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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-897576

ABSTRACT

Objectives@#. We evaluated changes in income levels in a hearing-impaired population. @*Methods@#. The study subjects were selected from the Korean National Health Insurance Service-Health Screening Cohort data from 2002 to 2015 of Koreans ≥40 years old. In total, 5,857 hearing-impaired subjects were matched with 23,428 comparison participants. Differences between the initial income level and income levels at 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 years post-enrollment were compared between the hearing-impaired and comparison groups. The interaction of time and hearing impairment/comparison was estimated. @*Results@#. Both the hearing-impaired group and the comparison group showed increased income levels over time. In the hearing-impaired group, the income levels at 4 and 5 years post-enrollment were higher than the initial income level (each P<0.001). In the comparison group, the income levels of all the participants after 1–5 years were higher than the initial income level (each P<0.001). The interaction of time and hearing impairment was statistically significant (P=0.021). @*Conclusion@#. The increase in income over time was relatively lower in the hearing-impaired adult population; therefore, the income gap widened between this population and the normal-hearing population.

2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-918614

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES@#Schisandrae Fructus, the fruit of Schisandra chinensis Baill., has traditionally been used as a medicinal herb for the treatment of various diseases, and has proven its various pharmacological effects, including anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities. In this study, we investigated the inhibitory effect of Schisandrae Fructus ethanol extract (SF) on inflammatory and oxidative stress in particulate matter 2.5 (PM2.5)-treated RAW 264.7 macrophages.MATERIALS/METHODS: To investigate the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects of SF in PM2.5-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells, the levels of pro-inflammatory mediator such as nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 ), cytokines including interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-1β, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) were measured. To elucidate the mechanism underlying the effect of SF, the expression of genes involved in the generation of inflammatory factors was also investigated. We further evaluated the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant efficacy of SF against PM2.5 in the zebrafish model. @*RESULTS@#The results indicated that SF treatment significantly inhibited the PM2.5-induced release of NO and PGE2 , which was associated with decreased inducible NO synthase and cyclooxygenase-2 expression. SF also attenuated the PM2.5-induced expression of IL-6 and IL-1β, reducing their extracellular secretion. Moreover, SF suppressed the PM2.5-mediated translocation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) from the cytosol into nuclei and the degradation of inhibitor IκB-α, indicating that SF exhibited anti-inflammatory effects by inhibiting the NF-κB signaling pathway. In addition, SF abolished PM2.5-induced generation of ROS, similar to the pretreatment of a ROS scavenger, but not by an inhibitor of NF-κB activity. Furthermore, SF showed strong protective effects against NO and ROS production in PM2.5-treated zebrafish larvae. @*CONCLUSIONS@#Our findings suggest that SF exerts anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects against PM2.5 through ROS-dependent down-regulating the NF-κB signaling pathway, and that SF can be a potential functional substance to prevent PM2.5-mediated inflammatory and oxidative damage.

3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-915794

ABSTRACT

Testicular carcinoid tumors are very rare, accounting for less than 1% of all testicular tumors. We report a rare case of a testicular carcinoid tumor with extensive lymphatic invasion. A 42-year-old man presented with a painless, enlarged right testicular mass. There was no history of injury or discomfort in this region. Right radical orchiectomy was performed, which showed a well-defined, non-encapsulated solid white mass with calcification (7.0 × 4.5 × 3.5 cm) and absence of cystic components. Microscopic examination using hematoxylin and eosin staining of the tumor sections identified organoid, trabecular, and solid patterns with rosette formation. Extensive multifocal lymphatic invasion was observed. Immunohistochemistry was positive for synaptophysin, chromogranin, and CD56. Testicular carcinoid tumors usually show good prognoses; however, there was extensive lymphovascular invasion in this case. Thus, in the case of unusual presentation of the disease, close follow-up is necessary.

