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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-892636

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Drain insertion after proctectomy is common in clinical practice, although the effectiveness of drains has been questioned. However, drains are commonly displaced after surgery. We hypothesized that drain displacement is associated with clinical outcomes and aimed to assess differences in clinical outcomes, such as overall morbidity, including anastomotic leakage (AL), reintervention rates, length of hospital stay, and mortality rates, between patients who experienced displaced drains and those who did not. @*Methods@#Rectal cancer patients who underwent proctectomy at a single institution between January 2015 and December 2020 were retrospectively reviewed. Clinical characteristics were compared between patients who experienced displaced drains and those who did not. The primary endpoint was the occurrence of reintervention in patients with AL. The secondary endpoints were overall morbidity rates, AL rates, length of hospital stay, and mortality within 30 days. @*Results@#Among 248 patients who underwent proctectomy, 93 (37.5%) experienced displaced drains. A higher proportion of patients who experienced displaced drains required reintervention due to AL than those who did not experience displaced drains (odds ratio, 3.61; 95% confidential interval, 1.20–10.93; p = 0.016). However, no significant difference was found in the overall morbidity rate, mortality, and length of hospital stay between the groups. @*Conclusion@#Drain displacement does not worsen outcomes such as overall morbidity rate, mortality, and length of hospital stay after proctectomy but is associated with an increase in the need for reintervention in patients with AL.

2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-875238

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#We sought to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of patient-specific ocular prostheses produced by three-dimensional (3D) printing and the sublimation technique. A comparison with prostheses produced using manual manufacturing methods was then performed. @*Methods@#To confirm the biological and physiochemical safety, cytotoxicity, systemic acute toxicity, intradermal reaction, and skin sensitization tests were conducted according to the International Organization for Standardization guidelines. The compressive strength of the prostheses was also tested. Further, a case series of three patients who wore the 3D printed prostheses for more than eight hours daily for 4 weeks was executed. Self-assessments by these individuals using a questionnaire and safety evaluations focusing on the occurrence of conjunctival inflammation or allergic reactions according to the Cornea and Contact Lens Research Unit criteria by slit-lamp examination and similarity assessment were completed. @*Results@#The 3D printed ocular prostheses met the necessary qualifications per the biological and physiochemical safety tests, showing the absence of cytotoxicity, acute systemic toxicity, intradermal reactivity, and skin-sensitizing potency. Also, there was no difference in strength test results between previous ocular prostheses and the 3D printed ones. Self-assessment by the patients yielded satisfactory results, with no significant difference in the level of satisfaction reported for the 3D printed and previous handmade ocular prostheses. The 3D printed prosthesis did not trigger any side effects in the conjunctival sac and showed similar objective findings with respect to the color of the iris, sclera, and vessel patterns. @*Conclusions@#Our study confirms the biologic and physiochemical safety of 3D-printed ocular prostheses created using computer-aided design technology and a sublimation technique. The patients’ questionnaires and the judgment of the ophthalmologists/ocularists showed that the 3D printed ocular prosthesis was acceptable in function and appearance through a case series report.

3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-900340

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Drain insertion after proctectomy is common in clinical practice, although the effectiveness of drains has been questioned. However, drains are commonly displaced after surgery. We hypothesized that drain displacement is associated with clinical outcomes and aimed to assess differences in clinical outcomes, such as overall morbidity, including anastomotic leakage (AL), reintervention rates, length of hospital stay, and mortality rates, between patients who experienced displaced drains and those who did not. @*Methods@#Rectal cancer patients who underwent proctectomy at a single institution between January 2015 and December 2020 were retrospectively reviewed. Clinical characteristics were compared between patients who experienced displaced drains and those who did not. The primary endpoint was the occurrence of reintervention in patients with AL. The secondary endpoints were overall morbidity rates, AL rates, length of hospital stay, and mortality within 30 days. @*Results@#Among 248 patients who underwent proctectomy, 93 (37.5%) experienced displaced drains. A higher proportion of patients who experienced displaced drains required reintervention due to AL than those who did not experience displaced drains (odds ratio, 3.61; 95% confidential interval, 1.20–10.93; p = 0.016). However, no significant difference was found in the overall morbidity rate, mortality, and length of hospital stay between the groups. @*Conclusion@#Drain displacement does not worsen outcomes such as overall morbidity rate, mortality, and length of hospital stay after proctectomy but is associated with an increase in the need for reintervention in patients with AL.

