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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-874782

ABSTRACT

This study reviews the literature concerning mental health impacts faced by health care workers (HCW) during the COVID-19 pandemic and similar infectious disease outbreaks. Among HCW studied, 9.6–51% reported symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and 20–75% reported psychiatric symptoms, with a particularly high prevalence of anxiety and depression. In addition to depression and anxiety, other serious stress responses were also reported among HCW during the COVID-19 pandemic. Severe symptoms were found in 2.2–14.5% of all participants. The severity of mental health symptoms was influenced by age, sex, occupation, specialization, type of activities performed, proximity to COVID-19 patients, direct involvement in the pandemic emergency response, preventive interventions, resilience, and social support. Qualitative studies showed that positive and negative emotions among front-line nurses coexisted during the outbreak of the epidemic. In the early stage, negative emotions were dominant and positive emotions appeared gradually. Personal coping styles and psychological growth played important roles in maintaining mental health among nurses. Ambiguous roles, transitions in operating mode, unfamiliar work content, and reversal of daily schedules were the most common vocational problems. Parents’ inability to comprehend, concern for family members, and long-term isolation were the most common causes of psychological stress. Regular screening for evaluating stress, depression and anxiety, and effective interventions for health care workers should be performed by multidisciplinary psychiatry teams.

2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-892377

ABSTRACT

Objectives@#This study is designed to extract a representative variable that distinguishes psychiatric patients of North Korean Defectors and a control group by using machine learning based on measured mental health variables and physical activity variables. @*Methods@#The physical and mental activity variables of 17 North Korean defectors that previously were hospitalized or received psychiatric outpatient treatment and a control group were compared. The survey focused on mental health variables that included contents related to depression, suicidal risks, post-traumatic stress disorder, anxiety, insomnia, physical symptoms, quality of life, coping skills, social support, and drinking. Physical activity variables included the number of steps walked per day, sleep time, and sleep efficiency were measured by Fitbit. @*Results@#The 7th question of the Patient Health Questionnaire-9, “Trouble concentrating on things, such as reading the newspaper or watching television over the past two weeks,” showed the highest gain ratio by 84 percent. Based on the result of the decision tree, this single index may distinguish between the clinical and control groups. @*Conclusion@#A clinician may conduct a more effective interview with a North Korean defector by identifying in the early stages whether the patient has been having difficulty concentrating on daily tasks during the past two weeks.

3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-892236

ABSTRACT

Background@#During the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, health care workers (HCWs) have faced multiple physical and psychological challenges while carrying out their duties. In this study, we examined the experiences of specific groups of HCWs during the pandemic. @*Methods@#From 18 November to 30 December 2020, we conducted a qualitative study using semi-structured, face-to-face interviews with four groups of 14 HCWs in three cities (Seoul, Daegu, and Gwangju) in South Korea. The HCWs who participated in the focus groups included physicians, nurses, medical practitioners, and cleaning staff who directly or indirectly cared for patients during the COVID-19 epidemic. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and analyzed using the consensual qualitative research approach. @*Results@#Our qualitative data analysis revealed four main domains: work-related struggles, personal life-related struggles, psychological stress, and health-related struggles. Health care providers were challenged by working in critical situations and were overwhelmed by heavy workloads, fear of infection, lifestyle changes, and psychological and physical struggles. @*Conclusion@#Our findings could serve as a foundation for establishing health care systems and policies that help HCWs cope with occupational stress, thus increasing their ability to adapt to the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic.

