.

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