4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-915485

ABSTRACT

Background@#Evidence for the association between underlying non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), the risk of testing severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARSCoV-2) positive, and the clinical consequences of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is controversial and scarce. We aimed to investigate the association between the presence of NAFLD and the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infectivity and COVID-19-related outcomes. @*Methods@#We used the population-based, nationwide cohort in South Korea linked with the general health examination records between January 1, 2018 and July 30, 2020. Data for 212,768 adults older than 20 years who underwent SARS-CoV-2 testing from January 1 to May 30, 2020, were obtained. The presence of NAFLDs was defined using three definitions, namely hepatic steatosis index (HSI), fatty liver index (FLI), and claims-based definition. The outcomes were SARS-CoV-2 test positive, COVID-19 severe illness, and related death. @*Results@#Among 74,244 adults who completed the general health examination, there were 2,251 (3.0%) who were SARS-CoV-2 positive, 438 (0.6%) with severe COVID-19 illness, and 45 (0.06%) COVID-19-related deaths. After exposure-driven propensity score matching, patients with pre-existing HSI-NAFLD, FLI-NAFLD, or claims-based NAFLD had an 11–23% increased risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection (HSI-NAFLD 95% confidence interval [CI], 1–28%; FLI-NAFLD 95% CI, 2–27%; and claims-based NAFLD 95% CI, 2–31%) and a 35–41% increased risk of severe COVID-19 illness (HSI-NAFLD 95% CI, 8–83%; FLI-NAFLD 95% CI, 5–71%; and claims-based NAFLD 95% CI, 1–92%). These associations are more evident as liver fibrosis advanced (based on the BARD scoring system). Similar patterns were observed in several sensitivity analyses including the full-unmatched cohort. @*Conclusion@#Patients with pre-existing NAFLDs have a higher likelihood of testing SARSCoV-2 positive and severe COVID-19 illness; this association was more evident in patients with NAFLD with advanced fibrosis. Our results suggest that extra attention should be given to the management of patients with NAFLD during the COVID-19 pandemic.

5.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-915293

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#The aim of this study was to examine the validity and reliability of the Korean version of the self-efficacy for managing chronic disease 6-item scale (SECD-6-K). @*Methods@#The English version of the Self-Efficacy for Managing Chronic Disease 6-item Scale first underwent forward and backward translation procedures. The SECD-6-K was then used to collect data from 350 adults diagnosed with chronic diseases. Content, construct, convergent, discriminant, and criterion validity were all evaluated. Reliability was assessed using Cronbach’s α. SPSS 25.0 and the data were analyzed using AMOS 26.0 software. @*Results@#The SECD-6-K consists of six items in two domains: disease management and health behavior. The results for construct, convergent, and discriminant validity were good. Exploratory factor analysis produced eigen values between 2.27 and 3.28, with factors total explained cumulative variance of 91.1%. Confirmatory factor analysis supported goodness of fit and reliability for the modified SECD-6-K model. The criterion validity also showed significant correlation with both the Patient Health Questionnaire and 12-item Short-Form Health Survey version 2. Finally, reliability was found to be excellent. @*Conclusion@#This study identified the high reliability and validity of SECD-6-K. The SECD-6-K is an appropriate tool for determining Korean patients’ self-efficacy in managing their chronic conditions. Therefore, this scale may be used in clinical settings as well as in educational and research settings.

6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-915146

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#This study was conducted to investigate the effects of a community-based death education program for older adults. @*Methods@#The study was conducted as a quasi-experimental study with a non-equivalent control group and pretest-posttest design. The subjects were community elders aged over 65 registered at a community health center and were convenience sampled. The experimental group consisted of 33 participants and the control group consisted of 32 participants. Experiments are conducted from June 18 to July 24, 2020. We tested our hypothesis using an independent t-test, and paired t-test. @*Results@#The experimental group had significantly higher scores for psychological well-being than the control group after treatment (t=2.24, p=.028). In general attitude toward the use of life-sustaining technology, however, only the experimental group had a significant difference before and after the experiment with lower scores compared to the control group (t=-5.41, p<.001). @*Conclusion@#We found that the community-based death education program developed in this study was partially effective in improving older adults’ psychological well-being and general attitude toward the use of life-sustaining technology.