4.
Psychiatry Investigation ; : 801-808, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-903240

ABSTRACT

Objective@#The aims of this study were to explore the prevalence of and identify predictors of anxiety and depression related to coronavirus disease of 2019 (COVID-19) in South Korea. @*Methods@#The analysis is based on a quota survey design and a sampling frame that permitted recruitment of a national sample of 1,014 individuals between March 17–31, 2020. Several standardized measurements were used, including GAD-7, PHQ-9, COVID-19 related fear, restrictions in deaily life, as well as sociodemographic information and physical and psychosocial needs during the pandemic. Multiple logistic regression was conducted to analyze the influence of sociodemographic factors, fear, and physical/psychosocial needs on anxiety and depression. @*Results@#Significant numbers of the respondents were identifiable anxiety (19.0%) and depression group (17.5%), respectively. This indicates that the depression and anxiety prevalence rate after the COVID-19 is substantially high compared to the depression rate of 2.6% in 2020 and 2.8% in 2018 both reported in the Korea Community Health Survey and the anxiety rate of 5.7% reported in 2016 Survey of Mental Disorders in Korea. Multiple logistic regression results showed age, COVID-19 related fear, and the level of restrictions in daily as significant factors in understanding and predicting the anxiety group. Likfewise, the COVID-19 related fear, restrictions in daily life, and need for economic support were important predictors in predicting the depression group. @*Conclusion@#Findings on predictors for greater vulnerability to anxiety and depression has important implications for public mental health in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic.

5.
Psychiatry Investigation ; : 688-694, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-903184

ABSTRACT

Objective@#The study investigated the effects of severe human rights abuses in North Korean on Posttraumatic-stress disorder (PTSD) in North Korean Refugees (NKRs). @*Methods@#The study included 300 NKRs (245 females and 55 males) who completed self-report questionnaires that assessed PTSD, experiences of imprisonment, and exposure to inhumane treatment, by authorities in North Korea. A moderation analysis was conducted using a hierarchical multiple regression model to determine whether a moderation effect existed. In the next step, a post-hoc probing procedure of the moderation effect was performed using multiple regression models that included conditional moderator variables. @*Results@#The influence of the frequency of being imprisoned on PTSD varied as a function of recurrent exposure to inhumane treatment or punishment by authorities. Experiences of imprisonment were associated with PTSD only among those who were exposed to recurrent violence, such as beating or torture, by North Korean authorities. @*Conclusion@#The present findings highlight the significant effects of human rights violations, such as the inhumane treatment of prisoners in North Korea, on the PTSD of NKRs.

6.
Psychiatry Investigation ; : 736-742, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-903178

ABSTRACT

Objective@#This study aimed to validate the Korean version of a short screening tool for psychosis as the first stage in finding undiagnosed psychosis in the community. @*Methods@#The sample contained 126 consecutive psychiatric outpatients in National Medical Center, Seoul, Korea, between July 20 and July 22, 2020. The Psychosis Screener (PS) comprises 7 items covering psychotic symptoms. The presence of each psychotic symptom was determined by a trained mental health professional and coded “yes” or “no.” Two psychiatrists reviewed the medical records independently and extracted the ICD-10-based diagnoses. Any differences between the two clinicians were resolved by consensus, and the agreed diagnosis was used as a gold standard in the study. @*Results@#Among 126 psychiatric outpatients who were enrolled in a consecutive manner during the study period, the proportion of psychosis was 15.1%. The PS showed 78.9% sensitivity and 72.0% specificity when the optimal cut-off was 2, indicating that a score of 2 or more on the screener identified a likely case of psychosis. The area under the curve for the PS was 0.78 (95% CI: 0.67–0.87). @*Conclusion@#The Korean version of the PS has an ability to discriminate between those who meet the diagnostic criteria for psychosis and those who do not in a high-prevalence group.

