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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-937418

ABSTRACT

Background@#Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is associated with chronic kidney disease (CKD). However, the causal relationship between NAFLD and CKD is uncertain, particularly in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). We aimed to investigate the association between the presence and severity of NAFLD and incident CKD in patients with T2DM. @*Methods@#In this longitudinal cohort study of patients with T2DM, 3,188 patients with preserved renal function were followed up for the occurrence of incident CKD. NAFLD was defined as the presence of hepatic steatosis on ultrasonography, without any other causes of chronic liver disease. Advanced liver fibrosis of NAFLD was defined as a fibrosis-4 index ≥2.67. CKD was defined as an estimated glomerular filtration rate <60 mL/min/1.73 m2. @*Results@#At baseline, 1,729 (54.2%) patients had NAFLD, of whom 94 (5.4%) had advanced liver fibrosis. During the follow-up of 8.3±3.6 years, 472 (14.8%) patients developed incident CKD: 220 (15.1%) in the non-NAFLD group, 231 (14.1%) in the NAFLD without advanced fibrosis group and 28 (31.1%) in the NAFLD with advanced fibrosis group. There was no increased risk of incident CKD in the NAFLD group compared to the non-NAFLD group (P=0.435). However, among patients with NAFLD, advanced liver fibrosis was associated with an increased risk of CKD (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.75; 95% confidence interval, 1.15 to 2.66; P=0.009). @*Conclusion@#Advanced liver fibrosis in patients with NAFLD is independently associated with an increased risk of incident CKD in patients with T2DM.

2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-874546

ABSTRACT

Background@#Results regarding the cardiovascular (CV) effects of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors are inconsistent. This study aimed to assess the effects of teneligliptin, a DPP-4 inhibitor, on the risk of major CV outcomes in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients compared to sulfonylurea. @*Methods@#From January 1, 2015 to December 31, 2017, we conducted a retrospective cohort study using the Korean National Health Insurance Service database. A total of 6,682 T2DM patients who were newly prescribed DPP-4 inhibitors or sulfonylurea were selected and matched in a 1:1 ratio by propensity score. The hazard ratios (HRs) for all-cause mortality, hospitalization for heart failure (HHF), all-cause mortality or HHF, myocardial infarction (MI), stroke, and hypoglycemia were assessed. @*Results@#During 641 days of follow-up, the use of teneligliptin was not associated with an increased risk of all-cause mortality (HR, 1.00; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.85 to 1.19), HHF (HR, 0.99; 95% CI, 0.86 to 1.14), all-cause mortality or HHF (HR, 1.02; 95% CI, 0.90 to 1.14), MI (HR, 0.90; 95% CI, 0.68 to 1.20), and stroke (HR, 1.00; 95% CI, 0.86 to 1.17) compared to the use of sulfonylurea. However, it was associated with a significantly lower risk of hypoglycemia (HR, 0.68; 95% CI, 0.49 to 0.94) compared to sulfonylurea therapy. @*Conclusion@#Among T2DM patients, teneligliptin therapy was not associated with an increased risk of CV events including HHF, but was associated with a lower risk of hypoglycemia compared to sulfonylurea therapy.

3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890330

ABSTRACT

BackgroundRecent studies have demonstrated that the levels of adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein (A-FABP) are closely associated with diabetic kidney disease (DKD) in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). This study aimed to examine the association between serum A-FABP level and rapid renal function decline in patients with T2DM and preserved renal function.MethodsThis was a prospective observational study of 452 patients with T2DM and preserved renal function who had serial measurements of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). Rapid renal function decline was defined as an eGFR decline of >4% per year. The association between baseline serum A-FABP level and rapid renal function decline was investigated.ResultsOver a median follow-up of 7 years, 82 participants (18.1%) experienced rapid renal function decline. Median A-FABP levels were significantly higher in patients with rapid renal function decline, compared to non-decliners (20.2 ng/mL vs. 17.2 ng/mL, P=0.005). A higher baseline level of A-FABP was associated with a greater risk of developing rapid renal function decline, independent of age, sex, duration of diabetes, body mass index, systolic blood pressure, history of cardiovascular disease, baseline eGFR, urine albumin creatinine ratio, total cholesterol, glycosylated hemoglobin, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein and use of thiazolidinedione, insulin, angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin II-receptor blockers and statin (odds ratio, 3.10; 95% confidence interval, 1.53 to 6.29; P=0.002).ConclusionA high level of serum A-FABP is associated with an increased risk of rapid renal function decline in patients with T2DM and preserved renal function. This suggests that A-FABP could play a role in the progression of DKD in the early stages.

