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1.
Investigative Magnetic Resonance Imaging ; : 237-245, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-967022

ABSTRACT

In aging societies, incidences of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease and Parkinson’s disease are increasing. Neurodegenerative diseases are bringing main challenges to the healthcare system in today’s world. Analyzing characteristic imaging patterns of patients with neurodegenerative diseases is important. Since objective and reliable imaging assessments and precise analyses can lead to early diagnosis of neurodegenerative diseases, imaging patterns are being increasingly investigated. Artificial intelligence (AI) analyzing brain MRI has been applied to neurodegenerative diseases, providing added value in early diagnosis. MRI-based AI software has been developed and studied worldwide, with some AI-based software already being used in actual clinical care. Currently, there are MRI-based volumetry and segmentation software available. There is also an unmet demand for the application of AI in neurodegenerative diseases. Here, we review current status and unmet needs for application of AI in neurodegenerative diseases. We also discuss current limitations of AI, suggestion for AI-based software, and how it can be clinically applied in the future.

2.
Ultrasonography ; : 204-211, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-919554

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) and ethanol ablation (EA) are effective and safe for benign symptomatic thyroid nodules (BSTNs). However, relatively little is known about the effects of these procedures on patients’ quality of life (QoL). This prospective, multicenter study evaluated the effects of RFA and EA on changes in thyroid-specific QoL in patients with BSTNs and assessed the volume reduction and safety of these procedures. @*Methods@#Eighty-six consecutive patients with 86 BSTNs were prospectively included from two medical centers. RFA was performed for 55 BSTNs with solidity ≥50% and EA was performed for 31 BSTNs with solidity <50%. QoL was evaluated using an 11-scale, multiple-choice thyroid-specific QoL questionnaire. Nodule characteristics and QoL were evaluated at diagnosis and 1, 6, and 12 months after treatment. Overall QoL was rated from 0 (good) to 4 (poor). @*Results@#The mean longest size and volume of the index nodule were 4.2±1.5 cm and 21.6±22.1 mL, respectively. Patients received 1.1 treatments on average (range, 1 to 2). Significant post-treatment volume reductions were noted; however, the EA group showed a higher volume reduction than the RFA group at 1 (78.7%-16.1% vs. 49.1%-15.8%), 6 (86.3%-21.7% vs. 73.0%-14.5%), and 12 (90.9%-14.9% vs. 80.3%-12.4%) months. The score for each scale of the QoL questionnaire improved significantly during follow-up (all P<0.001). Overall QoL improved significantly, from 1.7±0.9 at diagnosis to 0.6±0.7 at the 12-month follow-up (P<0.001). There were no major complications. @*Conclusion@#Both RFA and EA are safe and effective in reducing nodule volume and improving thyroid-specific QoL in patients with BSTNs.

3.
Korean Journal of Radiology ; : 828-834, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-938757

ABSTRACT

Objective@#This study aimed to assess the outcomes of outpatient day-care management of unruptured intracranial aneurysm (UIA), and to present the risks associated with different management strategies by comparing the outcomes and adverse events between outpatient day-care management and management with longer admission periods. @*Materials and Methods@#This retrospective cohort study used prospectively registered data and was approved by a local institutional review board. We enrolled 956 UIAs from 811 consecutive patients (mean age ± standard deviation, 57 ± 10.7 years; male:female = 247:564) from 2017 to 2020. We compared the outcomes after embolization among the different admission-length groups (1, 2, and ≥ 3 days). The outcomes included pre- and post-modified Rankin Scale (mRS) scores and rates of adverse events, cure, recurrence, and reprocedure. Events were defined as any cerebrovascular problems, including minor and major stroke, death, or hemorrhage. @*Results@#The mean admission period was 2 days, and 175 patients (191 aneurysms), 551 patients (664 aneurysms), and 85 patients (101 aneurysms) were discharged on the day of the procedure, day 2, and day 3 or later, respectively. During the mean 17-month follow-up period (range 6–53 months; 2757 patient years), no change in post-mRS was observed compared to pre-mRS in 99.6% of patients. Cure was achieved in 95.6% patients; minimal recurrence that did not require re-procedure occurred in 3.5% patients, and re-procedure was required in 2.3% (22 of 956) patients due to progressive enlargement of the recurrent sac during follow up (mean 17 months, range, 6–53 months). There were eight adverse events (0.8%), including five cerebrovascular (two major stroke, two minor strokes and one transient ischemic stroke), and three non-cerebrovascular events. Statistical comparison between groups with different admission lengths (1, 2, and ≥ 3 days) revealed no difference in the outcomes. @*Conclusion@#This study revealed no difference in outcomes and adverse events according to the admission period, and suggested that UIA could be managed by outpatient day-care embolization.

