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1.
J Environ Biol ; 2020 Mar; 41(2): 261-265
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-214504

ABSTRACT

Aim: The aim of the present study was to understand the basic pathogen dynamics of Colletotrichum species infecting chilli crop in the Andaman and Nicobar Islands for disease management practices. Methodology: Twenty fungal isolates associated with chilli (Capsicum annuum) anthracnose disease from diverse locations of tropical Andaman, India were characterized using polyphasic approaches. Results: Upon morphological studies, out of twenty isolates, fourteen isolates were found chromogenic and eleven showed concentric ring pattern of mycelial growth. Based on conidial morphology, the isolates were grouped into two species (C. capsici and C. gloesporioides). The pathogenicity tests on three chilli varieties revealed difference in the pathogenic potential among the collected isolates. The sequence analysis using internal transcriber spacer (ITS) region revealed the presence of two other species C. siamense and C. plurivorum, in addition to C. gloesporioides and C. capsici. Interpretation: The present study revealed the presence of high level of genetic and pathogenic variability among the Colletotrichum isolates infecting chilli in Andaman Islands.

2.
Indian J Ophthalmol ; 2020 Jan; 68(1): 236-238
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-197777

ABSTRACT

Patients with moderate to severe dry eyes are often screened at the Dry Eye Clinic to rule out connective tissue diseases. Rheumatoid factor (RF) is one of the screening tools to rule out rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Patients who turn out positive for the RF are often subjected to anti-CCP antibody evaluation for confirmation of disease. This article tries to highlight 3 cases of negative and anti-CCP antibody positive cases which presented to the ophthalmic clinic, unaware of their systemic status. Though RF is the cheapest modality to screen for RA, it is not always a reliable marker. One should order anti-CCP antibody for patients where suspicion is high, despite RF being normal.

3.
Indian J Ophthalmol ; 2020 Jan; 68(1): 209
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-197760
4.
S. Afr. med. j. (Online) ; 0:0(0): 1-5, 2020.
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1271069

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has challenged the provision of healthcare in ways that are unprecedented in our lifetime. Planning for the sheer numbers expected during the surge has required public hospitals to de-escalate all non-essential clinical services to focus on COVID-19. Western Cape Province was the initial epicentre of the COVID-19 epidemic in South Africa (SA), and the Cape Town metro was its hardest-hit geographical region. We describe how we constructed our COVID-19 hospital-wide clinical service at Groote Schuur Hospital, the University of Cape Town's tertiary-level teaching hospital. By describing the barriers and enablers, we hope to provide guidance rather than a blueprint for hospitals elsewhere in SA and in low-resource countries that face similar challenges now or during subsequent waves


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Delivery of Health Care , SARS Virus , South Africa
5.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-204831

ABSTRACT

The average of mean monthly ET0 estimated under polyhouse by FAO PM (benchmark) model was 39.44 mm, but that of the FAO Penman, Hargreaves Stanghellini, Priestley-Taylor and FAO Radiation models were 38.37, 18.18, 37.80, 48.17 and 53.87 mm respectively. Whereas, the average of mean monthly ETo estimated under open environment by FAO PM (benchmark) model was 116.34 mm, but that of the FAO Penman, Hargreaves Stanghellini, Priestley-Taylor and FAO Radiation models were 119.33, 133, 126.41, 113.17 and 117.37 mm respectively. The FAO Penman and Hargreaves model are found to be most and least appropriate models for estimating daily ET0 under polyhouse. Whereas, FAO Radiation and Stanghellini model observed to be most and the least appropriate models in an open environment for estimating daily ET0 under polyhouse for the Pantnagar Tarai condition of Uttarakhand.

6.
Indian J Public Health ; 2019 Dec; 63(4): 318-323
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-198166

ABSTRACT

Background: India recently launched Ayushman Bharat – National Health Protection Mission – an upgraded version of Rashtriya Swasthya Bima Yojna (RSBY), which is projected as world's largest public insurance scheme by numbers. The new scheme can certainly draw learning from the former (RSBY) to ensure better reach and success. RSBY has been extensively analyzed for supply-side barriers but sparsely for demand and supply-side barriers simultaneously. Objectives: Through this study, authors intend to determine causality as well as configurations (pathways) of demand and supply barriers that make beneficiary vulnerable even under the scheme. The study explores the interaction of barriers that lead to patient dis/satisfaction, overcharging for a medical procedure and high disease severity among beneficiaries. Methods: The study uses RSBY insurance claim records from 2013 to 2015 backed up by posthospitalization survey of the state of Chhattisgarh, India. It employs a fuzzy set qualitative comparative analysis to determine causality and configuration (path-way) of parameters leading to the outcome. Results: Provision of medicine emerges as a necessary condition for patient satisfaction. Waiting time did not appear as a necessary parameter of satisfaction. Overcharging the cashless card in case of minor surgical procedures is observed irrespective of beneficiaries' education and occupation status. Urban male and rural female appear to bear high disease severity. Conclusions: Results have implication for policymakers and implementors to recognize the segment that remains vulnerable under the scheme and gain insights on the parameters of patient satisfaction.