7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-900081

ABSTRACT

Objectives@#This study is designed to extract a representative variable that distinguishes psychiatric patients of North Korean Defectors and a control group by using machine learning based on measured mental health variables and physical activity variables. @*Methods@#The physical and mental activity variables of 17 North Korean defectors that previously were hospitalized or received psychiatric outpatient treatment and a control group were compared. The survey focused on mental health variables that included contents related to depression, suicidal risks, post-traumatic stress disorder, anxiety, insomnia, physical symptoms, quality of life, coping skills, social support, and drinking. Physical activity variables included the number of steps walked per day, sleep time, and sleep efficiency were measured by Fitbit. @*Results@#The 7th question of the Patient Health Questionnaire-9, “Trouble concentrating on things, such as reading the newspaper or watching television over the past two weeks,” showed the highest gain ratio by 84 percent. Based on the result of the decision tree, this single index may distinguish between the clinical and control groups. @*Conclusion@#A clinician may conduct a more effective interview with a North Korean defector by identifying in the early stages whether the patient has been having difficulty concentrating on daily tasks during the past two weeks.

8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-899940

ABSTRACT

Background@#During the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, health care workers (HCWs) have faced multiple physical and psychological challenges while carrying out their duties. In this study, we examined the experiences of specific groups of HCWs during the pandemic. @*Methods@#From 18 November to 30 December 2020, we conducted a qualitative study using semi-structured, face-to-face interviews with four groups of 14 HCWs in three cities (Seoul, Daegu, and Gwangju) in South Korea. The HCWs who participated in the focus groups included physicians, nurses, medical practitioners, and cleaning staff who directly or indirectly cared for patients during the COVID-19 epidemic. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and analyzed using the consensual qualitative research approach. @*Results@#Our qualitative data analysis revealed four main domains: work-related struggles, personal life-related struggles, psychological stress, and health-related struggles. Health care providers were challenged by working in critical situations and were overwhelmed by heavy workloads, fear of infection, lifestyle changes, and psychological and physical struggles. @*Conclusion@#Our findings could serve as a foundation for establishing health care systems and policies that help HCWs cope with occupational stress, thus increasing their ability to adapt to the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic.

9.
Psychiatry Investigation ; : 801-808, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-895536

ABSTRACT

Objective@#The aims of this study were to explore the prevalence of and identify predictors of anxiety and depression related to coronavirus disease of 2019 (COVID-19) in South Korea. @*Methods@#The analysis is based on a quota survey design and a sampling frame that permitted recruitment of a national sample of 1,014 individuals between March 17–31, 2020. Several standardized measurements were used, including GAD-7, PHQ-9, COVID-19 related fear, restrictions in deaily life, as well as sociodemographic information and physical and psychosocial needs during the pandemic. Multiple logistic regression was conducted to analyze the influence of sociodemographic factors, fear, and physical/psychosocial needs on anxiety and depression. @*Results@#Significant numbers of the respondents were identifiable anxiety (19.0%) and depression group (17.5%), respectively. This indicates that the depression and anxiety prevalence rate after the COVID-19 is substantially high compared to the depression rate of 2.6% in 2020 and 2.8% in 2018 both reported in the Korea Community Health Survey and the anxiety rate of 5.7% reported in 2016 Survey of Mental Disorders in Korea. Multiple logistic regression results showed age, COVID-19 related fear, and the level of restrictions in daily as significant factors in understanding and predicting the anxiety group. Likfewise, the COVID-19 related fear, restrictions in daily life, and need for economic support were important predictors in predicting the depression group. @*Conclusion@#Findings on predictors for greater vulnerability to anxiety and depression has important implications for public mental health in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic.

10.
Psychiatry Investigation ; : 688-694, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-895480

ABSTRACT

Objective@#The study investigated the effects of severe human rights abuses in North Korean on Posttraumatic-stress disorder (PTSD) in North Korean Refugees (NKRs). @*Methods@#The study included 300 NKRs (245 females and 55 males) who completed self-report questionnaires that assessed PTSD, experiences of imprisonment, and exposure to inhumane treatment, by authorities in North Korea. A moderation analysis was conducted using a hierarchical multiple regression model to determine whether a moderation effect existed. In the next step, a post-hoc probing procedure of the moderation effect was performed using multiple regression models that included conditional moderator variables. @*Results@#The influence of the frequency of being imprisoned on PTSD varied as a function of recurrent exposure to inhumane treatment or punishment by authorities. Experiences of imprisonment were associated with PTSD only among those who were exposed to recurrent violence, such as beating or torture, by North Korean authorities. @*Conclusion@#The present findings highlight the significant effects of human rights violations, such as the inhumane treatment of prisoners in North Korea, on the PTSD of NKRs.