4.
Journal of the Korean Radiological Society ; : 473-485, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-926442

ABSTRACT

and reliable assessment and precise detection are important for the early diagnosis of neurodegenerative diseases. Artificial intelligence (AI) using brain MRI applied to the study of neurodegenerative diseases could promote early diagnosis and optimal decisions for treatment plans. MRI-based AI software have been developed and studied worldwide. Representatively, there are MRI-based volumetry and segmentation software. In this review, we present the development process of brain volumetry analysis software in neurodegenerative diseases, currently used and developed AI software for neurodegenerative disease in the Republic of Korea, probable uses of AI in the future, and AI software limitations.

5.
Korean Journal of Radiology ; : 1379-1396, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-902416

ABSTRACT

Rare neurovascular diseases (RNVDs) have not been well-recognized in Korea. They involve the central nervous system and greatly affect the patients’ lives. However, these diseases are difficult to diagnose and treat due to their rarity and incurability. We established a list of RNVDs by referring to the previous literature and databases worldwide to better understand the diseases and their current management status. We categorized 68 RNVDs based on their pathophysiology and clinical manifestations and estimated the prevalence of each disease in Korea. Recent advances in genetic, molecular, and developmental research have enabled further understanding of these RNVDs. Herein, we review each disease, while considering its classification based on updated pathologic mechanisms, and discuss the management status of RNVD in Korea.

6.
Korean Journal of Radiology ; : 1379-1396, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-894712

ABSTRACT

Rare neurovascular diseases (RNVDs) have not been well-recognized in Korea. They involve the central nervous system and greatly affect the patients’ lives. However, these diseases are difficult to diagnose and treat due to their rarity and incurability. We established a list of RNVDs by referring to the previous literature and databases worldwide to better understand the diseases and their current management status. We categorized 68 RNVDs based on their pathophysiology and clinical manifestations and estimated the prevalence of each disease in Korea. Recent advances in genetic, molecular, and developmental research have enabled further understanding of these RNVDs. Herein, we review each disease, while considering its classification based on updated pathologic mechanisms, and discuss the management status of RNVD in Korea.

7.
Korean Journal of Radiology ; : 459-468, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-741418

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether diagnostic performance of contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) could be improved with modified criteria to diagnose significant hepatic artery occlusion (HAO) and to determine the role of CEUS in patients with a tardus-parvus hepatic artery (HA) pattern on Doppler US. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Among 2679 adult liver transplantations performed over 7 years, HAO was suspected in 288 recipients, based on Doppler ultrasound. Among them, 130 patients underwent CEUS. After excluding two technical failures, 128 CEUS images were retrospectively reviewed to search for abnormal findings, such as no HA enhancement, abnormal HA enhancement (delayed, faint, and discontinuous enhancement), and perfusion defect in the liver parenchyma. The performance CEUS abnormalities were assessed in the patients overall and in subgroups based on Doppler ultrasound abnormality (group A, no flow; group B, tardus-parvus pattern) and were compared based on the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC). RESULTS: HAO were diagnosed in 41 patients by surgery, angiography, or follow-up abnormality. By using the conventional criterion (no HA enhancement) to diagnose HAO in patients overall, the sensitivity, specificity, and AUC were 58.5%, 100%, and 0.793, respectively. Modified criteria for HAO (no HA enhancement, abnormal enhancement, or parenchymal perfusion defect) showed statistically significantly increased sensitivity (97.6%, 40/41) and AUC (0.959) (p < 0.001), although the specificity (95.4%, 83/87) was slightly decreased. The sensitivity and specificity of the modified criteria in Groups A and B were 97.1% (33/34) and 95.7% (22/23), and 100% (7/7) and 95.3% (61/64), respectively. CONCLUSION: Modified criteria could improve diagnostic performance of CEUS for HAO, particularly by increasing sensitivity. CEUS could be useful for diagnosing HAO even in patients with a tardus-parvus HA pattern on Doppler US, using modified criteria.


