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1.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 513-522, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-976715

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Assessing the metastasis status of the sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs) for hematoxylin and eosin–stained frozen tissue sections by pathologists is an essential but tedious and time-consuming task that contributes to accurate breast cancer staging. This study aimed to review a challenge competition (HeLP 2019) for the development of automated solutions for classifying the metastasis status of breast cancer patients. @*Materials and Methods@#A total of 524 digital slides were obtained from frozen SLN sections: 297 (56.7%) from Asan Medical Center (AMC) and 227 (43.4%) from Seoul National University Bundang Hospital (SNUBH), South Korea. The slides were divided into training, development, and validation sets, where the development set comprised slides from both institutions and training and validation set included slides from only AMC and SNUBH, respectively. The algorithms were assessed for area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) and measurement of the longest metastatic tumor diameter. The final total scores were calculated as the mean of the two metrics, and the three teams with AUC values greater than 0.500 were selected for review and analysis in this study. @*Results@#The top three teams showed AUC values of 0.891, 0.809, and 0.736 and major axis prediction scores of 0.525, 0.459, and 0.387 for the validation set. The major factor that lowered the diagnostic accuracy was micro-metastasis. @*Conclusion@#In this challenge competition, accurate deep learning algorithms were developed that can be helpful for making a diagnosis on intraoperative SLN biopsy. The clinical utility of this approach was evaluated by including an external validation set from SNUBH.

2.
Korean Journal of Radiology ; : 866-877, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-938777

ABSTRACT

Objective@#The optimal imaging approach for evaluating pathological nipple discharge remains unclear. We investigated the value of adding ductography to ultrasound (US) for evaluating pathologic nipple discharge in patients with negative mammography findings. @*Materials and Methods@#From July 2003 to December 2018, 101 women (mean age, 46.3 ± 12.2 years; range, 23–75 years) with pathologic nipple discharge were evaluated using pre-ductography (initial) US, ductography, and post-ductography US. The imaging findings were reviewed retrospectively. The standard reference was surgery (70 patients) or > 2 years of followup with US (31 patients). The diagnostic performances of initial US, ductography, and post-ductography US for detecting malignancy were compared using the McNemar’s test or a generalized estimating equation. @*Results@#In total, 47 papillomas, 30 other benign lesions, seven high-risk lesions, and 17 malignant lesions were identified as underlying causes of pathologic nipple discharge. Only eight of the 17 malignancies were detected on the initial US, while the remaining nine malignancies were detected by ductography. Among the nine malignancies detected by ductography, eight were detected on post-ductography US and could be localized for US-guided intervention. The sensitivities of ductography (94.1% [16/17]) and post-ductography US (94.1% [16/17]) were significantly higher than those of initial US (47.1% [8/17]; p = 0.027 and 0.013, respectively). The negative predictive value of post-ductography US (96.9% [31/32]) was significantly higher than that of the initial US (83.3% [45/54]; p = 0.006). Specificity was significantly higher for initial US than for ductography and post-ductography US (p = 0.001 for all). @*Conclusion@#The combined use of ductography and US has a high sensitivity for detecting malignancy in patients with pathologic nipple discharge and negative mammography. Ductography findings enable lesion localization on second-look post-ductography US, thus facilitating the selection of optimal treatment plans.

3.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 488-496, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-925669