7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-915110

ABSTRACT

Objective@#External beam radiation therapy (EBRT) with concurrent chemotherapy followed by intracavitary brachytherapy is the standard treatment in locally advanced cervical cancer. This study examined the brachytherapy utilization rate and evaluated the effect of brachytherapy on survival in cervical cancer patients in Korea. @*Methods@#In this study, data from the Korea Central Cancer Registry and Korean National Health Insurance Service and data on mortality from Statistics Korea were linked and used. Patients with other cancers, distant metastasis at diagnosis, or unknown stage or who underwent hysterectomy were excluded. A total of 12,721 cervical cancer patients were analyzed in this study. @*Results@#The brachytherapy utilization rate (%) was calculated as the proportion of patients who received brachytherapy among those who received curative EBRT. The brachytherapy utilization rate decreased from 84% in 2005 to 78% in 2013 (p<0.001). Brachytherapy utilization rates varied by region, ranging from 72% to 100% except for in Jeju Island, where the rate was 56%. The brachytherapy utilization rate was lower in patients older than 80 years; patients with localized disease, non-squamous cell carcinoma, or Charlson comorbidity index 3 or more; patients diagnosed after 2010; patients from certain regions; patients receiving medical aid; and patients who underwent gynecologic procedures. Multivariable Cox regression analysis showed that brachytherapy when added to curative EBRT was independently associated with better cancer-specific survival (CSS) and overall survival (OS) than curative EBRT only. @*Conclusion@#The brachytherapy utilization rate decreased from 2005 to 2013 and varied by region in Korea. Brachytherapy use is independently associated with significantly higher CSS and OS in cervical cancer.

8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-913704

ABSTRACT

In this study, we investigated the inhibitory effect of 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA), a heme precursor, on inflammatory and oxidative stress activated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in RAW 264.7 macrophages by estimating nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), cytokines, and reactive oxygen species (ROS). We also evaluated the molecular mechanisms through analysis of the expression of their regulatory genes, and further evaluated the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant efficacy of ALA against LPS in the zebrafish model. Our results indicated that ALA treatment significantly attenuated the LPS-induced release of pro-inflammatory mediators including NO and PGE2, which was associated with decreased inducible NO synthase and cyclooxygenase-2 expression. ALA also inhibited the LPS-induced expression of pro- inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, and IL-6, reducing their extracellular secretion. Additionally, ALA abolished ROS generation, improved the mitochondrial mass, and enhanced the expression of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and the activation of nuclear translocation of nuclear factor-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages. However, zinc protoporphyrin, a specific inhibitor of HO-1, reversed the ALA-mediated inhibition of pro-inflammatory cytokines production and activation of mitochondrial function in LPS-treated RAW 264.7 macrophages. Furthermore, ALA significantly abolished the expression of LPS-induced pro-inflammatory mediators and cytokines, and showed strong protective effects against NO and ROS production in zebrafish larvae. In conclusion, our findings suggest that ALA exerts LPS-induced anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects by upregulating the Nrf2/HO-1 signaling pathway, and that ALA can be a potential functional agent to prevent inflammatory and oxidative damage.

9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-889872

ABSTRACT

Objectives@#. We evaluated changes in income levels in a hearing-impaired population. @*Methods@#. The study subjects were selected from the Korean National Health Insurance Service-Health Screening Cohort data from 2002 to 2015 of Koreans ≥40 years old. In total, 5,857 hearing-impaired subjects were matched with 23,428 comparison participants. Differences between the initial income level and income levels at 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 years post-enrollment were compared between the hearing-impaired and comparison groups. The interaction of time and hearing impairment/comparison was estimated. @*Results@#. Both the hearing-impaired group and the comparison group showed increased income levels over time. In the hearing-impaired group, the income levels at 4 and 5 years post-enrollment were higher than the initial income level (each P<0.001). In the comparison group, the income levels of all the participants after 1–5 years were higher than the initial income level (each P<0.001). The interaction of time and hearing impairment was statistically significant (P=0.021). @*Conclusion@#. The increase in income over time was relatively lower in the hearing-impaired adult population; therefore, the income gap widened between this population and the normal-hearing population.