Subject(s)
Adult , Humans , Angiography , Area Under Curve , Contrast Media , Diagnosis , Follow-Up Studies , Hepatic Artery , Liver Transplantation , Liver , Perfusion , Retrospective Studies , ROC Curve , Sensitivity and Specificity , Ultrasonography
8.
Obstetrics & Gynecology Science ; : 518-525, 2014.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-17027

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine the frequency and distribution of cytogenetically abnormal miscarriages in couples with spontaneous abortions (SA) or recurrent miscarriages (RM). METHODS: Karyotyping of specimens from 164 abortuses with SA and 86 abortuses with RM was successfully performed according to the standard cytogenetic methods using G-banding technique. RESULTS: Among the total 164 cases of SA group, 81 (49.4%) were euploid and the rest (83, 50.6%) showed chromosomal abnormalities. In RM(> or =2) and RM(> or =3) group, 31 (36.0%)/27 (34.6%) cases were euploid and 55 (64.0%)/51(65.4%) cases were abnormal, respectively. A statistically significant difference was found in the rate of cytogenetic abnormality between SA and RM groups (P or =35 years) had a higher rate of chromosome anomalies compared with women younger than age 35 (normal:abnormal = 32.4%:67.6% for > or =35 years and 53.8%:46.2% for or =35 years and 43.3%:56.7%/40.0%:60.0% for or =2) and RM(> or =3), respectively; P<0.05). In SA group, an increase of normal karyotypes was noted with increased gestational age (<10 week, 38.0%; 10-15 week, 53.5%; 16-20 week, 65.7%). In RM group, most of cases were in <10 week and the frequency of trisomies with chromosomes 1 to 10 were increased compared with that of SA. CONCLUSION: There was a statistically significant difference in the frequency and distribution of chromosomal abnormalities between SA and RM groups. Our results will provide useful information for diagnosis and genetic counseling of patients with SA or RM.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Pregnancy , Abortion, Habitual , Abortion, Spontaneous , Chromosome Aberrations , Cytogenetic Analysis , Cytogenetics , Diagnosis , Family Characteristics , Genetic Counseling , Gestational Age , Karyotype , Karyotyping , Maternal Age , Trisomy
9.
Korean Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology ; : 462-466, 2005.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-182327

ABSTRACT

47,XYY males are found in approximately 1 per 1,000 men. There is no significant difference in intelligence compared with a normal karyotype group. 47,XYY males are fertile and are considered to be relatively tall in stature owing to the increased growth velocity during the earliest childhood. It has been known that 47,XYY males are usually quite normally developed at birth with normal birth weight and length without any physical abnormalities. We have experienced a case of 47,XYY male with increased nuchal fold thickness, choroid plexus cyst and limb anomaly and we report the case with brief review of the literature. A 31-year-old woman, who had terminated her first pregnancy due to limb anomaly at 24 weeks gestation, received ultrasonography at about 16 weeks gestation and was found having a fetus with increased nuchal fold, choroid plexus cyst and limb anomaly. Through the genetic counselling, her pregnancy was terminated and the chromosome karyotyping was performed with the fetal tissue and parent's peripheral blood. The results revealed that the parents had normal karyotypes, but the karyotype of the fetus showed 47,XYY.


Subject(s)
Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Pregnancy , Birth Weight , Choroid Plexus , Choroid , Extremities , Fetus , Intelligence , Karyotype , Karyotyping , Nuchal Translucency Measurement , Parents , Parturition , Ultrasonography
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