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#We aimed to assess the real-world efficacy of nab-paclitaxel in metastatic breast cancer patients. @*Materials and Methods@#This is a retrospective study performed in two tertiary referral hospitals in Korea. Patients with metastatic breast cancer treated with nab-paclitaxel (Abraxane®) between March 2016 and March 2020 were enrolled. @*Results@#A total of 102 patients with metastatic breast cancer were included. Patients were heavily pre-treated with a median of four prior lines of chemotherapy (5 lines when including endocrine therapy in hormone-receptor-positive patients), and 66 patients (64.7%) were exposed to taxanes in the metastatic setting. According to St. Gallen molecular subtypes, 36 patients (35.3%) were luminal A, 28 (27.5%) were luminal B, 18 (17.7%) were human epidermal growth factor receptor 2–positive and 20 (19.6%) had triple-negative disease. Fifty patients (49.0%) were treated with a 3-weekly regimen (260 mg/m2 on day 1 every 3 weeks), and 52 (51.0%) were treated with a weekly regimen (100 mg/m2 every week). Objective response rate was 22.9%. After a median follow-up of 22.0 months, median progression-free survival (PFS) was 4.0 months (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.6 to 4.8) and median overall survival was 8.7 months (95% CI, 7.5 to 11.2). Patients treated with weekly regimen had longer PFS compared to 3-weekly regimen (5.5 vs. 2.3 months, p < 0.001). Multivariate analysis revealed the treatment regimen as an independent prognostic factor for PFS. There was no grade 3 or 4 hypersensitivity reaction. @*Conclusion@#This real-world data shows that nab-paclitaxel is a reasonable treatment option in heavily pre-treated and/or taxane-exposed metastatic breast cancer patients.

4.
Journal of the Korean Society of Maternal and Child Health ; : 260-268, 2021.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-916587

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#This study aimed to examine the pediatric sedation knowledge and performance of nurses in tertiary hospitals. @*Methods@#Altogether 120 nurses working in the Pediatric Departments of 4 tertiary hospitals in Busan and Kyungnam participated in this descriptive survey. The questionnaire was developed based on domestic and international guidelines and consisted of 40 questions including 18 questions on knowledge and 22 on the performance level of sedation nursing. @*Results@#The mean score regarding the knowledge of pediatric sedation care was 3.14 points and the mean performance level score was 3.44 points. Questions that received low scores in terms of pediatric sedation care knowledge included items regarding the latest policies, level of sedation, and fasting before sedation. Questions that received low scores in the performance level included items regarding psychological preparation before sedation, sedation education considering developmental level and disease, and items related to blood pressure measurement. Pediatric sedation knowledge scores were higher in the groups with higher age, longer clinical experience, higher educational experience, and awareness of sedation guidelines. Performance scores were significantly higher in the groups having educational experience in pediatric sedation and in those exhibiting awareness of sedation guidelines. @*Conclusion@#Sedation education was significantly associated with both knowledge and performance of sedation nursing, conducting educational programs on pediatric sedation nursing.

5.
Journal of Pathology and Translational Medicine ; : 380-387, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-915798

ABSTRACT

Background@#Papillary breast lesions (PBLs) comprise diverse entities from benign and atypical lesions to malignant tumors. Although PBLs are characterized by a papillary growth pattern, it is challenging to achieve high diagnostic accuracy and reproducibility. Thus, we investigated the diagnostic reproducibility of PBLs in core needle biopsy (CNB) specimens with World Health Organization (WHO) classification. @*Methods@#Diagnostic reproducibility was assessed using interobserver variability (kappa value, κ) and agreement rate in the pathologic diagnosis of 60 PBL cases on CNB among 20 breast pathologists affiliated with 20 medical institutions in Korea. This analysis was performed using hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining and immunohistochemical (IHC) staining for cytokeratin 5 (CK5) and p63. The pathologic diagnosis of PBLs was based on WHO classification, which was used to establish simple classifications (4-tier, 3-tier, and 2-tier). @*Results@#On WHO classification, H&E staining exhibited ‘fair agreement’ (κ = 0.21) with a 47.0% agreement rate. Simple classifications presented improvement in interobserver variability and agreement rate. IHC staining increased the kappa value and agreement rate in all the classifications. Despite IHC staining, the encapsulated/solid papillary carcinoma (EPC/SPC) subgroup (κ = 0.16) exhibited lower agreement compared to the non-EPC/SPC subgroup (κ = 0.35) with WHO classification, which was similar to the results of any other classification systems. @*Conclusions@#Although the use of IHC staining for CK5 and p63 increased the diagnostic agreement of PBLs in CNB specimens, WHO classification exhibited a higher discordance rate compared to any other classifications. Therefore, this result warrants further intensive consensus studies to improve the diagnostic reproducibility of PBLs with WHO classification.