4.
Asian Nursing Research ; : 249-256, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-889461

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#The aims of this study were to develop a new instrument for measuring self-management with a hierarchical structure [the Diabetes Self-Management Scale (DSMS)] in patients with type 2 diabetes, and evaluate its psychometric properties. @*Methods@#The DSMS instrument was developed in three phases: (1) conceptualization and item generation; (2) content validity and pilot testing; and (3) field testing of its psychometric properties. A convenience sample of 473 participants was recruited in three university hospitals and one regional health center, South Korea. @*Results@#Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses yielded two second-order component models explaining the common variance among six first-order factors. Principal axis factoring with a varimax rotation accounted for 60.88% of the variance. Confirmatory factor analysis of the hierarchical structure revealed the following fit indices: χ2/df = 1.373, standardized root-mean-square residual = .050, goodness-of-fit index = .935, incremental fit index = .975, comparative fit index = .974, and root-mean-square error of approximation = .039. All Cronbach' α values for internal consistency exceeded the criterion of .70. All of the intraclass correlation coefficients for test–retest reliability exceeded .70 except that for the taking-medication subscale. The components of the DSMS were moderately correlated with the comparator measures of self-efficacy and health literacy administered for convergent validity. @*Conclusion@#The DSMS is a new instrument for measuring the complex nature of self-management in patients with type 2 diabetes, comprising 17 items scored on a five-point Likert scale. The DSMS exhibits satisfactory psychometric properties for five reliability and validity metrics, and so is a suitable instrument to apply in both research and clinical practices.

5.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-832348

ABSTRACT

Background@#Recent studies have demonstrated that the levels of adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein (A-FABP) are closely associated with diabetic kidney disease (DKD) in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). This study aimed to examine the association between serum A-FABP level and rapid renal function decline in patients with T2DM and preserved renal function. @*Methods@#This was a prospective observational study of 452 patients with T2DM and preserved renal function who had serial measurements of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). Rapid renal function decline was defined as an eGFR decline of >4% per year. The association between baseline serum A-FABP level and rapid renal function decline was investigated. @*Results@#Over a median follow-up of 7 years, 82 participants (18.1%) experienced rapid renal function decline. Median A-FABP levels were significantly higher in patients with rapid renal function decline, compared to non-decliners (20.2 ng/mL vs. 17.2 ng/ mL, P=0.005). A higher baseline level of A-FABP was associated with a greater risk of developing rapid renal function decline, independent of age, sex, duration of diabetes, body mass index, systolic blood pressure, history of cardiovascular disease, baseline eGFR, urine albumin creatinine ratio, total cholesterol, glycosylated hemoglobin, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein and use of thiazolidinedione, insulin, angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin II-receptor blockers and statin (odds ratio, 3.10; 95% confidence interval, 1.53 to 6.29; P=0.002). @*Conclusion@#A high level of serum A-FABP is associated with an increased risk of rapid renal function decline in patients with T2DM and preserved renal function. This suggests that A-FABP could play a role in the progression of DKD in the early stages.

6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898034

ABSTRACT

BackgroundRecent studies have demonstrated that the levels of adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein (A-FABP) are closely associated with diabetic kidney disease (DKD) in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). This study aimed to examine the association between serum A-FABP level and rapid renal function decline in patients with T2DM and preserved renal function.MethodsThis was a prospective observational study of 452 patients with T2DM and preserved renal function who had serial measurements of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). Rapid renal function decline was defined as an eGFR decline of >4% per year. The association between baseline serum A-FABP level and rapid renal function decline was investigated.ResultsOver a median follow-up of 7 years, 82 participants (18.1%) experienced rapid renal function decline. Median A-FABP levels were significantly higher in patients with rapid renal function decline, compared to non-decliners (20.2 ng/mL vs. 17.2 ng/mL, P=0.005). A higher baseline level of A-FABP was associated with a greater risk of developing rapid renal function decline, independent of age, sex, duration of diabetes, body mass index, systolic blood pressure, history of cardiovascular disease, baseline eGFR, urine albumin creatinine ratio, total cholesterol, glycosylated hemoglobin, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein and use of thiazolidinedione, insulin, angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin II-receptor blockers and statin (odds ratio, 3.10; 95% confidence interval, 1.53 to 6.29; P=0.002).ConclusionA high level of serum A-FABP is associated with an increased risk of rapid renal function decline in patients with T2DM and preserved renal function. This suggests that A-FABP could play a role in the progression of DKD in the early stages.