10.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831093

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#This study aimed to determine whether the diagnosis, treatment approach, and prognosis of multiple myeloma (MM) vary according to the presence and type of disability. @*Materials and Methods@#Demographic, socioeconomic, and medical data were obtained from the National Disability Database, the Korean Central Cancer Registry, and the Korean National Health Insurance claims database. An age- and sex-matched cohort was established using a 1:3 ratio constituted with 2,776,450 people with disabilities and 8,329,350 people without disabilities. Adult patients diagnosed with MM were subsequently selected from this cohort. Disabilities were categorized as physical, communication, intellectual or psychological, and affecting the major internal organs. @*Results@#The cohort included 4,090 patients with MM, with a significantly lower rate per 100,000 persons among people with disabilities than among people without disabilities (29.1 vs. 39.4, p < 0.001). People with disabilities were more likely to undergo dialysis treatment at the time of diagnosis (16.3% vs. 10.0%, p < 0.001), but were less likely to undergo autologous stem cell transplantation (37.5% vs. 43.7%, p=0.072). This trend was more evident among patients with intellectual or psychological disabilities. The median overall survival among patients with disabilities was significantly shorter than that among patients without disabilities (36.8 months vs. 51.2 months, p < 0.001). @*Conclusion@#In Korea, people with disabilities generally have a lower rate of MM diagnosis, receive less intensive treatment, and have a lower survival rate than people without disabilities.

11.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831087

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Implementation of screening program may lead to increased health disparity within the population if participation differs by socioeconomic status. In Korea, colorectal cancer screening is provided at no or minimal cost to all people over 50 by National Cancer Screening Program. We investigated colorectal cancer screening participation rate and its trend over the last 10 years in relation to disabilities. @*Materials and Methods@#We linked national disability registration data with National Cancer Screening Program data. Age, sex-standardized participation rates were analyzed by type and severity of disability for each year, and factors associated with colorectal cancer screening participation were examined by multivariate logistic regression. @*Results@#Age, sex-standardized participation rate in people without disability increased from 16.2 to 33.9% (change, +17.7), but it increased from 12.7% to 27.2% (change, +14.5) among people with severe disability. People with severe disabilities showed a markedly lower colorectal cancer screening participation rate than people without disability (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 0.714; 95% confidence interval, 0.713 to 0.720). People with autism (aOR, 0.468), renal failure (aOR, 0.498), brain injury (aOR, 0.581), ostomy (aOR, 0.602), and intellectual disability (aOR, 0.610) showed the lowest participation rates. @*Conclusion@#Despite the availability of a National Cancer Screening Program and overall increase of its usage in the Korean population, a significant disparity was found in colorectal cancer screening participation, especially in people with severe disabilities and or several specific types of disabilities. Greater effort is needed to identify the barriers faced by these particularly vulnerable groups and develop targeted interventions to reduce inequality.

12.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-830965

ABSTRACT

The thioredoxin (Trx) system plays critical roles in regulating intracellular redox levels and defending organisms against oxidative stress. Recent studies indicated that Trx reductase (TrxR) was overexpressed in various types of human cancer cells indicating that the Trx-TrxR system may be a potential target for anti-cancer drug development. This study investigated the synergistic effect of auranofin, a TrxR-specific inhibitor, on sulforaphane-mediated apoptotic cell death using Hep3B cells. The results showed that sulforaphane significantly enhanced auranofin-induced apoptosis by inhibiting TrxR activity and cell proliferation compared to either single treatment. The synergistic effect of sulforaphane and auranofin on apoptosis was evidenced by an increased annexin-V-positive cells and Sub-G1 cells. The induction of apoptosis by the combined treatment caused the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) and upregulation of Bax. In addition, the proteolytic activities of caspases (-3, -8, and -9) and the degradation of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase, a substrate protein of activated caspase-3, were also higher in the combined treatment. Moreover, combined treatment induced excessive generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). However, treatment with N-acetyl-L-cysteine, a ROS scavenger, reduced combined treatment-induced ROS production and apoptosis. Thereby, these results deduce that ROS played a pivotal role in apoptosis induced by auranofin and sulforaphane. Furthermore, apoptosis induced by auranofin and sulforaphane was significantly increased through inhibition of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt pathway. Taken together, the present study demonstrated that down-regulation of TrxR activity contributed to the synergistic effect of auranofin and sulforaphane on apoptosis through ROS production and inhibition of PI3K/Akt signaling pathway.