4.
Annals of Coloproctology ; : 281-290, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-913407

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Proctectomy for the treatment of rectal cancer results in inevitable changes to bowel habits. Symptoms such as fecal incontinence, constipation, and tenesmus are collectively referred to as low anterior resection syndrome (LARS). Among the several risk factors that cause LARS, anastomotic leakage (AL) is a strong risk factor for permanent stoma formation. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between the severity of LARS and AL in patients with rectal cancer based on the LARS score and the Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC) defecation symptom questionnaires. @*Methods@#We retrospectively analyzed patients who underwent low anterior resection for rectal cancer since January 2010. Patients who completed the questionnaire were classified into the AL group and control group based on medical and imaging records. Major LARS and MSKCC scores were analyzed as primary endpoints. @*Results@#Among the 179 patients included in this study, 37 were classified into the AL group. After propensity score matching, there were significant differences in the ratio of major LARS and MSKCC scores of the control group and AL group (ratio of major LARS: 11.1% and 37.8%, P<0.001; MSKCC score: 67.29±10.4 and 56.49±7.2, respectively, P<0.001). Univariate and multivariate analyses revealed that AL was an independent factor for major LARS occurrence and MSKCC score. @*Conclusion@#This study showed that AL was a significant factor in the occurrence of major LARS and defecation symptoms after proctectomy.

5.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-836655

ABSTRACT

Pancreatic cancer is one of the most lethal malignancies worldwide. The risk of developing pancreatic cancer increases with age. Pancreatic cancer is seen mostly in the elderly; patients under the age of 30 years are rare. Known risk factors for pancreatic cancer include genetic mutations, smoking, chronic pancreatitis, and diabetes mellitus. We report a case of pancreatic cancer in a 27-year-old man without the PRSS1 mutation. Chronic pancreatitis and smoking may have contributed to the development of pancreatic cancer in this patient. We also conducted a literature review on early onset pancreatic cancer.

6.
Korean Journal of Medicine ; : 114-118, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-836635

ABSTRACT

There are two forms of autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP). Type 1 is associated with immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4)-related systemic fibro- inflammatory disease, whereas type 2 AIP is localized to the pancreas and not associated with IgG4. The number of children presenting with type 2 AIP has recently increased. Here, we report a case of type 2 AIP in a 16-year-old adolescent who presented with clinical acute pancreatitis and associated pancreatic masses. He was diagnosed with type 2 AIP based on pancreatic biopsy results showing granulocytic epithelial lesions and supportive radiological imaging and steroid responsiveness.

7.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-836152

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Hand-eye discordance during laparoscopic colon surgery is an obstacle to the assistant. We evaluated the usefulness of a 180° rotatable laparoscopic monitor for the colorectal surgery assistant to overcome hand-eye discordance. @*Methods@#Twenty-six residents of the department of surgery (novice group, n=13; experienced group, n=13) participated in this study. They performed grasping a ring and transferring it to standing bars on a laparoscopic training kit under the conventional view and a 180° rotated monitor view. We defined successful performance when this procedure was completed in 3 minutes. @*Results@#The number of successful performance was higher under the 180° rotated monitor view than under the conventional view monitor (6.88±2.79 vs. 0.92±0.80, p<0.01). Under the 180° rotated monitor view, the experienced group had a higher number of successful performances than the novice group (8.31±2.59 vs. 5.46±2.26, p=0.009). However, no statistically significant difference was found between the two groups under the conventional view (1.23±0.93 vs. 0.62±0.51, p=0.091). @*Conclusion@#This study shows the usefulness of a 180° rotated monitor view to overcome hand-eye discordance, which adversely affects the laparoscopic performance of the colorectal surgery assistant.