11.
Psychiatry Investigation ; : 736-742, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-895474

ABSTRACT

Objective@#This study aimed to validate the Korean version of a short screening tool for psychosis as the first stage in finding undiagnosed psychosis in the community. @*Methods@#The sample contained 126 consecutive psychiatric outpatients in National Medical Center, Seoul, Korea, between July 20 and July 22, 2020. The Psychosis Screener (PS) comprises 7 items covering psychotic symptoms. The presence of each psychotic symptom was determined by a trained mental health professional and coded “yes” or “no.” Two psychiatrists reviewed the medical records independently and extracted the ICD-10-based diagnoses. Any differences between the two clinicians were resolved by consensus, and the agreed diagnosis was used as a gold standard in the study. @*Results@#Among 126 psychiatric outpatients who were enrolled in a consecutive manner during the study period, the proportion of psychosis was 15.1%. The PS showed 78.9% sensitivity and 72.0% specificity when the optimal cut-off was 2, indicating that a score of 2 or more on the screener identified a likely case of psychosis. The area under the curve for the PS was 0.78 (95% CI: 0.67–0.87). @*Conclusion@#The Korean version of the PS has an ability to discriminate between those who meet the diagnostic criteria for psychosis and those who do not in a high-prevalence group.

12.
Neonatal Medicine ; : 161-166, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-918586

ABSTRACT

Neonatal thyrotoxicosis is rare and most of the cases are secondary to maternal Graves’ disease. It is usually transient, but can be associated with significant morbidity and mortality if not recognized promptly and treated adequately. Neonates born to mothers treated with antithyroid drugs or those who receive maternal thyroid blocking antibodies may exhibit normal thyroid function or even hypothyroidism at birth. Since there may not be any obvious symptoms of hyperthyroidism at birth, it may be overlooked. Therefore, such neonates should be evaluated properly and monitored regularly to prevent serious complications of hyperthyroidism. We report a case of a 21-day-old male infant who developed thyrotoxicosis with dyspnea, irritability, tachycardia, and cardiac insufficiency. He was born to a mother who was treated for Graves’ disease with antithyroid drugs during pregnancy. We have also discussed the importance of careful examination and monitoring to prevent the development of clinical hyperthyroidism.

13.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-915349

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#: This study aimed to identify the moderating and mediating effects of resilience on the relationship between role conflict and job satisfaction among nurses working in a comprehensive nursing care service ward. @*Methods@#: Participants were 130 comprehensive nursing care service ward nurses from four hospitals. Data were collected using structured questionnaires and analyzed by t-test, ANOVA, Scheffé test, Pearson correlation coefficients, and hierarchical multiple regression analysis, using SPSS 25.0. The mediating effect of resilience on the relationship between role conflict and job satisfaction was analyzed using multiple regression analysis according to Baron and Kenny’s procedure. @*Results@#: Statistically significant negative correlations were found between role conflict and resilience (r=-.25, p<.007) and between role conflict and job satisfaction (r=-.38, p<.001). A significant positive correlation was found between resilience and job satisfaction (r=.54, p<.001). A partial mediating effect of resilience was found between role conflict and job satisfaction (Z=-2.53, p=.012) but no moderating effect was found. @*Conclusion@#: To improve the job satisfaction of comprehensive nursing care service ward nurses, interventions for alleviating role conflict and improving resilience as well as evaluations of the two variables are necessary.