7.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-196399

ABSTRACT

Endocarditis caused by Mycobacterium abscessus is rare and often missed without appropriate blood cultures. It does not respond to standard antitubercular treatment and is also resistant to many other antibiotics. The course of the disease may be indolent and often results in a fatal outcome. Accurate identification and sensitivity, combination therapy, and prolonged duration of antibiotics are, therefore, important for a successful outcome.

8.
J Environ Biol ; 2019 Nov; 40(6): 1137-1144
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-214449

ABSTRACT

Aim: Alternaria blight caused by Alternaria lini is one of the major diseases of linseed which severely affects the yield and productivity. Here, we utilizes F2 mapping population derived from a resistant (JRF-4) and a susceptible (Chambal) genotypes of linseed and SSRs to identify the markers associated with Alternaria blight resistance using bulk segregant analysis approach. Methodology: A population consisting of 154 F2 individuals was developed from the cross between JRF-4 (resistant) and Chambal (susceptible). All 154 F2 individuals were screened with 100 polymorphic SSRs to identify extreme phenotype. Two bulk of extremes phenotypes (disease resistant and disease susceptible) from F2 mapping population were used for the bulked segregant analysis. The SSR primers that distinguished the parental lines were used to amplify the DNA from two bulks and banding pattern was observed to identify the SSRs that can differentiate the resistant and susceptible phenotypes bulk for Alternaria blight. Markers validation was carried out by amplifying DNA from individual plants of each bulk. Results: Out of 100, only 10 markers showed polymorphism among the bulks and of which only three markers viz., LUSc 898_3_12, Lu 2472 and Lu 3078 were able to differentiate the disease resistant and susceptible individuals from F2 population. Further, single marker linear regression approach was used to validate the association of selected polymorphic markers with the disease. The markers LUSc 898_3_12 and Lu 2472 showed significant regression which confirmed their linkage with Alternaria blight resistance. Interpretation: The two markers having significant regression can be used for diseases resistance breeding during marker assisted selection.

9.
Indian J Ophthalmol ; 2019 Oct; 67(10): 1694-1695
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-197544
10.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-184914

ABSTRACT

Post-menopausal sub meatal stenosis used to be common in elderly ladies, but urethral strictures were not so common. With more frequent urethral manipulations and indwelling catheterization incidence of stricture has increased. Lingual or buccal mucosal substitution urethroplasty has become standard treatment option for female urethral stricture with good long-term result. Acceptance of this procedure in female is guarded due to donor site morbidity.We used vaginal graft for substitution in 11 patients after thorough evaluation with follow-up ranging from 3 months to 2 years with satisfactory outcome and no donor site morbidity.

11.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-206932

ABSTRACT

Background: Caesarean section rates have globally risen above the levels that can be considered medically necessary. The aim of the study is to analyze the rate and indications of caesarean sections for primigravidae in the period 2016 to 2018 at a tertiary care hospital in Delhi.Methods: It is a retrospective observational study conducted in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology at PGIMER and Dr RML Hospital, New Delhi. A total of 552 caesarean deliveries in primigravidae were studied.Results: The total deliveries during the study period were 3346 and the total caesarean section rate observed was 30.66%. The caesarean section rate among primigravidae was 29.1%. The rate of caesarean section in primigravidae rose from 22.7% in 2016 to 39.3% in 2018 with 17% increase. Majority of them belonged to the age group 20-30 years (79.34%) and 2.53% were elderly primigravidae. Out of the total number of primigravidae caesarean deliveries, 67.2% were performed in emergency and 32.7% were performed electively. Among the emergency caesarean sections performed, 64% of patients had induced labor and 22% had spontaneous labor. The most common indication of caesarean section was fetal distress (19.77%) followed by arrest of labor (17.87%) and malpresentations (8.9%). The short-term caesarean morbidity rate was 25.4% including one mortality. Wound infection was the most common complication.Conclusions: Various reasons like changing maternal risk profile increased IVF pregnancies, scientific advances, personal choice and medico legal considerations have been cited for increased caesarean rate. Following evidence-based labor protocols, judicious use of cardiotocography, proper patient selection for labor induction and patient education will contribute in reduction of caesarean sections and related complications.

