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1.
J Environ Biol ; 2020 Jul; 41(4): 695-702
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-214531

ABSTRACT

Aim: To screen wheat generations derived from cross HD2967 × Kharchia65 for two Nax loci imparting salt tolerance and background selection of the plants using polymorphic SSRs.Methodology: The study for salt tolerance was carried out on three generations, i.e., BC1F3, BC2F2 and F4, derived from the cross HD2967 × Kharchia65 in net house. Salt stress was provided at germination stage and the plants were grown to maturity. Data was recorded for various agro-morphological traits which contributed to yield. DNA isolated from young leaves of morphologically superior plants were checked for the presence of Nax1 and Nax2 genes using gene specific primers. Plants having either or both Nax loci were then subjected to polymorphic SSR markers screening for background selection of foreground selected plants. Results: On the basis of agro-morphological performance and presence of either or both Nax genes, 68 high yielding plants were selected. Out of total 178 SSR markers screened covering the whole genome uniformly (A, B and D), 31 markers were polymorphic for the parents HD2967 and Kharchia65. These polymorphic SSR markers were used to produce molecular diversity among the selected progeny plants. Cluster analysis of parents and all the three generations, showed that all the selected plants were inclined towards recurrent parent. Interpretation: This study showed that a linked marker like Nax1 and Nax2 could be a promising tool for breeding wheat with enhanced tolerance to salinity conditions. However, growth rates and biomass production provide reliable criteria for assessing the degree of salt stress and the ability of a plant to withstand it. Therefore, initial screening of seeds in the presence of salt stress provides additional advantage in directional selection. Plants selected with Nax loci, better mean performances, high heritability, and high genetic advance as 5% of mean for the studied traits could be further backcrossed with the recurrent parent to develop salt tolerant wheat lines.

2.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-210917

ABSTRACT

Present study was undertaken to study the neurotoxicity of oral acrylamide (ACR) and its amelioration using α-tocopherol, reduced glutathione (GSH) and hot aqueous extract (HAE) of Ocimum sanctum. Forty five male Wistar rats were divided into 12 groups. The study showed a significant reduction in the body weight of the rats fed with ACR in comparison to the other groups while body weight was restored in the rats fed with α-tocopherol and HAE. Neurotoxicity in rats fed with ACR was evident with the results of histopathology and oxidative stress (high MDA and decreased activities of GSH, SOD, GST and CAT in brain). Co-administration of α-tocopherol and HAE lowered these changes however, there was no marked improvement seen in neural damage but improvement was evident in behavioral as well as physiological changes at a marked point. Histopathology of brain in ACR alone fed group showed extensive neural degeneration and massive deposition of fibrin which was substantially decreased and ameliorated with the co-administration of α-tocopherol and HAE. These results support the oxidative stress results as well. Our results suggests that α-tocopherol and HAE can be useful for protecting brain tissue against ACR induced neurotoxicity through minimizing the free radical mediated oxidative stress

3.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-202886

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Dengue is most important arthropod-borneviral disease worldwide, with approximately 390 millioninfection occurung per year, of which approximately 96 milliocause sign of disease. Dengue virus is single stranded RNAvirus belonging to flaviviridae family having four serotypes.Case report: We are thus reporting a case of Dengue feverwhich presented as encephalitis. Very few cases of dengueencephalitis has been reported worldwide and the literatureavailable on the illness is limited.Conclusion: Dengue is classically thought to be a nonneurotropic virus. Most common dengue serotype causingneurological complication are DEN 2 and DEN 3. Neurologicalcomplication are rare in dengue.

4.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-196476

ABSTRACT

Aims and Objectives: We examined the prognostic value of Tumor stroma ratio (TSR) in breast tumor core biopsy (TCB) specimen to determine response to neoadjuvant therapy (NAT) prior to modified radical mastectomy (MRM). Methods: This was a retrospective analysis of patients with breast cancer who underwent TCB before NAT between August 2016 and July 2018. TSR in TCB was studied independently by 2 pathologists ( VM, VS) defined as stroma rich (TSR?50%) or stroma poor (TSR>50%). MRM specimen of these patients were subsequently studied .Residual cancer burden (RCB) was calculated using the MD Anderson RCB calculator, categorized as complete (0), good (1) Partial (2) and no response (3). Statistical analysis was done to assess correlation of TSR to RCB. Results: A total of 62 patients were analyzed. Mean(SD) age was 48(11) years.Twenty eight (45%) and 34 (55%) patients were stroma rich and stroma poor respectively. Twenty six (42%) patients were responders and 36 (58%) non-responders to NAT. Among stroma rich patients, only 3 (10%) were responders (Class 0 &1)and 25 (90%) non-responders(Class2&3)to NAT, among stroma poor patients 23 (68%) responded well and 11 (32%) did not.TSR had a moderate negative correlation with RCB (-0.6). On univariate analysis, only TSR had a significant effect on RCB class (<0.001). Conclusions: TSR on TCB is a useful prognostic factor to determine response of breast carcinoma patients to neoadjuvant therapy.It is cost effective, simple and quick. Larger multi-centric studies would be useful to study its clinical implications.