14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-913309

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Many studies have shown that obesity is one of the major causes of lung function decline. However, a longitudinal study of the correlation between changes in obesity degree and lung function is still lacking. This study aimed to analyze alterations in lung function according to changes in body and abdominal fat amount over time in healthy individuals. @*Methods@#A retrospective cohort study of individuals who received annual health screening was performed. Individuals who underwent health screening at least 3 times with follow-up periods more than 5 years were included. Using a linear mixed model, we analyzed associations between the change in total body fat amount/abdominal fat ratio and lung function decline over time by dividing each quartile according to the fat change rate. @*Results@#A total of 15,484 individuals over 40 years old was enrolled prospectively. A longitudinal increase in total body fat amount over time was associated with a predicted value of forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1p ; %) and predicted value of forced vital capacity (FVCp; %) declines, regardless of sex. A similar phenomenon was observed between an increase in abdominal fat ratio and FEV 1p /FVCp decline, which was predominant in males. In addition, the change in abdominal fat ratio showed a significant correlation with differences in the initial values of FEV 1p and FVCp after 40 years old. @*Conclusion@#Increases in total body fat amount and abdominal fat ratio may cause lung function decline over time.

15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-892008

ABSTRACT

As the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has rapidly spread worldwide, there are growing concerns about patients' mental health. We investigated psychological problems in COVID-19 patients assessed with self-reported questionnaires including the Patient Health Questionnaire-9, Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 scale, and Impact of Event ScaleRevised Korean version. Ten patients who recovered from COVID-19 pneumonia without complications underwent self-reported questionnaires about 1 month after discharge. Of them, 10% reported depression and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) while 50% had depression during the treatment. Perceived stigma and history of psychiatric treatment affected PTSD symptom severity, consistent with previous emerging infectious diseases. Survivors also reported that they were concerned about infecting others and being discriminated and that they chose to avoid others after discharge. Further support and strategy to minimize their psychosocial difficulties after discharge should be considered.

16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-899712

ABSTRACT

As the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has rapidly spread worldwide, there are growing concerns about patients' mental health. We investigated psychological problems in COVID-19 patients assessed with self-reported questionnaires including the Patient Health Questionnaire-9, Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 scale, and Impact of Event ScaleRevised Korean version. Ten patients who recovered from COVID-19 pneumonia without complications underwent self-reported questionnaires about 1 month after discharge. Of them, 10% reported depression and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) while 50% had depression during the treatment. Perceived stigma and history of psychiatric treatment affected PTSD symptom severity, consistent with previous emerging infectious diseases. Survivors also reported that they were concerned about infecting others and being discriminated and that they chose to avoid others after discharge. Further support and strategy to minimize their psychosocial difficulties after discharge should be considered.

17.
Psychiatry Investigation ; : 674-680, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-832530

ABSTRACT

Objective@#Although healthcare workers (HCWs) experienced significant stress during the 2015 outbreak of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS), the factors associated with this stress remain unknown. Thus, the present study assessed burnout among HCWs during the MERS outbreak to identify the influential factors involved in this process. @*Methods@#This study was a retrospective chart review of the psychological tests and questionnaires completed by 171 hospital employees from two general hospitals that treated MERS patients. The tests included the Oldenburg Burnout Inventory, Positive Resources Test, the questionnaires assessed exposure to the MERS outbreak event and perceptions about MERS. @*Results@#Of the 171 HCWs, 112 (65.5%) experienced disengagement and 136 (79.5%) suffered from exhaustion. Disengagement was associated with lower levels of purpose and hope, a higher perception of job risk, and exposure to the media. Exhaustion was associated with lower levels of purpose and hope, a higher perception of little control of the infection, a higher perception of job risk, prior experience related to infections, and being female. @*Conclusion@#Our results revealed the risk and protective factors associated with burnout among HCWs during an outbreak of MERS. These findings should be considered when determining interventional strategies aimed at ameliorating burnout among HCWs.