12.
Indian J Med Microbiol ; 2019 Jun; 37(2): 255-262
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-198868

ABSTRACT

Background: Identification of 14 high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) is immensely important in elucidating molecular epidemiology, patient monitoring and evidence-based treatment. There is paucity of such data from Chhattisgarh state of Central India. The present study has evaluated tagging oligonucleotide cleavage and extension-mediated Anyplex HR-HPV genotyping assay in identification of 14 HR-HPV genotypes attributable to premalignant and malignant cervical lesion in comparison to GP5+/6+ assay, cytology and colposcopy. Materials and Methods: A total of 185 clinically suspected cases of premalignant and malignant cervical lesion were investigated by HR-HPV genotyping, GP5+/6+, cytology and colposcopy. Results: Genotyping assay showed clinical sensitivity and specificity of 86.5% (confidence interval [CI]: 80.7–91.0) and 100% (CI: 86.3–100) respectively and found noninferior to GP5+/6+ assay (P > 0.05). HR-HPV prevalence was 76.3%, 88.4%, 94.8%, 100% and 100% among cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) Grade I–III, squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma cases, respectively. The four most common genotypes detected in CIN I–III were HPV 16 (63.9%), HPV 39 (15.0%), HPV 18 (6.0%) and HPV 33 (5.3%). In cervical cancer (CC) cases, HPV 16 (44.4%), HPV 39 (11.1%), dual infection of HPV 16, 18 (11.1%) and triple infection of HPV 16, 18, 33 (11.1%) were the four most identified genotypic aetiologies. A novel coinfection of HR-HPV 35, 39 were found in two and one cases of CIN I and II. Finding of HPV 39 as the second most prevalent genotype was unusual and underscores the importance of genotyping screening. Conclusion: Anyplex HR-HPV assay is arguably the useful assay for better patient management and can be useful for HR-HPV screening by its unique individual genotype identification of all HR-HPV. Finding of HPV 16, 39, 18, 33 and coinfection of 16,18 and 16, 18, 33 in CIN and CC would help vaccine manufacturer to design specific future HPV polyvalent vaccine preparation to curb down the CC-associated mortality.

13.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-196331

ABSTRACT

Background: Cytological examination of pericardial effusion fluids is important in diagnosing the etiology of underlying disease, staging, and prognosis of cancer. Aims and Objectives: (1) To study cytological evaluation of pericardial effusions in various pathological conditions in a tertiary care center. (2) To analyze their frequency and clincopathological correlation of the diagnosis. Materials and Methods: Our study was a retrospective study performed in the Department of Pathology from 1st January 2012 to 31st December 2016. The study sample included all the pericardial effusions submitted in the pathology department for cytological evaluation. Clinical details and relevant parameters correlated with clinical findings. Each fluid underwent cytospin and cytocentrifuge along with preparation of conventional smears. Results: Of 120 cases, 80% were of benign effusion and 20% were of malignant effusion. Male-to-female ratio was 1.44:1 with patient age ranging from 3 to 90 years. Conclusion: Benign effusions can been seen in younger age group and malignant ones in the older age group. The preliminary pericardial fluid analysis in resource-limited settings is the most convenient and cost-effective method for accurate diagnosis. It reduces the demand of invasive investigations and its complications. At times, it is the first test to point toward underlying malignant process thereby affecting the prognosis, survival, and treatment outcome of the patient.

14.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-191971

ABSTRACT

Background: Still many Indian states observe low spaced births and high fertility above replacement level; mostly contributed by disadvantaged society. Factors influencing are entrenched in ignorance, male child desire and traditional culture to some extent.

15.
J Environ Biol ; 2019 May; 40(3): 322-327
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-214557

ABSTRACT

Aim: The study aimed to assess the influence of heavy metal pollution in river Sutlej around the industrial city of Ludhiana. Methodology: Samples of water, sediment and commercially important selected fish species were collected before (S-1) and after (S-2) the confluence of Buddah Nallah in river Sutlej for the estimation of heavy matals using Atomic Absorption Mass Spectrometer, equipped with transverse graphite furnace tube for electro thermal determination of lead, copper, chromium and zinc. Results: he water, sediment and fish samples collected from the site, S-2 showed higher concentration of heavy metals compared site S-1. All the metals studied were found within the permissible limit of different National and International agencies, except for the lead which was found above the permissible limit in fish, Wallago attu. Interpretation: The results reveal that river Sutlej around Ludhiana city is under severe threat of pollution due to the discharge of industrial effluents from the Buddha Nallah