8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-835170

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#The aims of the present study were to evaluate the changes in the maximum lip-closing force (MLF) after orthodontic treatment with or without premolar extractions and verify the correlation of these changes with dentoskeletal changes.@*METHODS@#In total, 17 women who underwent nonextraction orthodontic treatment and 15 women who underwent orthodontic treatment with extraction of all four first premolars were included in this retrospective study. For all patients, lateral cephalograms and dental models were measured before (T0) and after (T1) treatment. In addition, MLF was measured at both time points using the Lip De Cum LDC-110R® device. Statistical analyses were performed to evaluate changes in clinical variables and MLF and their correlations.@*RESULTS@#Both groups showed similar skeletal patterns, although the extraction group showed greater proclination of the maxillary and mandibular incisors and lip protrusion compared to the nonextraction group at T0. MLF at T0 was comparable between the two groups. The reduction in the arch width and depth and incisor retroclination from T0 to T1 were more pronounced in the extraction group than in the nonextraction group. MLF in the extraction group significantly increased during the treatment period, and this increase was significantly greater than that in the nonextraction group. The increase in MLF was found to be correlated with the increase in the interincisal angle and decrease in the intermolar width, arch depth, and incisor–mandibular plane angle.@*CONCLUSIONS@#This study suggests that MLF increases to a greater extent during extraction orthodontic treatment than during nonextraction orthodontic treatment.

9.
Laboratory Animal Research ; : 238-247, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-786398

ABSTRACT

The butanol extract of Asparagus cochinchinensis roots fermented with Weissella cibaria (BAW) effectively prevents inflammation and remodeling of airway in the ovalbumin (OVA)-induced asthma model. To characterize biomarkers that can predict the anti-asthmatic effects induced by BAW treatment, we measured the alteration of endogenous metabolites in the serum of OVA-induced asthma mice after administration of low concentration BAW (BAWLo, 250 mg/kg) and high concentration BAW (BAWHi, 500 mg/kg) using ¹H nuclear magnetic resonance (¹H-NMR) spectral data. The number of immune cells and serum concentration of IgE as well as thickness of the respiratory epithelium and infiltration of inflammatory cells in the airway significantly recovered in the OVA+BAW treated group as compared to the OVA+Vehicle treated group. In the metabolic profile analysis, the pattern recognition showed completely separate clustering of serum analysis parameters between the OVA+Vehicle and OVA+BAW treated groups. Of the total endogenous metabolites, 19 metabolites were upregulated or downregulated in the OVA+Vehicle treated group as compared to the Control treated group. However, only 4 amino acids (alanine, glycine, methionine and tryptophan) were significantly recovered after BAWLo and BAWHi treatment. This study provides the first results pertaining to metabolic changes in the asthma model mice treated with OVA+BAW. Additionally, these findings show that 4 metabolites can be used as one of biomarkers to predict the anti-asthmatic effects.


Subject(s)
Amino Acids , Animals , Asthma , Biomarkers , Fermentation , Glycine , Immunoglobulin E , Inflammation , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy , Metabolome , Metabolomics , Methionine , Mice , Ovalbumin , Respiratory Mucosa , Therapeutic Uses , Weissella
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762686