18.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831834

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Primary immunodef iciency (PID) is a serious comorbid condition in adult asthmatics that have frequent exacerbations, which requires monthly replacement of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG). However, the prevalence and clinical significance of PID in adult asthmatics in Korea have not yet been reported. The aim of this study is to assess the prevalence of PID and its association with asthma exacerbation in Korean adult asthmatics. @*Methods@#A total of 2,866 adult asthmatics were enrolled in this study. The PID group was defined as subjects who had lower levels of immunoglobulin G (IgG)/ A/M and/or IgG subclass presenting with recurrent respiratory infections. Serum samples were assayed for total IgG/A/M by immunoturbidimetry, and IgG subclasses by nephelometry. @*Results@#Of the 2,866 asthmatic patients enrolled, 157 (5.49%) had PID (classified as the PID group), while those without PID was classified as the non-PID group. IgG subclass deficiency (58%) is most prevalent, among which IgG3 subclass deficiency was most common (58%). The relative risk of asthma exacerbation was 1.70 times higher in the PID group compared to the non-PID group (1.696; 95% confidence interval, 1.284 to 2.239; p < 0.001); the prevalence of severe asthma was significantly higher in the PID group than in the non-PID group (32.48% vs. 13.00%, p < 0.001). Thirty-five among 157 patients in the PID group d maintained IVIG to prevent asthma exacerbation. @*Conclusions@#It is suggested that PID, especially IgG3 subclass deficiency, is a significant risk factor for asthma exacerbation. Screening of IgG subclass levels and IVIG replacement should be considered in the management in adult asthmatics.

19.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831619

ABSTRACT

As of April 18, 2020, there have been a total of 10,653 confirmed cases and 232 deaths due to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Korea. The pathogen spread quickly, and the outbreak caused nationwide anxiety and shock. This study presented the anecdotal records that provided a detailed process of the multidisciplinary teamwork in mental health during the COVID-19 outbreak in the country. Psychosocial support is no less important than infection control during an epidemic, and collaboration and networking are at the core of disaster management. Thus, a multidisciplinary team of mental health professionals was immediately established and has collaborated effectively with its internal and external stakeholders for psychosocial support during the COVID-19 outbreak.

20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-811066

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Asthma control in older asthmatics is often less effective, which may be attributed to small airway dysfunction and poor inhalation technique. We compared the efficacy of 2 inhalers (fluticasone propionate/formoterol treatment using a pressurized metered-dose inhaler [p-MDI group] vs. fluticasone propionate/salmeterol treatment using a dry powder inhaler [DPI group]) in older asthmatics.METHODS: We conducted a 12-week, randomized, open-label, parallel-designed trial in older patients (over 55 years old) with moderate-to-severe asthma, and compared the efficacy and safety for asthma control between the 2 groups. Subgroup analyses on disease duration and air trapping were performed. Clinical parameters, including changes in lung function parameters, inhaler technique and adherence, were compared with monitoring adverse reactions between the 2 groups.RESULTS: A total of 68 patients underwent randomization, and 63 (30 in the p-MDI group and 33 in the DPI group) completed this study. The p-MDI group was non-inferior to the DPI group with regard to the rate of well-controlled asthma (53.3% vs. 45.5%, P < 0.001; a predefined non-inferiority limit of 17%). In subgroup analyses, the proportion of patients who did not reach well-controlled asthma in the p-MDI group was non-inferior to that in the DPI group; the difference was 12.7% among those with a longer disease duration (≥ 15 years) and 17.5% among those with higher air-trapping (RV/TLC ≥ 45%), respectively (a predefined non-inferiority limit of 17%, P < 0.001). No significant differences were observed in lung function parameters, inhalation techniques, adherence and adverse reactions between the 2 groups.CONCLUSION: These results suggest that the p-MDI group may be comparable to the DPI group in the management of older asthmatics in aspects of efficacy and safety.


Subject(s)
Airway Management , Asthma , Dry Powder Inhalers , Fluticasone , Humans , Inhalation , Lung , Medication Adherence , Metered Dose Inhalers , Nebulizers and Vaporizers , Random Allocation
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