7.
Asian Nursing Research ; : 249-256, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-897165

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#The aims of this study were to develop a new instrument for measuring self-management with a hierarchical structure [the Diabetes Self-Management Scale (DSMS)] in patients with type 2 diabetes, and evaluate its psychometric properties. @*Methods@#The DSMS instrument was developed in three phases: (1) conceptualization and item generation; (2) content validity and pilot testing; and (3) field testing of its psychometric properties. A convenience sample of 473 participants was recruited in three university hospitals and one regional health center, South Korea. @*Results@#Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses yielded two second-order component models explaining the common variance among six first-order factors. Principal axis factoring with a varimax rotation accounted for 60.88% of the variance. Confirmatory factor analysis of the hierarchical structure revealed the following fit indices: χ2/df = 1.373, standardized root-mean-square residual = .050, goodness-of-fit index = .935, incremental fit index = .975, comparative fit index = .974, and root-mean-square error of approximation = .039. All Cronbach' α values for internal consistency exceeded the criterion of .70. All of the intraclass correlation coefficients for test–retest reliability exceeded .70 except that for the taking-medication subscale. The components of the DSMS were moderately correlated with the comparator measures of self-efficacy and health literacy administered for convergent validity. @*Conclusion@#The DSMS is a new instrument for measuring the complex nature of self-management in patients with type 2 diabetes, comprising 17 items scored on a five-point Likert scale. The DSMS exhibits satisfactory psychometric properties for five reliability and validity metrics, and so is a suitable instrument to apply in both research and clinical practices.

8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-811146

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular risk remains increased despite optimal low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) level induced by intensive statin therapy. Therefore, recent guidelines recommend non-high density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C) as a secondary target for preventing cardiovascular events. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy and tolerability of omega-3 fatty acids (OM3-FAs) in combination with atorvastatin compared to atorvastatin alone in patients with mixed dyslipidemia.METHODS: This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group, and phase III multicenter study included adults with fasting triglyceride (TG) levels ≥200 and <500 mg/dL and LDL-C levels <110 mg/dL. Eligible subjects were randomized to ATOMEGA (OM3-FAs 4,000 mg plus atorvastatin calcium 20 mg) or atorvastatin 20 mg plus placebo groups. The primary efficacy endpoints were the percent changes in TG and non-HDL-C levels from baseline at the end of treatment.RESULTS: After 8 weeks of treatment, the percent changes from baseline in TG (−29.8% vs. 3.6%, P<0.001) and non-HDL-C (−10.1% vs. 4.9%, P<0.001) levels were significantly greater in the ATOMEGA group (n=97) than in the atorvastatin group (n=103). Moreover, the proportion of total subjects reaching TG target of <200 mg/dL in the ATOMEGA group was significantly higher than that in the atorvastatin group (62.9% vs. 22.3%, P<0.001). The incidence of adverse events did not differ between the two groups.CONCLUSION: The addition of OM3-FAs to atorvastatin improved TG and non-HDL-C levels to a significant extent compared to atorvastatin alone in subjects with residual hypertriglyceridemia.


