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1.
Tropical Biomedicine ; : 122-128, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-904650

ABSTRACT

@#Leptospirosis is an emerging zoonotic disease endemic in tropical regions. Aiming at assessing the potential infection risks via recreational exposure, the molecular prevalence of pathogenic Leptospira in 14 amenity forests in five selected districts of the state of Perak was determined. Water and soil samples along streams and waterfalls were subjected to culture of leptospires and the pathogenic Leptospira spp. was detected by lipL32-based polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Twenty out of 154 samples (13%) that tested positive for leptospires were mostly soils and still water recorded with tolerable temperatures (22.226.5°C) and pHs (5.73-6.70). The localised prevalence was highly varied among eight positive forests (6.7-41.7%), particularly higher in Kampar and Kinta districts which are the more populated urban areas. The importance of public health surveillance should not be underrated given the high prevalence of Leptospira spp. in forests in close proximity to indigenous settlements, even where the places are clean. Overall, this study discovered a wide distribution of pathogenic Leptospira spp. in recreational areas.

2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-920827

ABSTRACT

@#Osteomyelitis is a chronic infection of bones. Eradication of bone infection is usually with antibiotics and debridement, but it is slow and the infection can recur even after many years. It is now established that osteomyelitis is due to biofilm and a better understanding of the process is required. We review the development of biofilm and apply it to osteomyelitis management. The planktonic microbes' response to adverse conditions is the formation of biofilm. Bacterial infections in planktonic forms cause infections that can be controlled with antibiotics and immunisation, however the same microbe when its phenotype becomes biofilm is more resilient. The understanding of how planktonic bacteria convert to biofilm is one of the aims set out for this article.

3.
Malaysian Family Physician ; : 103-113, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-875757

ABSTRACT

@#Diabetic foot requires careful attention and coordinated management by a dedicated team. Screening, prevention, adequate assessment, and appropriate referral are crucial to prevent complications. Multimodal treatment and rehabilitation are recommended to ensure a better quality of life and reduction of amputation rate in people with diabetic foot.

4.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-205362

ABSTRACT

Background: Stress has been seen to deteriorate normal physiological functions as well as the psychological functions of the brain. Medical students face a range of enduring normative stressors in the form of academic demands. This brings upon an amount of stress on the students which is related to the examinations and concerns with achieving high grades consequently referred to as academic-related stress. Thus, it becomes crucial to set upon a tool for measuring this stress in order to present methods for overcoming it. In the present study, one such method is evaluated by assessing the reaction time of first-year medical entrants. Material and Methods: The effect of stress on response time in 50 normal healthy medical students of Sawai Man Singh Medical College, Jaipur in the age group of 18 to 21 years was explored in the study. Visual Reaction Time was recorded through the computer program. Results: There was an increase in visual reaction time for the red color in both the sexes during stressful situations as compared to stress-free situations. While a decrease in Visual Reaction Time was seen for green color. A decreased auditory reaction time for both sexes was seen in stressful situations. Conclusion: The results revealed that stress within a limit facilitates positive feedback to Central Nervous System information processing consequently decreasing the reaction time.

5.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-207763

ABSTRACT

Background: Dengue is a vector borne disease with various grades of severity. Pregnancy is a high-risk group and is prone for complications of dengue haemorrhagic fever. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical profile of pregnant patients with dengue and to assess the maternal and fetal outcomes of dengue in pregnancy.Methods: All pregnant patients reporting to the hospital with fever and serologically confirmed dengue infection were included in the study. Clinical and laboratory data of patients were collected. The cases were followed up till their delivery to monitor the effect of dengue. An account of the mode of delivery in these patients was made. The neonates were evaluated and followed up till 6 weeks of life.Results: A total 100% patients reported with fever and serologically confirmed dengue infection. 15% had severe thrombocytopenia requiring platelet transfusion. 31% required ICU care and 15% needed mechanical respiratory support due to severe complications of dengue. NICU admission rate was 30% but there was no major neonatal complication or vertical transmission noted. A high index of suspicion should be maintained by the clinician with an aim to identify infection early, start supportive treatment and evaluate for complications. In-patient care should be provided for feto-maternal monitoring.Conclusions: The progression of dengue infection in pregnancy was rapid leading to major complications. Close materno-fetal monitoring and timely obstetric care are essential to ensure a favorable pregnancy outcome