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: ATP-based chemotherapy response assay (ATP-CRA) is a well-documented and validated technology that can individualize chemotherapy. This study was undertaken to assess the usefulness of ATP-CRA in advanced colorectal cancer (CRC) patients receiving adjuvant chemotherapy. METHODS: A total of 136 patients with curative resection between January 2006 and April 2014 were evaluated using ATP-CRA. Patients received either the FOLFOX or Mayo clinic regimen chemotherapy following assay results. The sensitive-group (S-group) was defined as a drug-producing ≥ 40% reduction in ATP, and the resistant-group (R-group) as an ATP reduction of < 40%. These 2 groups were further subdivided to produce 4 subgroups: the FOLFOX sensitive subgroup (the FS subgroup [n = 65]), the Mayo sensitive subgroup (the MS subgroup [n = 40]), the FOLFOX resistant subgroup (the FR subgroup [n = 10]), and the Mayo resistant subgroup (the MR subgroup [n = 21]). Clinical responses and survival results were compared for both treatment regimens. RESULTS: The FS and MS subgroups showed a better disease-free survival rate (29% vs. 40%, 35% vs. 47.6%) and overall survival rate (92.3% vs. 80.0%, 87.5% vs. 76.2%) than FR and MR subgroups. The FS and MS subgroups showed a longer time to relapse (20.2 months vs. 9.5 months, 17.6 months vs. 16.4 months) than the FR and MR subgroups. CONCLUSION: ATP-CRA tailored-chemotherapy has the potential to provide a survival benefit in resectable advanced CRC.


Subject(s)
Adenosine Triphosphate , Adenosine , Chemotherapy, Adjuvant , Colorectal Neoplasms , Disease-Free Survival , Drug Screening Assays, Antitumor , Drug Therapy , Humans , Recurrence , Survival Rate
12.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-741872

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: In order to prevent tuberculosis transmission early, it is important to diagnose and treat tuberculosis infection by investigating people who have contact with patients with active tuberculosis. METHODS: From July 2014 to June 2017, the intrafamilial childhood contacts of the patients who were diagnosed with active tuberculosis at Chungnam National University Hospital were investigated for the presence of tuberculosis infection. We also retrospectively analyzed the treatment status of children treated with latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) during the same period. RESULTS: Among the 269 children who had intrafamilial contact with active tuberculosis patient, 20 (7.4%) did not receive any screening. At the first screening, one (0.4%) was diagnosed with pulmonary tuberculosis, seven (2.8%) had a previous history of tuberculosis infection, and 42 patients (16.9%) were diagnosed with LTBI. At the second screening, 29 patients (11.6%) were diagnosed with LTBI, and 61 patients did not finish the investigation. Only 188 (69.9%) out of 269 patients completed the investigation. Ninety patients received treatment for LTBI and 83 patients (92.2%) completed the treatment, of which 18 patients had side effects such as rash, fatigue, and gastrointestinal symptoms. However, there were no serious side effects requiring treatment discontinuation. CONCLUSIONS: The completion rate of childhood tuberculosis contact investigation was low, but the completion rate of LTBI treatment was high in children without serious side effects. In order to prevent and manage the spread of tuberculosis, active private-public partnership efforts and education of the patient and guardian are needed.


Subject(s)
Child , Disease Transmission, Infectious , Education , Exanthema , Fatigue , Humans , Latent Tuberculosis , Mass Screening , Retrospective Studies , Tuberculosis , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary
13.
Infection and Chemotherapy ; : 357-361, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-722309

ABSTRACT

While carbapenems are the drug of choice to treat extended-spectrum-β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing strains, some alternative carbapenem-sparing regimens are suggested for antibiotic stewardship. We experienced a case of ciprofloxacin treatment failure for acute pyelonephritis caused by an apparently susceptible Escherichia coli. A 71-year-old woman presented the emergency department with fever for 7 days and bilateral flank pain for 2 days. The laboratory results and abdominopelvic computed tomography finding were compatible with acute pyelonephritis. During 3-day ciprofloxacin therapy, the patient remained febrile with persistent bacteremia. After the change in antibiotics to ertapenem, the patient’s clinical course started to improve. ESBL-producing E. coli isolates were identified in all three consecutive blood samples. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) patterns, serotypes, and sequence types showed the three isolates were derived from the identical strain. The isolates produced CTX-M-14 type ESBL belonging to the ST69 clonal group. Despite in vitro susceptibility, the failure was attributed to a gyrA point mutation encoding Ser83Leu within quinolone resistance-determining regions. This case suggests that ciprofloxacin should be used cautiously in the treatment of serious infections caused by ciprofloxacin-susceptible, ESBL-producing E. coli, even in acute pyelonephritis because in-vitro susceptibility tests could fail to detect certain genetic mutations.