13.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-830606

ABSTRACT

Background@#Due to the different handling properties of unsintered hydroxyapatite particles/poly-L-lactic acid (uHA/PLLA) and polycaprolactone (PCL), we compared the surgical outcomes andthe postoperative implantation accuracy between uHA/PLLA and PCL meshes in orbital fracturerepair. @*Methods@#Patients undergoing orbital wall reconstruction with PCL and uHA/PLLA mesh, between2017 and 2019, were investigated retrospectively. The anatomical accuracy of the implantin bony defect replacement and the functional outcomes such as diplopia, ocular motility, and enophthalmoswere evaluated. @*Results@#No restriction of eye movement was reported in any patient (n = 30 for each group), 6months postoperatively. In the PCL group, no patient showed diplopia or enophthalmos, while theuHA/PLLA group showed two patients with diplopia and one with enophthalmos. Excellent anatomicalaccuracy of implants was observed in 27 and 22 patients of the PCL and uHA/PLLAgroups, respectively. However, this study showed that there were neither any significant differencesin the surgical outcomes like diplopia and enophthalmos nor any complications with thetwo well-known implants. @*Conclusion@#PCL implants and uHA/PLLA implants are safe and have similar levels of complicationsand surgical outcomes in orbital wall reconstruction.

14.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-830568

ABSTRACT

Background@#In light of increasing demands for the use of a shorter incision during implant-based reconstructive surgery due to a paradigm shift to short-incision mastectomy and prior radiotherapy, as well as concerns about breast implant contamination, the use of funnels during implantation is recommended. We aimed to describe our preliminary experiences with funnel-assisted implant insertion and to determine the indications for funnel usage in reconstructive breast surgery. @*Methods@#A series of 15 consecutive patients who underwent funnel-assisted implant insertions between March 2018 and January 2019 were included. Funnel-assisted implantation was indicated in patients with a small linear scar (<5 cm) at the mastectomy site and those who previously underwent chest radiotherapy before implant insertion. @*Results@#Eight patients (53.3%) previously received radiotherapy, while seven (46.6%) underwent total mastectomy using a short incision. In all mastectomy patients, the mean incision length was 4.73 cm (range, 4.5–5.5 cm), while that of patients who previously received radiotherapy was 4.62 cm. The patients did not develop wound-related complications (e.g., major and minor skin necrosis). At 6- and 12-month follow-ups, no patients showed definite capsular contracture (Baker grade III and IV). @*Conclusions@#The study confirmed that the use of a highly durable and elastic funnel enabled reconstructive surgeons to perform “no touch” implantation using a short incision. This technique is beneficial for patients who previously received radiotherapy and reduces the risk of wound-related complications through the use of a shorter skin incision.

15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-765001

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Studying immigrants may have the potential to explore how cultural and environmental changes affect the internet game play patterns of individuals in the two countries. We planned to compare risk and preventive factors for Internet Gaming Disorder (IGD) between Korean adolescents in Korea and immigrant Koreans in the US. METHODS: Ninety-four Koreans and 133 immigrant Koreans were recruited. Independent factors consisted of five domains including demographic data, physical activity, academic, art, and music activities, psychological factors, and game and media play. The dependent variable in the current study was the high-risk group of IGD, which was assessed with Young’s Internet Addiction Scale scores. To determine the protective and risk factors for IGD, we performed a multiple logistic regression analysis using the high-risk group as the dependent variable. RESULTS: Five domains affected the risk for IGD in Korean and immigrant Korean groups. Vigorous physical activity was the strongest protective factor for IGD in the Korean group, while media activity was the strongest protective factor for IGD in immigrant Koreans in the US. CONCLUSION: The results indicate that internet gaming problems might be affected by environmental factors and it is recommended that gaming activity is substituted with physical activity, extracurricular classes, books, and music.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Emigrants and Immigrants , Humans , Immunoglobulin D , Internet , Korea , Logistic Models , Motor Activity , Music , Protective Factors , Psychology , Risk Factors , United States
16.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764627