6.
Journal of Pathology and Translational Medicine ; : 1-15, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-874885

ABSTRACT

Given the recent advances in management and understanding of breast cancer, a standardized pathology report reflecting these changes is critical. To meet this need, the Breast Pathology Study Group of the Korean Society of Pathologists has developed a standardized pathology reporting format for breast cancer, consisting of ‘standard data elements,’ ‘conditional data elements,’ and a biomarker report form. The ‘standard data elements’ consist of the basic pathologic features used for prognostication, while other factors related to prognosis or diagnosis are described in the ‘conditional data elements.’ In addition to standard data elements, all recommended issues are also presented. We expect that this standardized pathology report for breast cancer will improve diagnostic concordance and communication between pathologists and clinicians, as well as between pathologists inter-institutionally.

7.
Journal of Breast Cancer ; : 1-21, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898999

ABSTRACT

Given the recent advances in management and understanding of breast cancer, a standardized pathology report reflecting these changes is critical. To meet this need, the Breast Pathology Study Group of the Korean Society of Pathologists has developed a standardized pathology reporting format for breast cancer, consisting of ‘standard data elements,’ ‘conditional data elements,’ and a biomarker report form. The ‘standard data elements’ consist of the basic pathologic features used for prognostication, while other factors related to prognosis or diagnosis are described in the ‘conditional data elements.’ In addition to standard data elements, all recommended issues are also presented. We expect that this standardized pathology report for breast cancer will improve diagnostic concordance and communication between pathologists and clinicians, as well as between pathologists inter-institutionally.

8.
Journal of Breast Cancer ; : 1-21, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-891295

ABSTRACT

Given the recent advances in management and understanding of breast cancer, a standardized pathology report reflecting these changes is critical. To meet this need, the Breast Pathology Study Group of the Korean Society of Pathologists has developed a standardized pathology reporting format for breast cancer, consisting of ‘standard data elements,’ ‘conditional data elements,’ and a biomarker report form. The ‘standard data elements’ consist of the basic pathologic features used for prognostication, while other factors related to prognosis or diagnosis are described in the ‘conditional data elements.’ In addition to standard data elements, all recommended issues are also presented. We expect that this standardized pathology report for breast cancer will improve diagnostic concordance and communication between pathologists and clinicians, as well as between pathologists inter-institutionally.

9.
Ultrasonography ; : 520-529, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-919545

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#This study aimed to predict a heavy nodal burden (≥3 metastatic axillary lymph nodes [LNs]) using axillary ultrasonography (US) and US-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) in patients with early-stage breast cancer. @*Methods@#We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 403 women (404 cancers) who underwent US-guided FNAB for axillary LN staging from January 2006 to December 2015. US findings and US-guided FNAB results were reviewed and compared using pathology results as the reference. Diagnostic performance was analyzed, and clinicopathological and radiological findings were compared between patients with <3 metastatic LNs and ≥3 metastatic LNs. @*Results@#The final pathology results revealed that 20.5% of cancers had heavy nodal metastases. US-guided FNAB showed significantly higher sensitivity (79.0% vs. 63.0%, P=0.009) and specificity (84.8% vs. 79.3%, P=0.036) in predicting heavy nodal metastases than did US. The presence of a larger number of suspicious LNs (two or more) on axillary US and positive FNAB results were significantly correlated with a heavy nodal burden in the multivariate analysis. The odds ratios were 4.20 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.90 to 9.39) for two suspicious LNs, 9.40 (95% CI, 2.99 to 29.54) for three or more suspicious LNs, and 14.22 (95% CI, 6.78 to 29.82) for positive FNAB results. @*Conclusion@#The number of suspicious LNs detected on axillary US and FNAB results can help predict a heavy axillary nodal burden in patients with early-stage breast cancer.