Subject(s)
Aged , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Bacteremia , Carbapenems , Ciprofloxacin , Electrophoresis, Gel, Pulsed-Field , Emergency Service, Hospital , Escherichia coli , Escherichia , Female , Fever , Flank Pain , Humans , In Vitro Techniques , Point Mutation , Pyelonephritis , Serogroup , Treatment Failure
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-918441

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Implants are becoming the first choice of rehabilitation for tooth loss. Even though they have a high success rate, failures still occur for many reasons. The objective of this study is to analyze the reasons for recurring failure at the same site and the results of re-implantation.@*METHODS@#Thirteen patients (11 males and 2 females, mean age 60 ± 9.9 years) who experienced implant surgery failure at the same site (same tooth extraction area) two or more times in the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, between 2004 and 2017 were selected. The medical records on a type, sites, diameter, and length of implants; time and estimated cause of failure; and radiographs were reviewed. Data were collected and analyzed retrospectively, and the current statuses were evaluated.@*RESULTS@#A total of 14 implants experienced failure in the same site more than two times. Twelve implants were placed in the maxilla, while 2 implants were placed in the mandible. The maxillary molar area was the most common site of failure (57.1%), followed by the mandibular molar, anterior maxilla, and premolar areas (14.3% each).The first failure occurred most commonly after prosthetic treatment (35.7%) with an average period of failure of 3.8 months after loading. Ten cases were treated as immediate re-implantation, while the other 4 were delayed re-implantation after an average of 3.9 months. The second failure occurred most commonly after prosthetic treatment (42.9%), with an average of 31 months after loading; during the healing period (42.9%); and during the ongoing prosthetic period (14.3%). In 3 cases (21.4%), the treatment plan was altered to an implant bridge, while the other 11 cases underwent another implant placement procedure (78.6%).Finally, a total of 9 implants (64.3%) survived, with an average functioning period of 60 months.@*CONCLUSIONS@#Implants can fail repeatedly at the same site due to overloading, infection, and other unspecified reasons. The age and sex of the patient and the location of implant placement seem to be associated with recurring failure. Type of implant, bone augmentation, and bone materials used are less relevant.ELECTRONIC SUPPLEMENTARY MATERIAL: The online version of this article (10.1186/s40902-019-0209-1) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-766069

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Oral lichen planus (OLP) is a chronic oral mucosal disease that has been recognized as an immune condition. The purpose of this study was to evaluate factors affecting the clinical outcomes of topical corticosteroid application on OLP lesions using dexamethasone gargle and ointment. METHODS: The charts of patients who were clinically diagnosed with OLP and treated with dexamethasone from July 2003 to August 2017 at the Section of Dentistry of Seoul National University Bundang Hospital were thoroughly evaluated to identify subjects who were suitable for this retrospective study. For each patient, age at the index date, gender, medical history, and dental records related to OLP lesions and dexamethasone treatment were reviewed. RESULTS: In total, 113 of the 225 patients were included in the present study. Among them, 79 patients were female (69.9%) and 34 were male (30.1%), with a mean age of 57.6 years. The average duration of dexamethasone treatment was 4.7 months and the mean follow-up period was 2.24 years. Improvements were observed within 1 year after dexamethasone treatment in most cases, and 17.7% of patients had a new OLP lesion after treatment. New OLP lesions were more frequently gingival than mucosal, although mucosal OLP lesions were more common than gingival OLP lesions in all age groups. In age- and gender-adjusted multivariate logistic regression, a history of malignant disease was found to be a significant factor affecting the formation of new lesions. Gingival OLP lesions and intermittent use of dexamethasone showed near-significant associations. In Kaplan-Meier failure analysis, history of malignancy, menopausal status, age, and the site of the OLP lesion were significant factors affecting clinical outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: The treatment outcomes of OLP were significantly influenced by age, history of malignancy, menopausal status, and the site of the OLP lesion, but not by factors related to dexamethasone treatment.