Subject(s)
Adult , Atorvastatin , Cholesterol , Cholesterol, LDL , Dyslipidemias , Fasting , Fatty Acids, Omega-3 , Humans , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors , Hypertriglyceridemia , Incidence , Lipoproteins , Triglycerides
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-785706

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Recent evidences indicate that early rapid renal function decline is closely associated with the development and progression of diabetic kidney disease. We have investigated the association between carotid atherosclerosis and rapid renal function decline in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and preserved renal function.METHODS: In a prospective, multicenter cohort, a total of 967 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and preserved renal function were followed for 6 years with serial estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) measurements. Common carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) and presence of carotid plaque were assessed at baseline. Rapid renal function decline was defined as an eGFR decline >3.3% per year.RESULTS: Over a median follow-up of 6 years, 158 participants (16.3%) developed rapid renal function decline. While there was no difference in CIMT, the presence of carotid plaque in rapid decliners was significantly higher than in non-decliners (23.2% vs. 12.2%, P<0.001). In multivariable logistic regression analysis, presence of carotid plaque was an independent predictor of rapid renal function decline (odds ratio, 2.33; 95% confidence interval, 1.48 to 3.68; P<0.0001) after adjustment for established risk factors. The model including the carotid plaque had better performance for discrimination of rapid renal function decline than the model without carotid plaque (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve 0.772 vs. 0.744, P=0.016).CONCLUSION: Close monitoring of renal function and early intensive management may be beneficial in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and carotid plaques.


Subject(s)
Carotid Artery Diseases , Carotid Intima-Media Thickness , Carotid Stenosis , Cohort Studies , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Diabetic Nephropathies , Discrimination, Psychological , Follow-Up Studies , Glomerular Filtration Rate , Humans , Logistic Models , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , ROC Curve
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-717363

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The aim of the study was to assess the impact of socioeconomic status (SES) on health behaviors, metabolic control, and chronic complications in people with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) from South Korea, a country with universal health insurance coverage and that has experienced rapid economic and social transition. METHODS: A total of 3,294 Korean men and women with T2DM aged 30 to 65 years, participating in the Korean National Diabetes Program (KNDP) cohort who reported their SES and had baseline clinical evaluation were included in the current cross-sectional analysis. SES included the level of education and monthly household income. RESULTS: Lower education level and lower income level were closely related, and both were associated with older age in men and women. Women and men with lower income and education level had higher carbohydrate and lower fat intake. After adjustment for possible confounding factors, higher education in men significantly lowered the odds of having uncontrolled hyperglycemia (glycosylated hemoglobin ≥7.5%) (odds ratio [OR], 0.63; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.43 to 0.91 for highest education; P(trend)=0.048), while higher household income in men significantly lowered the odds of having diabetic retinopathy (OR, 0.59; 95% CI, 0.37 to 0.95 for highest income level; P(trend)=0.048). In women, lower income was associated with a higher stress level. CONCLUSION: Men with lower SES had higher odds of having diabetic retinopathy and uncontrolled hyperglycemia, showing the need to improve care targeted to this population.


Subject(s)
Cohort Studies , Cross-Sectional Studies , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Diabetic Retinopathy , Education , Family Characteristics , Female , Health Behavior , Humans , Hyperglycemia , Insurance, Health , Korea , Male , Social Class
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-69942

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Regular aerobic exercise is essential for the prevention and management of type 2 diabetes mellitus and may be particularly beneficial for those treated with thiazolidinediones, since it may prevent associated weight gain. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of combined exercise and rosiglitazone treatment on body composition and glucose metabolism in obese diabetes-prone animals. METHODS: We analyzed metabolic parameters, body composition, and islet profiles in Otsuka Long Evans Tokushima Fatty rats after 28 weeks of aerobic exercise, rosiglitazone treatment, and combined exercise and rosiglitazone treatment. RESULTS: Combined exercise with rosiglitazone showed significantly less increase in weight and epididymal fat compared to rosiglitazone treatment. Aerobic exercise alone and combined rosiglitazone and exercise treatment led to similar retention of lean body mass. All experimental groups showed a decrease in fasting glucose. However, the combined exercise and rosiglitazone therapy group showed prominent improvement in glucose tolerance compared to the other groups. Rescue of islet destruction was observed in all experimental groups, but was most prominent in the combined therapy group. CONCLUSION: Regular aerobic exercise combined with rosiglitazone treatment can compensate for the adverse effect of rosiglitazone treatment and has benefit for islet preservation.