5.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-205331

ABSTRACT

Background: Thyroid cancer is the most common endocrine malignancy accounting for >90% of malignancies of endocrine glands. The inter and intraobserver variation in the histomorphological diagnosis of Papillary Thyroid Carcinomas may sometimes pose a diagnostic difficulty. Application of IHC biomarkers may play an active or complementary role in their accurate classification. Aim: The present study was conducted to evaluate if HBME-1 and TPO immunohistochemical analysis can reliably differentiate papillary carcinomas from other thyroid lesions. Material and Methods: 50 cases of benign and malignant thyroid lesions were taken. Immunohistochemical staining for HBME-1 and TPO was performed. HBME-1 and TPO score was interpreted as absent and positive. Medical records were retrieved and their clinical data, surgical treatment, and pathological findings were noted. Results: Out of 50 cases, 19 (73.1%) cases were diagnosed PTC, 4 (15.4%) cases were FTC, 3(11.5%) cases were of MTC and 24 cases of benign thyroid lesions. TPO expression was found positive in 91.7% of cases of Benign thyroid lesions. In malignant thyroid lesions, negative expression of TPO was seen in 63.16%, 0% and 33.33% of PTC, FCT, and MCT respectively. HBME-1 showed negative expression in 83.3% of cases of benign thyroid lesions. Whereas, in malignant thyroid lesion HBME-1 expression was positive in 78.95%, 50% and 0% cases of PTC, FCT, and MCT respectively. Conclusion: Testing for expression of HBME-1 has been shown to improve the diagnostic accuracy for thyroid malignant nodules. The combination of HBME-1, and TPO may contribute to an accurate diagnosis of papillary thyroid carcinoma.

6.
Indian J Ophthalmol ; 2019 Oct; 67(10): 1560-1563
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-197508

ABSTRACT

Purpose: To validate the smartphone photography as a screening tool for amblyogenic conditions in children. Methods: Children between 5 to 8 years attending eye out patient department (OPD) were photographed (by an optometrist) with a smartphone to capture their pupillary red reflexes followed by clinical examination by the principal investigator (PI). The PI on the basis of clinical examination identified children with significant amblyogenic conditions and, subsequently, two ophthalmologists independently categorized the photographs on the basis of color, symmetry, and shape of the pupillary reflex into normal or abnormal. The identification of amblyogenic conditions on clinical examination was compared to that on photography. Refractive errors <3D and anisometropia <2D were excluded. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of smartphone photography screening were determined. Results: In all, 250 children were screened. Clinically 23.6% were harboring amblyogenic conditions. The mean sensitivity and specificity of screening by smartphone were 94% and 91%, respectively. Conclusion: Smartphone photography is a reliable tool for detection of amblyogenic conditions in children.

9.
Indian J Ophthalmol ; 2019 Aug; 67(8): 1265-1277
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-197450

ABSTRACT

Simple limbal epithelial transplantation (SLET) is an innovative limbal stem cell transplantation technique that has gained increasing popularity over the last few years. Different groups from across the world have published the clinical results of SLET in large case series with varying types and severities of limbal stem cell deficiency (LSCD). This review attempts to place all the available knowledge on SLET together in one place for the benefit of not only cornea specialists and trainees but also for residents and general ophthalmologists. It follows a balanced approach of blending evidence with experience by providing an objective analysis of published results along with helpful insights from subject experts, starting from preoperative considerations including the role of newer imaging modalities to the technical aspects of the surgery itself and the management of possible complications. Original data and novel insights on allogeneic SLET for bilateral LSCD are included in the review to address the few remaining lacunae in the existing literature on this topic. This review intends to inform, educate, and empower all aspiring and practicing SLET surgeons to optimize their clinical outcomes and to have maximal positive impact on the lives of the individuals affected by unilateral or bilateral chronic LSCD.