10.
Ultrasonography ; : 83-92, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-919514

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#The purpose of this study was to measure the cancer detection rate of computer-aided detection (CAD) software in preoperative automated breast ultrasonography (ABUS) of breast cancer patients and to determine the characteristics associated with false-negative outcomes. @*Methods@#A total of 129 index lesions (median size, 1.7 cm; interquartile range, 1.2 to 2.4 cm) from 129 consecutive patients (mean age±standard deviation, 53.4±11.8 years) who underwent preoperative ABUS from December 2017 to February 2018 were assessed. An index lesion was defined as a breast cancer confirmed by ultrasonography (US)-guided core needle biopsy. The detection rate of the index lesions, positive predictive value (PPV), and false-positive rate (FPR) of the CAD software were measured. Subgroup analysis was performed to identify clinical and US findings associated with false-negative outcomes. @*Results@#The detection rate of the CAD software was 0.84 (109 of 129; 95% confidence interval, 0.77 to 0.90). The PPV and FPR were 0.41 (221 of 544; 95% CI, 0.36 to 0.45) and 0.45 (174 of 387; 95% CI, 0.40 to 0.50), respectively. False-negative outcomes were more frequent in asymptomatic patients (P<0.001) and were associated with the following US findings: smaller size (P=0.001), depth in the posterior third (P=0.002), angular or indistinct margin (P<0.001), and absence of architectural distortion (P<0.001). @*Conclusion@#The CAD software showed a promising detection rate of breast cancer. However, radiologists should judge whether CAD software-marked lesions are true- or false-positive lesions, considering its low PPV and high FPR. Moreover, it would be helpful for radiologists to consider the characteristics associated with false-negative outcomes when reading ABUS with CAD.

11.
Korean Journal of Health Promotion ; : 175-183, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-917753

ABSTRACT

Background@#Although there are various interventions for eating disorders in type 1 diabetes patients, it is difficult to interpret them comprehensively. The purpose of this study is to analyze eating disorder intervention studies in type 1 diabetes patients and to compare the characteristics of each study. @*Methods@#For this study, PICOTS-SD was established. We searched studies published in Korean and English from 2000 to 2020 in KCI, RISS, NDSL, KISS, MEDLINE, CINAHL, Pubmed, and Embase. @*Results@#For the intervention of eating disorders in patients with type 1 diabetes, psycho-education and self-compassion programs were implemented. The intervention period varied from 4 to 6 weeks, and physiological variables, eating disorder variables, and emotional variables were used interventions. But the number of participants was small and the results of the study were inconsistent. @*Conclusions@#Through this study, the possibility of resolving the difficulties of eating disorder intervention in type 1 diabetes patients was confirmed. In the future, more randomized controlled trials with larger samples are needed to extend the evidence base.

12.
Journal of Pathology and Translational Medicine ; : 265-275, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-834541

ABSTRACT

BRCA1/2 germline mutations account for the majority of hereditary breast cancers. Since the identification of the BRCA genes, several attempts have been made to define the clinicopathological characteristics of BRCA-associated breast cancer in comparison with sporadic breast cancer. Asians constitute 60% of the world population, and although the incidence of breast cancer in Asia remains low compared to the West, breast cancer is the most prevalent female cancer in the region. The epidemiological aspects of breast cancer are different between Asians and Caucasians. Asian patients present with breast cancer at a younger age than Western patients. The contributions of BRCA1/2 mutations to breast cancer incidence are expected to differ between Asians and Caucasians, and the different genetic backgrounds among races are likely to influence the breast cancer phenotypes. However, most large-scale studies on the clinicopathological characteristics of BRCA-associated breast cancer have been on Western patients, while studies on Asian populations were small and sporadic. In this review, we provide an overview of the clinical and pathological characteristics of BRCA-associated breast cancer, incorporating findings on Asian patients.