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to estimate the effects of a video low intensity exercise program provided during hemodialysis on fatigue, activity of daily living, positive psychological capital and blood pressure of patients being treated. METHODS: A non-equivalent control group pre-post test design was used. Participants were 85 hemodialysis patients assigned to either the experimental group (n=41) or the control group (n=44). The experimental group exercised for about 25 minutes 3 times a week for 8 weeks. Data analyses involved descriptive statistics, χ2 test, t-test, multiple regression and repeated measure ANOVA using SPSS/WIN 23.0. RESULTS: The exercise intervention significantly reduced post hemodialysis fatigue and significantly increased positive psychological capital. There was a significant interaction effect on time by group in blood pressure. Systolic blood pressure changes in the experimental group were stable but, changes in the control group tended to increase gradually. CONCLUSION: To reduce fatigue and increase positive psychological capital for hemodialysis patients, providing exercise during hemodialysis is recommended. Furthermore individualized exercise in terms of intensity, time, duration, etc should be developed and tested. Also, to reduce drastic blood pressure changes during hemodialysis, exercise should be provided.


Subject(s)
Blood Pressure , Evaluation Studies as Topic , Fatigue , Humans , Renal Dialysis , Statistics as Topic
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-719719

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This study aims to investigate the trend in medical travel by non-Seoul residents to Seoul for treatment of prostate cancer and also to investigate the possible factors affecting the trend. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study represents a retrospective cohort study using data from theKoreanNationalHealth Insurance System from 2002 to 2015. Annual trends were produced for proportions of patients who traveled according to the age group, economic status and types of treatment. Multiple logistic analysiswas used to determine factors affecting surgeries at medical facilities in Seoul among the non-Seoul residents. RESULTS: A total of 68,543 patients were defined as newly diagnosed prostate cancer cohorts from 2005 to 2014. The proportion of patients who traveled to Seoul for treatment, estimated from cases with prostate cancer-related claims, decreased slightly over 9 years (28.0 at 2005 and 27.0 at 2014, p=0.02). The average proportion of medical travelers seeking radical prostatectomy increased slightly but the increase was not statistically significant (43.1 at 2005 and 45.4 at 2014, p=0.26). Income level and performance ofrobot-assisted radical prostatectomy were significant positive factors for medical travel to medical facilities in Seoul. Combined comorbidity diseases and year undergoing surgery were significant negative factors for medical travel to medical facilities in Seoul. CONCLUSION: The general trend of patients travelling from outside Seoul for prostate cancer treatment decreased from 2005 to 2014. However, a large proportion of traveling remained irrespective of direct distance from Seoul.


Subject(s)
Cohort Studies , Comorbidity , Geography , Health Services Accessibility , Humans , Insurance , Prostate , Prostatectomy , Prostatic Neoplasms , Retrospective Studies , Seoul
18.
Psychiatry Investigation ; : 671-678, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760981

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The cognitive, Affective, and Somatic Empathy Scale (CASES) suggests novel three components structure of empathy. Although CASES developed to assess the trait empathy of both children and adult, the validation in adult sample is not yet conducted. This study developed Korean version of CASES (CASES-K) and examined the psychometric properties in young adult for first time. METHODS: Confirmatory factor analysis was conducted to test whether the factor structure suggested in initial development study is valid in Korean young adult population. 350 young adults participated, and 44 of them also answered to other empathy scales for validation. The construct validity was ascertained through a series of correlational analysis with widely used trait empathy scales. RESULTS: The result of confirmatory factor analysis supports the three-factor model of empathy consists of affective, cognitive and somatic facets. The construct validity was ascertained through a series of correlational analysis with widely used trait empathy scales. The result of correlational analysis supports the validity of CASES-K, and especially the separation of somatic empathy from affective empathy. CONCLUSION: The current study provides the first evidence of the validity and utility of the CASES-K in young adult population. The result also supports the commonality of three factor structure of empathy in both East Asian and Caucasian, from the children to adults.