6.
J Environ Biol ; 2020 May; 41(3): 607-612
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-214518

ABSTRACT

Aim: The aim of the present study was to isolate antifungal protein from seeds of Acacia senegal in order to develop a new, effective and environmental friendly biofungicide.Methodology: Antifungal protein from A. senegal seeds was extracted and purified through ammonium sulphate precipitation, dialysis, ion exchange and gel filtration chromatography. The novel antifungal was characterized employing SDS-PAGE, chitinase activity and antifungal efficacy. The purified protein was also characterized through MALDI-TOF MS/MS. Results: The yield of purified antifungal protein was estimated to be 0.96 mg 25 g-1 seeds and its molecular mass determined by SDS PAGE was 52.9 kDa. The purified protein exhibited antifungal activity against phytopathogenic fungi viz., Macrophomina phaseolina and Fusarium oxysporum also possessed chitinase activity. The purified protein was characterized through MALDI-TOF MS/MS and its spectra revealed 14 peptides with their specific amino acid sequences. Interpretation: The antifungal protein isolated from A. senegal seeds has broad-spectrum antifungal activity with chitinase activity against pathogenic fungi that can be exploited for management of fungal disease as biopesticide to promote sustainable agriculture

7.
Indian J Ophthalmol ; 2020 Apr; 68(4): 577-582
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-197898

ABSTRACT

Purpose: To compare intracameral Ropivacaine to Lignocaine during phacoemulsification under augmented topical anesthesia, in terms of efficacy and safety. Methods: This prospective, randomized, double-masked clinical trial included subjects planned for phacoemulsification with posterior chamber intraocular lens implantation for visually significant uncomplicated senile cataract, under augmented topical anesthesia. Cases were randomized into two groups, Group A (Ropivacaine 0.1%) or Group B (Lignocaine 1.0%). The pain experienced by the patients during the surgery, mydriasis, post-op inflammation and endothelial cell change at six weeks after the procedure was evaluated. Surgeon's feedback was recorded to evaluate the cooperation of the patient during surgery. Results: A total of 210 subjects were screened and 184 were randomized to have 92 subjects in each group. There was no statistically significant difference seen on comparing Group A and B with respect to Age (P = 0.05), painful surgical steps (P = 0.85), visual analog scale scores (P = 0.65), surgeon's score (P = 0.11), postoperative inflammation (P = 0.90) and average ultrasound time during phacoemulsification (P = 0.10). Subjects in Group A fared better when compared to Group B with respect to endothelial cell loss (P = 0.0008), and augmentation in mydriasis (P < 0.001). Conclusion: Intracameral Ropivacaine and Lignocaine, both are equally effective in providing analgesia during phacoemulsification. However, intracameral Ropivacaine is superior to Lignocaine with regards to corneal endothelial cell safety, and augmenting mydriasis.

9.
J Environ Biol ; 2020 Mar; 41(2): 266-273
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-214505

ABSTRACT

Aim: The present study was conducted with the aim to collect and evaluate the available genetic diversity of chilli (Capsicum annuum L.) in order to identify promising accessions for cultivation as well as use in crop improvement. Methodology: A total 78 accessions of chilli were collected from Western himalayan region, i.e., Kashmir valley of India. Collected germplasm was evaluated at one location for fifteen quantitative traits of horticultural importance. Results: With ample diversity in these traits, a high coefficient of variation was found. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) revealed that first five principal components possessed eigen value > 1, cumulatively contributed > 65.2 percent of total variability. All the genotypes were grouped into five clusters showing non parallelism between geographic and genetic diversity. Interpretation: The genotypes grouped in different clusters may be utilized for hybridization programme to produce more heterotic recombinants.