10.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-195953

ABSTRACT

Background & objectives: Salmonellosis due to the consumption of contaminated poultry products is a well-known public health concern, and assessing the distribution of Salmonella serovars among poultry becomes important for better prevention and control. The objective of the present study was to assess the distribution of Salmonella serovars among poultry. Methods: The isolates received at National Salmonella and Escherichia Centre during 2011-2016 were subjected to biochemical identification, followed by serological characterization to identify the Salmonella serovars, and the data were presented to exhibit the distribution of Salmonella serovars among poultry. Results: Salmonella was found to be present in poultry in all the regions included in the study. Salmonella Typhimurium, S. Gallinarum and S. Enteritidis were the most prevalent serovars accounting for 96.2 per cent of isolates. Salmonella was identified in poultry from all major egg-producing and egg-consuming States. Other serovars which were scantly identified included S. Infantis (2.7%), S. Montevideo (0.64%), S. Newport (0.26%) and S. Pullorum (0.13%). Interpretation & conclusions: Diverse distribution of Salmonella serovars in poultry in India, with known potential to infect human population and/or other poultry flocks, requires urgent nationwide stringent control measures.

11.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-200242

ABSTRACT

Background: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is one of the major causes of mortality & morbidity, and patient’s with better control of glycaemic parameters have lesser chronic complications associated with it. Though monotherapy with metformin is first choice for T2DM but is effective in less than 50% of patient and they should be managed with two drug therapy. Both Glimepiride and Sitagliptin are effective with metformin but there has been no study done in this region hence, we planned to study comparison of effects of glimepiride and sitagliptin with metformin in patient of T2DM.Methods: This prospective, open-label, randomized study was done in all patient diagnosed with T2DM, not adequately managed by metformin alone. The patient was divided into two group G (Glimepiride with Metformin) and Group S (Sitagliptin with Metformin) and had a follow up at 3 and 6 months. The biochemical parameters were assessed at 12 weeks and 24 weeks.Results: The result of this study show that both glimepiride and sitagliptin with metformin significantly (p<0.05) lowered both the fasting blood sugar as well as postprandial blood glucose at 3 and 6 months. Glimepiride was more effective in lowering (p<0.05) the plasma glucose at 3 months but both the drugs had comparable result at 6 months. This study also showed that glycosylated haemoglobin was lowered in both groups at three and six months as compared to Day 0 (p<0.05), with glimepiride having better control of glycosylated haemoglobin at 3 months with both groups having comparable result at 6 months.Conclusions: To conclude, this study compared effects of sitagliptin and glimepiride on glycaemic parameters in patients of T2DM and found that both drugs had comparable results.

13.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-196326

ABSTRACT

Aims: This study aims to explore the utility of GATA binding protein 3, a zinc finger transcription factor, expression in genitourinary carcinoma, especially urothelial carcinoma. Settings and Design: It is a prospective study where 74 consecutive cases of urothelial carcinoma along with 10 cases each of prostatic adenocarcinoma (PC) and conventional clear cell renal cell carcinoma were included between August 2016 and January 2017. Methods and Materials: All the cases were histopathologically evaluated and immunohistochemically stained for GATA binding protein 3. Only nuclear positivity was considered as positive. Immunoreactivity score for GATA expression was calculated based on the staining intensity as well as percentage. Statistical Analysis Used: The statistical analysis was done using Statistical Package for Social Sciences Version 15.0 statistical analysis software. P value of <0.05 was considered statistically significance. Results: GATA3 expressions were seen in 77% of the cases of urothelial carcinoma, whereas none of the clear cell renal cell carcinoma and prostatic adenocarcinoma cases was GATA3 positive. GATA3 expression significantly correlated with histological grade and muscle invasion with a weaker or negative expression in high-grade muscle invasive tumor as compared to low-grade and noninvasive neoplasm. Significantly weaker expression of GATA3 was found in cases with severe nuclear pleomorphism, mitosis >10/10 hpf, presence of necrosis, and tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes. No significant change in the status of GATA3 expression was seen in follow-up cases between initial Transurethral resection of bladder tumor (TURBT) and post-recurrence TURBT or radical cystectomy specimens. Conclusions: GATA3 as a sensitive and specific marker for urothelial carcinoma can be effectively used to exclude other genitourinary malignancies, PC, and renal cell carcinoma, at metastatic site. This marker can also be effectively used in predicting the probable grade and invasion in biopsy material with poor morphological characteristics, thereby helping in appropriate management in such cases.