Subject(s)
Adult , Asians , Child , Empathy , Humans , Psychometrics , Weights and Measures , Young Adult
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-739122

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To validate the clinical application of chromosomal microarray analysis (CMA) as a first-tier clinical diagnostic test and to determine the impact of CMA results on patient clinical management, we conducted a multicenter prospective study in Korean patients diagnosed as having developmental delay/intellectual disability (DD/ID), autism spectrum disorders (ASD), and multiple congenital anomalies (MCA). METHODS: We performed both CMA and G-banding cytogenetics as the first-tier tests in 617 patients. To determine whether the CMA results directly influenced treatment recommendations, the referring clinicians were asked to complete a 39-item questionnaire for each patient separately after receiving the CMA results. RESULTS: A total of 122 patients (19.8%) had abnormal CMA results, with either pathogenic variants (N=65) or variants of possible significance (VPS, N=57). Thirty-five well-known diseases were detected: 16p11.2 microdeletion syndrome was the most common, followed by Prader-Willi syndrome, 15q11-q13 duplication, Down syndrome, and Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Variants of unknown significance (VUS) were discovered in 51 patients (8.3%). VUS of genes putatively associated with developmental disorders were found in five patients: IMMP2L deletion, PTCH1 duplication, and ATRNL1 deletion. CMA results influenced clinical management, such as imaging studies, specialist referral, and laboratory testing in 71.4% of patients overall, and in 86.0%, 83.3%, 75.0%, and 67.3% of patients with VPS, pathogenic variants, VUS, and benign variants, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Clinical application of CMA as a first-tier test improves diagnostic yields and the quality of clinical management in patients with DD/ID, ASD, and MCA.


Subject(s)
Autism Spectrum Disorder , Autistic Disorder , Cytogenetics , Diagnostic Tests, Routine , Down Syndrome , Humans , Intellectual Disability , Korea , Microarray Analysis , Muscular Dystrophy, Duchenne , Prader-Willi Syndrome , Prospective Studies , Referral and Consultation , Specialization
20.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-738600

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of medial rectus muscle plication compared to resection, coupled with antagonist muscle recession, as treatments for intermittent exotropia (IXT). METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the charts of IXT patients treated by a single surgeon and followed-up for at least 6 months between September 2016 and February 2017. The patients were divided into three groups: a bilateral lateral rectus muscle recession (BLR) group, a unilateral lateral rectus recession with medial rectus plication (R&P) group, and a unilateral lateral rectus recession with medial rectus resection (R&R) group. Serial changes in ocular alignment at 4–24 weeks after surgery were compared among the groups. In addition, the operative times were assessed. RESULTS: We included 119 patients (mean age 6.65 ± 2.79 years). The preoperative exodeviation was 29.81 ± 7.31 prism diopters (PDs) and did not differ among the groups. The R&P group exhibited significantly less postoperative deviation than the BLR group. The operative time was significantly less for the R&P group (25.77 ± 9.29 minutes) than the R&R group (28.97 ± 5.74 minutes). The success rates were identical among groups at 6 months; no severe adverse events were recorded apart from one case of dellen that improved after application of a topical agent. CONCLUSIONS: Plication may reduce the risk for anterior segment ischemia to a level lower than the risks associated with other procedures, and also facilitate reoperation if necessary. We found that R&P took less time but had success rate similar to BLR and R&R. Thus, medial rectus muscle plication for IXT patients is a valuable alternative procedure when the external rectus muscle requires strengthening.


Subject(s)
Exotropia , Humans , Ischemia , Operative Time , Reoperation , Retrospective Studies
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