13.
Journal of Pathology and Translational Medicine ; : 34-44, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-834532

ABSTRACT

Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) protein overexpression and/or HER2 gene amplification is found in about 20% of invasive breast cancers. It is a sole predictive marker for treatment benefits from HER2 targeted therapy and thus, HER2 testing is a routine practice for newly diagnosed breast cancer in pathology. Currently, HER2 immunohistochemistry (IHC) is used for a screening test, and in situ hybridization is used as a confirmation test for HER2 IHC equivocal cases. Since the American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO)/College of American Pathologists (CAP) guidelines on HER2 testing was first released in 2007, it has been updated to provide clear instructions for HER2 testing and accurate determination of HER2 status in breast cancer. During HER2 interpretation, some pitfalls such as intratumoral HER2 heterogeneity and increase in chromosome enumeration probe 17 signals may lead to inaccurate assessment of HER2 status. Moreover, HER2 status can be altered after neoadjuvant chemotherapy or during metastatic progression, due to biologic or methodologic issues. This review addresses recent updates of ASCO/CAP guidelines and factors complicating in the interpretation of HER2 status in breast cancers.

14.
Infection and Chemotherapy ; : 453-459, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-834274

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has spread widely across the world since January 2020.There are many challenges when caring for patients with COVID-19, one of which is infection prevention and control. In particular, in cases where surgery must absolutely be performed, special infection control may be required in order to perform surgery without spreading infection within the hospital. We aim to present potentially useful recommendations for nondeferrable surgery for COVID-19 patients based on in vivo and in vitro research and clinical experiences from many countries.

15.
Journal of Breast Cancer ; : 439-452, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764278

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: There is cumulative evidence that changes in biomarker status occur frequently during the metastatic progression of breast cancer and affect treatment response. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the frequency of biomarker changes in metastatic breast cancer (MBC) and its impact on prognosis. METHODS: A total of 152 patients diagnosed with MBC at the time of initial diagnosis or during post-surgical follow-up were included. Changes in biomarker status in MBCs, their frequency according to various metastatic sites, tumor characteristics, and their association with patient survival were analyzed. RESULTS: Estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2), and Ki-67 status changed in 9 (6.0%), 40 (26.3%), 12 (7.9%), and 29 (19.1%) patients, respectively. ER, PR, and HER2 mainly showed positive to negative conversion, whereas Ki-67 changed mostly from a low to high index. There were no differences in the frequencies of biomarker changes according to the metastatic sites. As for ER and HER2, cases with negative conversion showed low expression levels in the primary tumor. Survival analyses indicated that a positive to negative conversion of ER was an independent poor prognostic factor in patients with primary ER-positive breast cancer. CONCLUSION: Changes in biomarker status are not rare, and usually occur in an unfavorable direction in breast cancer metastases. Negative conversion of ER status is a predictor of poor prognosis. Thus, it is beneficial to evaluate changes in biomarker status in MBC not only for the purpose of determining treatment options but also for prognostication of patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Biomarkers , Breast Neoplasms , Breast , Diagnosis , Estrogens , Follow-Up Studies , Neoplasm Metastasis , Prognosis , ErbB Receptors , Receptors, Progesterone
16.
Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases ; : 27-34, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-719620

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Understanding the burden of disease is important to establish cost-effective treatment strategies and to allocate healthcare resources appropriately. However, little reliable information is available regarding the overall economic burden imposed by chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in Korea. METHODS: This study is a multicenter observational research on the COPD burden in Korea. Total COPD costs were comprised of three categories: direct medical, direct non-medical, and indirect costs. For direct medical costs, institutional investigation was performed at 13 medical facilities mainly based on the claims data. For direct non-medical and indirect costs, site-based surveys were administered to the COPD patients during routine visits. Total costs were estimated using the COPD population defined in the recent report. RESULTS: The estimated total costs were approximately 1,245 million US dollar (1,408 billion Korean won). Direct medical costs comprised approximately 20% of the total estimated costs. Of these, formal medical costs held more than 80%. As direct non-medical costs, nursing costs made up the largest percentage (39%) of the total estimated costs. Costs for COPD-related loss of productivity formed four fifths of indirect costs, and accounted for up to 33% of the total costs. CONCLUSION: This study shows for the first time the direct and indirect costs of COPD in Korea. The total costs were enormous, and the costs of nursing and lost productivity comprised approximately 70% of total costs. The results provide insight for an effective allocation of healthcare resources and to inform establishment of strategies to reduce national burden of COPD.