15.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-201141

ABSTRACT

Background: Cervical cancer is one of the most prevalent cancers among Indian women. Cervical cancer incidence reduces dramatically when effective screening programs linked with access to treatment are in place and are readily accessible. Peripheral health workers (PHWs) being frontline workers have a major influence on raising awareness among community about acceptability of available screening programmes. This study was thus conducted to assess the awareness of PHWs regarding risk factors, signs and symptoms, early detection and prevention for cervical cancer.Methods: A questionnaire-based study was conducted among 450 PHWs (ASHAs and BHWs). Information was collected regarding their bio-social characteristics, awareness about female cancers, risk factors, signs/symptoms, early detection methods and services available for screening and prevention of cervical cancer.Results: Awareness of different aspects of cervical cancer was found to be very low. Only eight per cent of the PHWs had good awareness score. BHWs obtained statistically significant better mean scores as compared to ASHAs. Few (7.6%) PHWs had received training for any type of female cancers. Only 17 per cent of the PHWs were aware of HPV vaccine availability and only 29 per cent from them could name the vaccine.Conclusions: Majority of the PHWs had poor awareness about cervical cancer and available screening facility in our health system. They had almost no idea of availability of free HPV vaccination at the Sampoorna clinics. This low level of awareness calls for regular training of PHWs on cervical cancer which would ultimately trickle down to the community.

16.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-196294

ABSTRACT

Objectives: To study the direct immunofluorescence (DIF) in cicatricial alopecia (CA) patients. Materials and Methods: Approximately, 155 skin biopsies from CA patients examined over 7 years (2009–2015). Special stains and Hematoxylin and Eosin were performed, and final histopathological diagnosis was made. DIF (against anti-IgG, IgM, C3, IgA, and fibrinogen) on all these cases and patterns were noted. The descriptive statistics were applied along with ANOVA test. Results: Approximately, 155 patients with Male: Female = 1.24:1, age 7–65 years. In total, 57 cases were of Lichen planopilaris (LPP; 36.7%), 22 Lichen planus (LP; 14.2%), 22 Psuedopalade of Brocq (PPB; 14.2%),16 discoid lupus erythematosus (DLE; 10.3%), 8 end-stage scarring alopecia (ESSA; 5.2%), 2 cases each of Fungal folliculitis (FF), and Folliculitis decalvans (FD; 1.3% each), and in 26 cases, no specific diagnosis could be reached were collectively kept in the category of non-specific findings (NSP; 16.7%). On DIF: LPP positive for IgG = 4 cases (7%), IgM = 26 (45%), IgA = 11 (19.3%), C3 = 16 (28.1%), and fibrinogen = 11 (19.3%). LP positive for IgG = 2 (9%), IgM = 18 (81%), IgA = 2 (9.1%), C3 = 10 (45%), and fibrinogen = 1 (4.5%). DLE positive for IgG = 6 (37%), IgM = 8 (50%), IgA = 1 (6.3%), C3 = 9 (56%), and fibrinogen = 1 (4.5%). Limitations: Because this was a retrospective study, clinical follow-up and treatment history of the patient could not be retrieved. Conclusions: IgG positivity helps significantly in differentiating LPP from DLE (P 0.004) and NSP from DLE (P 0.005). IgM positivity helps significantly in differentiating LPP from LP (P 0.04), LP from PPB (P 0.00) and NSP (P 0.00). C3 positivity helps significantly in differentiating PPB from DLE (P 0.02).

17.
J Environ Biol ; 2019 Mar; 40(2): 200-210
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-214581

ABSTRACT

Aim: The current study aimed to identify the hydro-geological processes that control the groundwater chemistry. Further, groundwater quality was also evaluated for drinking and irrigation purposes. Methodology: Groundwater samples were collected from a semi-arid region of North India i.e., Ellenabad, Sirsa, Haryana. The samples were analyzed following the American Public Health Association standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater. Results: Most of the groundwater samples of study area fall under hard category. The saline nature of groundwater can be attributed to high concentration of total dissolved salts (340±104 mg l-1). Majority of the groundwater samples showed fluoride concentration below the permissible limit of WHO and BIS (1.0 mg l-1). Multivariate analysis including sodium absorption ratio was calculated to assess the water quality for irrigation purpose and it was found appropriate for majority of crops, except for sensitive plant species. Interpretation: Potability assessment of groundwater showed that more than 40% samples were unacceptable for drinking purpose without any prior treatment, hence, it is essential to conduct a routine monitoring of groundwater to determine its aptness for drinking, domestic and agriculture purposes.