Subject(s)
Dental Records , Dentistry , Dexamethasone , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Lichen Planus, Oral , Logistic Models , Male , Retrospective Studies , Seoul , Survival Analysis
16.
Infection and Chemotherapy ; : 357-361, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-721804

ABSTRACT

While carbapenems are the drug of choice to treat extended-spectrum-β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing strains, some alternative carbapenem-sparing regimens are suggested for antibiotic stewardship. We experienced a case of ciprofloxacin treatment failure for acute pyelonephritis caused by an apparently susceptible Escherichia coli. A 71-year-old woman presented the emergency department with fever for 7 days and bilateral flank pain for 2 days. The laboratory results and abdominopelvic computed tomography finding were compatible with acute pyelonephritis. During 3-day ciprofloxacin therapy, the patient remained febrile with persistent bacteremia. After the change in antibiotics to ertapenem, the patient’s clinical course started to improve. ESBL-producing E. coli isolates were identified in all three consecutive blood samples. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) patterns, serotypes, and sequence types showed the three isolates were derived from the identical strain. The isolates produced CTX-M-14 type ESBL belonging to the ST69 clonal group. Despite in vitro susceptibility, the failure was attributed to a gyrA point mutation encoding Ser83Leu within quinolone resistance-determining regions. This case suggests that ciprofloxacin should be used cautiously in the treatment of serious infections caused by ciprofloxacin-susceptible, ESBL-producing E. coli, even in acute pyelonephritis because in-vitro susceptibility tests could fail to detect certain genetic mutations.


Subject(s)
Aged , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Bacteremia , Carbapenems , Ciprofloxacin , Electrophoresis, Gel, Pulsed-Field , Emergency Service, Hospital , Escherichia coli , Escherichia , Female , Fever , Flank Pain , Humans , In Vitro Techniques , Point Mutation , Pyelonephritis , Serogroup , Treatment Failure
17.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-742093

ABSTRACT

In edentulous patients, the advantages of prosthodontic therapy using oral implants include both stability and comfort. Advantages suggested for this approach include the prevention of mandibular bone resorption and increased masticatory function. Implant hybrid prostheses place 4 to 6 implants between the mental foramens, and cantilevers are used to replace the posterior teeth at both ends. The 85


Subject(s)
Bone Resorption , Denture, Complete , Female , Humans , Mandible , Maxilla , Mouth Rehabilitation , Mouth , Prostheses and Implants , Tooth
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-741603

ABSTRACT

Ginseng (Panax ginseng) is recognized as one of the most valuable medicinal herbs in Asia and it contains diverse phytochemicals that contribute to its pharmacological effects. Although lipids represent a major component of ginseng, ginseng lipids are still far from being fully explored. This review is focused on ginseng lipid components and methodologies of their analysis. The ginseng lipid compounds were categorized according to the structural features of each lipid class. This basic information on ginseng lipid components and the analysis methods will be applicable to authentification or quality control of ginseng products, and development of lipid-based pharmaceuticals and nutraceuticals from ginseng.


Subject(s)
Asia , Dietary Supplements , Panax , Phytochemicals , Plants, Medicinal , Quality Control
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-713812

ABSTRACT

No abstract available.


Subject(s)
Hand , Radiography
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-80646

ABSTRACT

Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leaks are one of the common complications after traumatic brain injuries (TBI). The risks of CSF leaks can be detrimental to the outcomes of the patients. Early diagnosis and proper management is imperative for it is strongly associated with a better long-term prognosis of the patients. Diagnostic tools for CSF leaks are still under debate. Nevertheless, many reports of successful treatments for CSF leaks have been published with introduction of various repair techniques for leakage sites even though it is surgically challenging. Hereby, we review about the pathophysiology, manifestations as well as the update of the clinical diagnosis and current management of CSF leaks.


Subject(s)
Brain Injuries , Cerebrospinal Fluid Leak , Cerebrospinal Fluid , Diagnosis , Early Diagnosis , Humans , Meningitis , Prognosis
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