Subject(s)
Humans , Delivery of Health Care , Efficiency , Health Care Costs , Korea , Nursing , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive
17.
Journal of Pathology and Translational Medicine ; : 378-385, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-786127

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In the present multi-institutional study, the prevalence and clinicopathologic characteristics of non-invasive follicular thyroid neoplasm with papillary-like nuclear features (NIFTP) were evaluated among Korean patients who underwent thyroidectomy for papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC).METHODS: Data from 18,819 patients with PTC from eight university hospitals between January 2012 and February 2018 were retrospectively evaluated. Pathology reports of all PTCs and slides of potential NIFTP cases were reviewed. The strict criterion of no papillae was applied for the diagnosis of NIFTP. Due to assumptions regarding misclassification of NIFTP as non-PTC tumors, the lower boundary of NIFTP prevalence among PTCs was estimated. Mutational analysis for BRAF and three RAS isoforms was performed in 27 randomly selected NIFTP cases.RESULTS: The prevalence of NIFTP was 1.3% (238/18,819) of all PTCs when the same histologic criteria were applied for NIFTP regardless of the tumor size but decreased to 0.8% (152/18,819) when tumors ≥1 cm in size were included. The mean follow-up was 37.7 months and no patient with NIFTP had evidence of lymph node metastasis, distant metastasis, or disease recurrence during the follow-up period. A difference in prevalence of NIFTP before and after NIFTP introduction was not observed. BRAF(V600E) mutation was not found in NIFTP. The mutation rate for the three RAS genes was 55.6% (15/27).CONCLUSIONS: The low prevalence and indolent clinical outcome of NIFTP in Korea was confirmed using the largest number of cases to date. The introduction of NIFTP may have a small overall impact in Korean practice.


Subject(s)
Humans , Carcinoma, Papillary , Diagnosis , Follow-Up Studies , Genes, ras , Hospitals, University , Korea , Lymph Nodes , Mutation Rate , Neoplasm Metastasis , Pathology , Prevalence , Protein Isoforms , Recurrence , Retrospective Studies , Thyroid Gland , Thyroid Neoplasms , Thyroidectomy
20.
Korean Journal of Dental Materials ; (4): 11-20, 2019.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-750280

ABSTRACT

Objective of this study was to compare the color stability, mechanical and chemical properties of three different types of temporary crown resins. Commercially available powder-liquid (Group PL), light-cured (Group LC) and auto-mix syringe (Group AM) types' temporary crown resins were used as experimental groups for each of the evaluation. All the test groups were evaluated after 1 day and 7 days of immersion in various staining solutions. The colors of all groups before and after storage in the staining solutions were measured by a spectrophotometer based on CIE Lab system, and the color differences (ΔE(*)) thereby calculated. Micro hardness test was performed before water storage and aging after 7 days at 37 ℃. In addition, flexural strength, water sorption and solubility tests were performed according to international standard, ISO 10477. All experimental groups showed significant color change in staining solutions when compared to those stored in the control solution (distilled water) (p PL > LC (p<0.05). Water sorption and solubility increased in the following order: AM < PL < LC (p<0.05). The results of this study would provide useful information when choosing temporary crown resin types in various clinical situations.


Subject(s)
Aging , Crowns , Hardness Tests , Immersion , Solubility , Syringes , Water
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