Subject(s)
Animals , Body Composition , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Exercise , Fasting , Glucose , Metabolism , Rats, Inbred OLETF , Thiazolidinediones , Weight Gain
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-34228

ABSTRACT

Chemerin is a recently identified adipokine suggested to play a role in obesity and its metabolic complications. The relationship between visceral obesity and serum chemerin levels in type 2 diabetes (T2DM) is unknown and may differ from that of subjects without diabetes. Therefore, we evaluated whether serum chemerin was associated with visceral abdominal obesity in patients with T2DM. A total of 218 Korean patients with T2DM were enrolled and metabolic parameters, abdominal visceral and subcutaneous fat areas, and serum chemerin levels were measured. Serum chemerin level showed positive correlation with fasting insulin, HOMA-IR, serum triglyceride, serum creatinine, urine albumin/creatinine ratio, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), fibrinogen, abdominal visceral fat area, visceral to subcutaneous fat area ratio, and negatively correlation with high density lipoprotein cholesterol and creatinine clearance (CCr) after adjusting for age, gender and body mass index. Multiple linear stepwise regression analysis showed that abdominal visceral fat area (β = 0.001, P < 0.001), serum triglyceride (β = 0.001, P < 0.001), CCr (β = -0.003, P = 0.001), hsCRP (β = 0.157, P = 0.001), fibrinogen (β = 0.001, P < 0.001) and BMI (β = 0.02, P = 0.008) independently affected log transformed serum chemerin levels. Higher serum chemerin level was associated with higher level of abdominal visceral fat area, serum triglyceride, hsCRP and fibrinogen and lower level of CCr in patients with T2DM. Serum chemerin may be used as a biomarker of visceral adiposity and chemerin may play a role in inflammation, decreased renal function, and increased cardiovascular risk in T2DM.


Subject(s)
Adult , Biomarkers/blood , Body Mass Index , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , Chemokines/blood , Creatinine/blood , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/blood , Female , Humans , Insulin/blood , Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins/blood , Intra-Abdominal Fat/pathology , Linear Models , Lipocalins/blood , Male , Middle Aged , Obesity/complications , Triglycerides/blood
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-90975

ABSTRACT

Brown fat is a specialized fat depot that can increase energy expenditure and produce heat. After the recent discovery of the presence of active brown fat in human adults and novel transcription factors controlling brown adipocyte differentiation, the field of the study of brown fat has gained great interest and is rapidly growing. Brown fat expansion and/or activation results in increased energy expenditure and a negative energy balance in mice and limits weight gain. Brown fat is also able to utilize blood glucose and lipid and results in improved glucose metabolism and blood lipid independent of weight loss. Prolonged cold exposure and beta adrenergic agonists can induce browning of white adipose tissue. The inducible brown adipocyte, beige adipocyte evolving by thermogenic activation of white adipose tissue have different origin and molecular signature from classical brown adipocytes but share the characteristics of high mitochondria content, UCP1 expression and thermogenic capacity when activated. Increasing browning may also be an efficient way to increase whole brown fat activity. Recent human studies have shown possibilities that findings in mice can be reproduced in human, making brown fat a good candidate organ to treat obesity and its related disorders.


Subject(s)
Adipocytes , Adipocytes, Brown , Adipose Tissue, Brown , Adipose Tissue, White , Adrenergic beta-Agonists , Adult , Animals , Blood Glucose , Energy Metabolism , Glucose , Hot Temperature , Humans , Metabolism , Mice , Mitochondria , Obesity , Transcription Factors , Weight Gain , Weight Loss
15.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-726844

ABSTRACT

Cardiovascular disease is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in people with type 2 diabetes. Therefore, the prevention of cardiovascular diseases is of great importance in these patients. Antidiabetic drugs may have cardiovascular effects independent of their glycemic effects. The highly publicized meta-analysis of rosiglitazone has triggered much concern about the cardiovascular effects of antidiabetic drugs. Since 2008, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has required that all new antidiabetic drugs show proof of an acceptable cardiovascular risk profile. Because there is a lack of well-designed definitive studies, the cardiovascular risk/benefit is not definite in many drugs. Large randomized trials assessing the cardiovascular risk of antidiabetic drugs have been recently completed or are ongoing. The first novel drug class designated after 2008 is the dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors. Trials of DPP-4 inhibitors and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists have shown a neutral effect on cardiovascular disease. Empagliflozin, a sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitor, significantly decreased the incidence of the primary cardiovascular end point, especially decreasing cardiovascular death and hospital admission for heart failure. Ongoing and future studies will provide better insight about the effects of each class and individual drug on cardiovascular disease.