10.
J Environ Biol ; 2020 Mar; 41(2): 186-194
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-214492

ABSTRACT

Aim: Arsenic concentration in groundwater above the acceptable level is of global concern due to its serious human health effects. Application of certain fungi, due to their amazing skill to remove arsenic from arsenic contaminated water has received attention in recent years. The main aim of this study was to isolate arsenic tolerant fungi from arsenic-contaminated groundwater and assess their ability for arsenic removal from the aquatic system in-vitro.Methodology: Fungi were isolated from arsenic-contaminated groundwater (44.9–161.1 mg l-1). An experiment on bioremediation/ removal of arsenic by selected highly arsenic tolerant fungi was conducted by culturing them in arsenic supplemented medium and measuring the arsenic contents in initial and after incubation with fungi using Hydride Generation Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (HG-AAS) to find out the arsenic removal percentage. Results: In all, ten out of forty-five fungi obtained from highly arsenic-contaminated groundwater (44.9–161.1 mg l-1) were able to remove high arsenic contents (>80%) from liquid medium with >85% arsenite (by 6 fungal isolates) and >85% of arsenate (by 9 fungal isolates). In arsenic tolerance assay, all 10 test fungi grew readily in liquid medium enriched with either arsenate (10 and 20 g l-1) or arsenite (2 g l-1) under laboratory conditions (27±2°C). These fungi showed log phase between 5 to 10 days with stationary phase of 11-15 days. High arsenite concentration (4 g l-1) however, completely inhibited the growth of 50% of these fungal isolates. Five of these isolates showed high tolerance index pattern (0.97- 0.91) as compared to others (0.22–0.13). These fungi greatly altered the pH of arsenic supplemented liquid medium (10 mg l-1) as compared to the control when they were individually cultured. These arsenic tolerant fungal isolates may effectively be used for the bioremediation of arsenic from groundwater. Interpretation: The study suggested that 10 fungal isolates were able to tolerate high arsenic concentrations (20 g l-1 of arsenate and 2 g l-1 of arsenite) and were able to enhance arsenic removal (more than 80%) in liquid medium at neutral pH (7.0) and 27°C temperature.

11.
Indian J Ophthalmol ; 2020 Feb; 68(13): 83-87
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-197914

ABSTRACT

In order to integrate and improve eye care in noncommunicable disease (NCD) clinics, screening for diabetic retinopathy (DR) in people with diabetes mellitus (DM) was introduced in primary and secondary-level government health facilities. Initially, the project was carried out at the fixed health facilities at one district hospital (DH), two sub-district hospitals (SDH) and two community health centers (CHCs). This was combined with training of existing health care personnel, information-education-communication (IEC) campaign among patients and service providers along with the provision of essential equipment required for screening. In the revised strategy, NCD nurses were also trained for screening. Of 12,788 DM patients registered in NCD clinics, 63.8% (n = 8159) were screened for DR by trained paramedical ophthalmic assistants and the four trained NCD nurses using non-mydriatic fundus camera and teleophthalmology supported remote grading of retinopathy. DR was detected in 9.45% (n = 771) patients and sight-threatening DR (STDR) was detected in 2.35% (n = 192) in one or both eyes. Of 8,159 people screened, 55% (n = 4481) and 45% (n = 3678) were screened at CHC and mobile screening at primary health centers (PHC), respectively. DR screening in a fixed facility at CHC combined with the mobile screening at PHC level and fixed-day screening strategy provides effective coverage.

12.
Indian J Ophthalmol ; 2020 Feb; 68(13): 56-58
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-197906

ABSTRACT

Purpose: In India, people with diabetes (PwDM) often seek care in the government-approved alternative medicine system, AYUSH (Ayurveda, Yoga and naturopathy, Unani, Siddha and Homeopathy). The purpose of this pilot study was to assess whether health education plus retinal imaging for diabetic retinopathy (DR) within an AYUSH hospital increased the uptake of screening for DR compared with health education and referral. Methods: The study was a nonrandomized pilot conducted in two AYUSH hospitals. Both hospitals received intervention on educating the AYUSH practitioners about DR screening and distributing health education materials to diabetic patients. In one hospital in addition to education, retinal imaging by a trained technician with remote grading by an ophthalmologist was provided, while in another hospital PwDM were referred to nearby eye hospitals for screening. The uptake of screening was assessed through registers and phone calls. Results: At baseline, only 10.7% of 178 PwDM were aware of DR and only 8% had undergone DR screening. After the intervention, in the hospital where screening was provided, all (100%) eligible patients (101) underwent digital imaging, whereas in the other hospital only 25% of 77 eligible patients underwent screening in eye hospitals (P < 0.001). Conclusion: AYUSH hospitals could provide a feasible and acceptable location for providing DR screening services. Further studies are required to assess scale-up of such intervention.