16.
J Environ Biol ; 2019 Mar; 40(2): 258-264
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-214590

ABSTRACT

Aim: To study the level of persistent organic pollutants in the environment of River Sutlej and rule out its detrimental effects on aquatic fauna. Methodology: Two different sites were selected for the study, one was before the confluence of a polluted tributary (Site I) another was after the confluence of polluted tributary (Site II). Analysis of water, sediment, gills and muscles of selected fish species was done to detect the level of persistent organic pollutants using Gas Chromatography. Results: Among POP's, PCB-28 was detected during monsoon period(0.55 ng ul-1) at Site I, while as it was detected both during monsoon (0.65 ng ul-1) and post-monsoon (0.49 ng ul-1) period at Site II in the water samples. Similarly, PCB-28 was detected in gills of Cirrhinus mrigala during pre (0.26 ng g-1) and post-monsoon (0.27 ng g-1) periods at Site I, while at Site II it was detected only during monsoon period (0.17 ng g-1). In Aoricthysaor gills, only PCB-28 was detected during pre-monsoon (0.34 ng g-1) and monsoon periods (0.19 ng g-1) at Site II. In Heteropneustes fossilis PCB-28 was detected during pre-monsoon period (0.26 ng g-1) at Site I, while at Site II it was found during pre-monsoon (0.21 ng g-1) and monsoon (0.17 ng g-1) periods. In Catla Catla gill samples among PCB's only PCB-28 was detected during pre-monsoon (0.32 ng g-1), monsoon (0.29 ng g-1) and post-monsoon periods (0.24 ng g-1) at Site II while Mirex (0.01 ng g-1) was detected at Site I during post-monsoon period. Interpretation: The study concluded that continuous monitoring of pesticide residue is warranted in the river Sutlej to rule out any detrimental effect of pesticide pollution on aquatic fauna.

17.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-211223

ABSTRACT

Background: Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder with common denominator of hyperglycemia, arising from a variety of pathogenic mechanisms. The aim of the study was to evaluate the drug utilization pattern of anti-diabetic drugs in diabetic patients and observe adverse drug events (ADEs) associated with anti-diabetic therapy in a prospective way.Methods: A prospective study was carried out in diabetic patients visiting the Departments of General Medicine in a tertiary care teaching hospital. Demographic data, drug utilization pattern and ADEs due to Anti-diabetic drugs were summarized.Results: In the present study, 153 (54%) of the 282 diabetic patients were males and 129 (46%) were females. Majority of patients were in the age group of 51-60 years (31.20%) and most of the patients (31.56%) had a diabetic history of 11-15 years. Metformin was the most commonly prescribed drug (64.89%). Majority of the patients (36.87%) were on multidrug therapy. Co-morbid condition was found in 232 patients (82.26%) where hypertension (22.69%) being the most common co-morbid condition. 32 ADRs were observed with Nausea being the most common ADR reported.Conclusions: The present study helps to find out current prescribing pattern of oral diabetic medications with different co-morbidities with respect to diagnosis, cost of treatment and it also highlight the need for comprehensive management of diabetic patients, including life style changes, dietary control, hypoglycemic agents, cardiovascular prevention, treatment of complications and co-morbidity. Therefore, through the existing prescribing patterns, attempts can be made to improve the quality and efficiency of drug therapy.

18.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-191955

ABSTRACT

Background: Psycho-social health problems are an area of concern worldwide especially among students pursuing professional courses. The competition for grades, carrier insecurity often contribute to various emotional disturbances such as stress, anxiety and depression. Aims and Objectives: to determine the prevalence of stress, anxiety and depression in students of two main professional streams (medical & engineering) and to find out various factors associated with them. Material and methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among students of medical and engineering stream using DASS 42 scale. Further a self administered, pretested questionnaire was used to elucidate information on socio-demographic and personal characteristics. Results: Out of a total of 480 students (300 MBBS and 180 Engineering), prevalence of stress, anxiety and depression in medical & engineering students was 47.6 %, 68.6%, 43.7% and 41.1%, 71.1 % & 40.0 % respectively. On Multiple Regression analysis, relationship with family members emerged as a significant independent predictor for all the three psychogenic factors. Conclusions: A high prevalence of depression, anxiety and stress was found among students of both the streams. There is a need to introduce simple counselling and stress management techniques in curriculum to combat such morbidities

19.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-183532

ABSTRACT

Dependence on Mephentermine, a widely used sympathomimetic pressor agent, is so far not extensively reported. In current report, we describe a male patient consuming extraordinary high amount of Mephentermine who developed psychosis which was successfully treated but relapsed after 5 months. In this background we also tried to highlight this trend of shift from more traditional drugs to new synthetic ones and look into the magnitude of the problem and challenges that lie ahead of us.

20.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-183594

ABSTRACT

Dependence on Mephentermine, a widely used sympathomimetic pressor agent, is so far not extensively reported. In current report, we describe a male patient consuming extraordinary high amount of Mephentermine who developed psychosis which was successfully treated but relapsed after 5 months. In this background we also tried to highlight this trend of shift from more traditional drugs to new synthetic ones and look into the magnitude of the problem and challenges that lie ahead of us.

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