Subject(s)
Cardiovascular Diseases , Glucagon-Like Peptide 1 , Heart Failure , Humans , Hypoglycemic Agents , Incidence , Mortality , United States Food and Drug Administration
16.
Journal of Korean Diabetes ; : 147-154, 2016.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-726780

ABSTRACT

Carbohydrates are a primary source of energy and a major component of the structure of living things-; there are many different kinds. As eating behavior is a part of life, it was usually not described in addiction. However, sometimes it seems aspects of addiction. This eating behavior can also appear with regard to other food. A bio-psycho-social model is required for complex analysis of addiction. When highly addictive agents are excluded, we can usually identify a key factor related to the vulnerability of the individual to addictive behavior. Considering that every source of happiness can potentially lead to addictive behaviors, we need to be cautious about the controlling. Not every carbohydrate can be connected with addictive behavior. Addictive behavior could be associated with a variety of ingredients other than carbohydrates. Until recently, sweet substances were thought to be the primary culprit behind addictive behavior. It is necessary to identify the food component or other factors associated with a specific craving. A multidimensional approach to the psychology of addictive behaviors might be more useful than opposing carbohydrate consumption in general.


Subject(s)
Behavior, Addictive , Carbohydrates , Craving , Feeding Behavior , Happiness , Psychology , Sweetening Agents
17.
Journal of Bone Metabolism ; : 135-141, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-44189

ABSTRACT

Untreated hyperthyroidism and high-dose thyroid hormone are associated with osteoporosis, and increased bone mineral density (BMD) has been demonstrated in postmenopausal females with hypoparathyroidism. Studies on the effect of suppressive levothyroxine (LT4) therapy on BMD and bone metabolism after total thyroidectomy in patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma have presented conflicting results, and few studies in relation to the status of hypoparathyroidism have been studied. One hundred postmenopausal women and 24 premenopausal women on LT4 suppression therapy were included in this study. BMD of lumbar spine and femur and bone turnover markers were measured at the baseline and during the follow-up period up to 18 months using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Biochemical marker of bone resorption was measured by urine deoxypyridinoline and bone formation by serum osteocalcin. The age ranged from 36 to 64 years old. Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) was suppressed during the study. The results showed that BMD of femur and lumbar spine were not significantly changed in both pre- and postmenopausal women except femur neck in postmenopausal women without hypoparathyroidism. Patients with hypoparathyroidism had higher BMD gain than those without hypoparathyroidism in total hip (1.25 vs. -1.18%, P=0.015). Biochemical markers of bone turnover, serum osteocalcin, and urine deoxypyridinoline did not show significant change. In conclusion, patients with well differentiated thyroid carcinoma are not at a great risk of bone loss after LT4 suppressive therapy. The state of hypoparathyroidism is associated with increased BMD, particularly in postmenopausal women.


Subject(s)
Absorptiometry, Photon , Biomarkers , Bone Density , Bone Resorption , Female , Femur , Femur Neck , Follow-Up Studies , Hip , Humans , Hyperthyroidism , Hypoparathyroidism , Metabolism , Osteocalcin , Osteogenesis , Osteoporosis , Postmenopause , Spine , Thyroid Gland , Thyroid Neoplasms , Thyroidectomy , Thyrotropin , Thyroxine
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-70183

ABSTRACT

Angiogenesis, the formation of new blood vessels, is critical for tumor growth and metastasis. Notably, tumors themselves can lead to angiogenesis by inducing vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), which is one of the most potent angiogenic factors. Inhibition of angiogenesis is currently perceived as one of the most promising strategies for the blockage of tumor growth. In this study, we investigated the effects of Acer tegmentosum maxim water extract (ATME) on angiogenesis and its underlying signal mechanism. We studied the antiangiogenic activity of ATME by using human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). ATME strongly inhibited VEGF-induced endothelial cell proliferation, migration, invasion, and tube formation, as well as vessel sprouting in a rat aortic ring sprouting assay. Moreover, we found that the p44/42 mitogen activated protein (MAP) kinase signaling pathway is involved in the inhibition of angiogenesis by ATME. Moreover, when we performed the in vivo matrigel plug assay, VEGF-induced angiogenesis was potently reduced when compared to that for the control group. Taken together, these results suggest that ATME exhibits potent antiangiogenic activity in vivo and in vitro and that these effects are regulated by the extracellular regulated kinase (ERK) pathway.