13.
Indian J Ophthalmol ; 2020 Feb; 68(13): 47-51
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-197904

ABSTRACT

Purpose: To compare the acceptance of diabetic retinopathy (DR) screening by the proximity of care and health education in rural Maharashtra. Methods: Study was done in the public health facilities in four blocks (in two blocks at community health center (CHC) level and in other two blocks at primary health center (PHC) level with the provision of transport from villages to PHCs) over 3 months. Health education was not imparted in one block in each segment. Health education consisted of imparting knowledge on diabetes mellitus (DM) and DR by trained village-level workers. The screening was done using non-mydriatic fundus camera and teleophthalmology supported remote grading of DR. Results: In the study period, 1,472 people with known diabetes were screened in four blocks and 86.6% (n = 1275) gradable images were obtained from them. 9.9% (n = 126) were detected having DR and 1.9% (n = 24) having sight-threatening DR (STDR). More people accepted screening closer to their residence at the PHC than CHC (24.4% vs 11.4%; P < 0.001). Health education improved the screening uptake significantly (14.4% vs 18.7%; P < 0.01) irrespective of the place of screening—at CHC, 9.5% without health education vs 13.1% with health education; at PHC, 20.1% without health education versus 31.6% with health education. Conclusion: Conducting DR screening closer to the place of living at PHCs with the provision of transport and health education was more effective for an increase in the uptake of DR screening by people with known diabetes in rural Maharashtra.

14.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-196487

ABSTRACT

Context: The roles of estrogen and progesterone in human prostate carcinogenesis have been only recently recognized. Aims: This study was conducted to evaluate the expressions of esterone receptor-beta (ER-?), progesterone receptor (PR), and Ki-67 in benign and malignant lesions of the prostate. Settings and Design: The study was conducted at a tertiary care hospital. It was an analytical cross-sectional study. Materials and Methods: We selected a total of 39 cases including 26 cases of benign prostatic hyperplasia and 13 cases of adenocarcinoma prostate. The proportion of cases showing expression for ER-?, PR, and Ki-67 was noted for both groups. A difference in immunoexpression between benign and malignant cases was evaluated. Association between receptor expression and Gleason grade was evaluated for malignant cases. Statistical Analysis Used: To compare the difference in expressions of ER-?, PR, and Ki-67 Mann–Whitney U test was used. Association between ER-?, PR, and Ki-67 expression and Gleason grade was analyzed using the Chi-square test. Results: ER-? expression was seen in all benign and malignant cases, whereas the majority of the malignant cases (61.54%) were negative for progesterone expression. Epithelial expressions of ER-? and PR were significantly higher in benign as compared with malignant lesions. Malignant cases showed a significantly higher expression of Ki-67. However, we did not find any association between the expressions of these markers with Gleason grade. Conclusions: The expressions of ER-? and PR were significantly higher in the epithelium in benign cases as compared with malignant cases. Ki-67 expression was significantly higher in the malignant group as compared with the benign group.

15.
J Environ Biol ; 2020 Jan; 41(1): 139-146
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-214485

ABSTRACT

Aim: To investigate the effect of nitrogen application through urea and Azolla on yield, nutrient uptake of rice (Oryza sativa L.) cv. Shasharang and to assess the improvement in soil acidity indices in acidic soil of Meghalaya.Methodology: A field experiment was conducted with six treatments viz., control (T1), Azolla incorporation @ 1.6 tonnes ha-1 (T2), 30 kg N ha-1 through urea (T3), 60 kg N ha-1 through urea (T4), 30 kg N ha-1 through urea + Azolla incorporation @ 1.6 tonnes ha-1 (T5) and 60 kg N ha-1 through urea with Azolla incorporation @ 1.6 tonnes ha-1 (T6). The experiment was laid out in RBD and replicated four times. The physico-chemical properties of the experimental soil were pH 5.1, SOC 1.75 percent, available N, P and K as 288.62, 17.23 and 201.46 kg ha-1, respectively. Results: The application of 60 kg N ha-1 through urea along with Azolla incorporation @ 1.6 tonnes ha-1 (T6) recorded highest dry matter i.e. 58. 15 g hill-1 at maturity of rice. Similarly, 60 kg N ha-1 through urea with Azolla incorporation @ 1.6 tonnes ha-1 produced highest grain and straw yield i.e. 4.2 t ha-1 and 7.68 t ha-1 followed by T5 and T4. The magnitude of increase in N, P and K concentration and uptake in grain was 28.57, 97.02; 26.09, 84.21 and 15.69, 76.47 percent in T6 over T1. The analysis of soil acidity indices indicated that highest improvement in pH was observed in T2 over all other treatments. Further, pH increased significantly in the treatments receiving Azolla incorporation (T2, T5 and T6) compared with the sole application of urea/control (T1, T3 and T4). The exchangeable calcium and magnesium (meq 100 g-1), CEC (meq 100 g-1) and base saturation percentage also showed the same trends and the highest values were observed as 1.92, 7.90 and 24.30 in T2. However, in contrast to this, the lowest values of exchangeable aluminium, exchangeable acidity and acidity saturation percentage were observed in T2 indicating that the sole application of Azolla improved soil acidity indices. Interpretation: It may be concluded from the present study that Azolla-urea nitrogen system may be suitable for getting optimum production of rice under tropical conditions and improving soil acidity indices because of its ability to fix atmospheric nitrogen.