18.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-203214

ABSTRACT

Background: The prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus(T2DM) is growing worldwide, and these patients may beasymptomatic and present with complications at the time ofdiagnosis. Diabetic neuropathy is the most commoncomplication affecting the patients who may present with distalpolyneuropathy at the time of diagnosis and also poorglycaemic control. The Diabetic peripheral polyneuropathyaffects approximately 1 in every 10 newly diagnosed patients,whereas two third of patients with diabetes mellitus haveclinical or subclinical neuropathy.Objective: This study is designed to find prevalence of diabeticperipheral neuropathy in Newly Diagnosed Patients of T2DM ina tertiary care hospital.Materials and Methods: This observational study was carriedout in patients diagnosed with T2DM as per ADA criteria. Athorough clinical examination; Nerve conduction velocitytesting; evaluation of plasma glucose and glycosylatedhemoglobin and assessment of neuropathy by using theDiabetic neuropathy index and diabetic neuropathy score wasperformed on all patients.Results: 18% of patients had signs of peripheral neuropathyas shown by NCV testing at the time of diagnosis. Thesepatients had elevated levels of glycosylated hemoglobin,fasting plasma glucose and 2-hour plasma glucose and lowerscores of DNI and DNS which were statistically significant. Themost common type of neuropathy seen in these patients wassensorimotor involvement with demyelinating type ofneuropathy with more involvement of lower limbs. The NCVstudies showed reduced distal latency and prolongedamplitude as well as conduction velocity in patients withdiabetic neuropathy.Conclusion: Our study showed that approximately 1 in 5newly diagnosed patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus are atrisk of developing diabetic peripheral neuropathy.

19.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-195635

ABSTRACT

Background & objectives: India has recorded a marked increase in facility births due to government's conditional cash benefit scheme initiated in 2005. However, concerns have been raised regarding the need for improvement in the quality of care at facilities. Here we report the monitoring patterns during labour and delivery documented by direct observation in reference to the government's evidence-based guidelines on skilled birth attendance in five districts of India. Methods: A cross-sectional study design with multistage sampling was used for observation of labour and delivery processes of low-risk women with singleton pregnancy in five districts of the country. Trained research staff recorded the findings on pre-tested case record sheets. Results: A total of 1479 women were observed during active first stage of labour and delivery in 55 facilities. The overall frequency of monitoring of temperature, pulse and blood pressure was low at all facilities. The frequency of monitoring uterine contractions and foetal heart sounds was less than the expected norm, while the frequency of vaginal examinations was high at all levels of facilities. Partograph plotting was done in only 15.8 per cent deliveries, and labour was augmented in about half of the cases. Interpretation & conclusions: The findings of our study point towards a need for improvement in monitoring of maternal and foetal parameters during labour and delivery in facility births and to improve adherence to government guidelines for skilled birth attendance.

20.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-188266

ABSTRACT

Background: To evaluate the various factors associated with recurrence of Amblyopia. Methods:In this prospective observational study, 100 patient’s diagonised anisometropic and strabismic amblyopia. All patients were undergone squint workup and were treated with optical correction, occulusion therapy or penalization. Patients were divided three groups - group 1 age (4-7 year) , group 2 age(8-12 year), group 3 age(13-17 year) . Patients were followed upto 12 month and various factors assessed which could be responsible for amblyopia and compared between three group. Results:Recurrence of amblyopia was seen in 24% of patients which was more in group 1 & mixed amblyopia type (statically significant p < 0.05). Recurrence of amblyopia was found to be patients independent of binocular vision and mode of treatment. Recurrence and its relation with length and dose of occlusion therapy were significant those who were weaned off 6 hrs patching as compared 2 hrs patching. Recurrence of amblyopia was found to be more in those who improved five lines as compared to two lines with statistically significant p < 0.05. Recurrence was more in first 6 month as compared to last six month during follow up. Conclusion: Recurrence is more commonly seen between the ages of 4-7 yrs and those who with mixed amblyopia should be closely monitored during follow up. Occlusion therapy should be prescribed weaning off, it should not be abruptly stop. Since recurrence may occur even beyond 1 year hence, a longer follow up period would be advisable.

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