Subject(s)
Acer/metabolism , Angiogenesis Inhibitors/pharmacology , Animals , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Movement/drug effects , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , Cell Survival , Extracellular Signal-Regulated MAP Kinases/metabolism , Hep G2 Cells , Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells/drug effects , Humans , MAP Kinase Signaling System/drug effects , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 1/metabolism , Neoplasm Invasiveness/pathology , Neovascularization, Pathologic/drug therapy , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type III/metabolism , Phosphorylation/drug effects , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Transcription Factors/metabolism , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A/antagonists & inhibitors
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-150115

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Metformin is considered the first choice oral treatment for type 2 diabetes patients in the absence of contraindications. Rarely, life-threatening complications associated with metformin treatment are seen in some patients with underlying diseases. The aim of this study was to further investigate the clinical profiles and risk factors for metformin-associated lactic acidosis (MALA) and the treatment modalities according to survival. METHODS: To identify MALA, we performed a retrospective study in seven diabetic patients who were taking metformin and had been diagnosed with lactic acidosis at Inha University Hospital between 1995 and 2012. For each patient, we recorded the age, sex, daily metformin dosage, laboratory test results, admission diagnosis, and risk factors. Also, concurrent conditions, treatment modalities, and outcomes were evaluated. RESULTS: Six patients had risk factors for lactic acidosis before admission. All patients had renal impairment on admission as a precipitating risk factor. Five patients survived and two patients died despite early renal replacement therapy. Older patients tended to have a poorer prognosis. CONCLUSION: Renal function must be monitored in elderly type 2 diabetes mellitus patients with underlying diseases and conditions causing renal impairment who begin metformin treatment. Accurate recognition of MALA and initiation of renal replacement are essential for treatment.


Subject(s)
Acidosis, Lactic , Aged , Causality , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Diagnosis , Humans , Metformin , Prognosis , Renal Replacement Therapy , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors
20.
Journal of Korean Diabetes ; : 153-159, 2015.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-727009

ABSTRACT

Phlegmonous esophagogastritis is a rare bacterial infection that has been reported to result in mortality. The pathophysiology of phlegmonous gastrointestinal infection is unclear, but some predisposing factors are reported. Those include immunocompromised status, alcohol abuse, malignancy and uncontrolled diabetes mellitus. We report two cases of phlegmonous esophagogastritis with newly diagnosed diabetes mellitus. A 26-year-old woman and a 56-year-old woman individually visited our hospital for sore throat, neck pain and fever. The laboratory findings of both patients demonstrated leukocytosis, and elevated serum glucose levels. HbA1c of both patients was above 11%. Enhanced computed tomography of young woman showed submucosal edema with intramural abscess along the esophagus and stomach, and that of older woman showed the same defined to esophagus. In both cases, empirical antibiotic therapy with intravenous third generation cephalosporin and metronidazole were started. Later, we identified Klebsiella pneumonia through pus culture in both cases. The symptoms of case 1 improved with conservative management with antibiotics only. However, case 2 required surgical drainage and esophagectomy. Early radiologic diagnosis of this disease and accurate identification of pathogens are important factors for good prognosis. Therefore, we emphasize suspicion of such a rare disease is needed, especially when the patient has risk factors such as diabetes mellitus.


Subject(s)
Abscess , Adult , Alcoholism , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Bacterial Infections , Blood Glucose , Causality , Cellulitis , Diabetes Mellitus , Diagnosis , Drainage , Edema , Esophagectomy , Esophagus , Female , Fever , Humans , Klebsiella , Leukocytosis , Metronidazole , Middle Aged , Mortality , Neck Pain , Pharyngitis , Pneumonia , Prognosis , Rare Diseases , Risk Factors , Stomach , Suppuration
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