16.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-206309

ABSTRACT

This study was performed with an objective of developing and validating an UV-spectroscopic method for estimating contents of prulifloxacin in simulated intestinal fluid (SIF) i.e. phosphate- buffer media with a pH of 6.8 as per ICH guidelines. The λmax for prulifloxacin in phosphate- buffer media pH 6.8 was found to be 272 nanometer. The calibration curve of drug followed linearity in-between 1-9 μg/ml concentration range and correlation co-efficient value was found equal to 0.9995. We tested this proposed method onto the bulk and marketed pharmaceutical formulation (tablets) also in order to find out contents of drug. Using developed method for estimation of prulifloxacin in SIF, drug was found to be in-between 101.91 and 104.02 % in marketed tablets which shows a good agreement with that of the claimed level. Accuracy of developed method was established through recovery experimentation, performed for three spiked percent concentrations- 75%, 100%, and 125%. The % recovery was found to be in between 97.27 and 101.82%. Low values of % RSD supported accuracy as well as the reproducibility of developed method. Precision of developed method was established by good in-limit intraday and interday experimental variations and through repeatability tests. Values of % RSD less than 2 confirmed about precision of developed method. The ruggedness of the developed method was validated by performing drug estimation by two different performers. This proposed spectroscopic method has proved to be a rapid and successful method for routine analysis of prulifloxacin in simulated intestinal fluid.

17.
Tropical Biomedicine ; : 1146-1151, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-862756

ABSTRACT

@#The immature stages of necrophagous insects such as Diptera and Coleoptera play a vital ecological role in carrion decomposition. These invertebrates reduce the necromass significantly through consumption and recycle nutrients into organic forms which are readily being used by autotrophs or served as an abiotic storage in the soil ecosystem. Fly and beetle larvae are frequently encountered decomposers on ephemeral resource patches; however, lepidopterans associated with carrion decomposition is seldom reported. Here, we report colonization of Monopis sp. (Tineidae) and an unknown species of Psychidae on a rat carcass, and a Lithosiini caterpillar (Arctiidae) on a rabbit carcass in Peninsular Malaysia for the first time. The feeding behaviour and their potential forensic implications are discussed.

18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-837560

ABSTRACT

@#By 2050, it is predicted that six million hip fractures will occur each year of which the majority will happen in Asia. Malaysia is not spared from this predicted rise and its rate of increase will be one of the highest in this region. Much of this is driven by our unprecedented growth in the number of older people. Characteristics of individuals with hip fractures in Malaysia mirror what has been reported in other countries. They will be older multimorbid people who were already at risk of falls and fractures. Outcomes were poor with at least a quarter do not survive beyond 12 months and in those that do survive have limitation in their mobility and activities of daily living. Reviewing how these fractures are managed and incorporating new models of care, such as orthogeriatric care, could address these poor outcomes. Experts have warned of the devastating impact of hip fracture in Malaysia and that prompt action is urgently required. Despite that, there remains no national agenda to highlight the need to improve musculoskeletal health in the country

19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-822648

ABSTRACT

@#This paper is the first record of cigarette beetles collected from dried fish crackers (also known as “keropok ikan” in Malay) in Malaysia. The dead cigarette beetles were firstly isolated from a packet of dried fish crackers and were subsequently kept in 70% ethanol. The beetles were then identified as Lasioderma serricorne (Fabricius 1792) (Coleoptera: Anobiidae). They are common pests of stored products such as tobacco, flour, and cocoa beans but there is no record of this beetle infestation on dried fish crackers in Malaysia.

20.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-204836

ABSTRACT

This study has attempted to investigate the nature and magnitude of livelihood vulnerability in the Bundelkhand region, India. A multistage sampling technique has been used to select study sites and collect farm-level data of 200 households using a well-structured and pre-tested schedule. The findings revealed that female-headed households are relatively more exposed to changing climate than are the male headed households. Due to the lack of basic amenities and common-pool resources, the livelihood vulnerability score was highest for female-headed households. Therefore, to improve the livelihood security of vulnerable households’ measures like identifying vulnerable groups, providing innovative, practical and easy to use methods to visualize the extent and dimensions of livelihood vulnerability are imminent. The framework used to analyze and identify specific interventions would help in building livelihood resilience for the most vulnerable people within a community.

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