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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-919474

ABSTRACT

Background@#We evaluated the long-term effects of domiciliary noninvasive positive-pressure ventilation (NIPPV) used to treat patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). @*Methods@#Databases were searched to identify randomized controlled trials of COPD with NIPPV for longer than 1 year. Mortality rates were the primary outcome in this meta-analysis. The eight trials included in this study comprised data from 913 patients. @*Results@#The mortality rates for the NIPPV and control groups were 29% (118/414) and 36% (151/419), suggesting a statistically significant difference (risk ratio [RR], 0.79; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.65–0.95). Mortality rates were reduced with NIPPV in four trials that included stable COPD patients. There was no difference in admission, acute exacerbation and quality of life between the NIPPV and control groups. There was no significant difference in withdrawal rates between the two groups (RR, 0.99; 95% CI, 0.72–1.36; p=0.94). @*Conclusion@#Maintaining long-term nocturnal NIPPV for more than 1 year, especially in patients with stable COPD, decreased the mortality rate, without increasing the withdrawal rate compared with long-term oxygen treatment.

2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-901854

ABSTRACT

Background@#Sarcopenia is a skeletal muscle disorder that involves the loss of muscle mass and function. Handgrip strength (HGS) is the most commonly used tool to assess muscle strength to diagnose sarcopenia. HGS is also associated with various diseases and health outcomes. Thus, we aimed this study to examine the HGS status in Korean adults and relevant factors of HGS. @*Methods@#Data was obtained from the 7th Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES), a population-based nationwide survey. The estimated mean value of HGS was calculated in each age group. The mean HGS in men and women aged over 40 was compared according to the household income level, lifestyle factors, and comorbidities. @*Results@#A total of 16,708 participants were included in this study. The mean HGS showed a maximum value in the 30s for both men and women, and then tended to decrease with increasing age. When analyzed for people aged 40 or older, the mean HGS was significantly higher in the current or past smoker, drinker, and aerobic exercise groups in both men and women. The mean HGS was lower in the group with comorbidities such as hypertension, dyslipidemia, type 2 diabetes, and bone diseases. @*Conclusion@#Our study found that the mean HGS was significantly different between those with and without underlying chronic diseases. In groups with relevant comorbidities, close monitoring for the development of sarcopenia and taking preventive measures such as exercise and nutritional support may be recommended.

3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-901845

ABSTRACT

Background@#and Objective: The use of potentially inappropriate medications (PIMs) increases the risk of negative health outcomes, including drug-related admissions. Tools for structured medication review have been developed to ensure optimal medication use and safety. Here, we aimed to evaluate medication use review (MUR) tools for community-dwelling older patients. @*Methods@#We performed a systematic review of the literature according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and MetaAnalyses Statement (PRISMA). We searched PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Library from 1991 to 2020, excluding tools that are specifically applied to hospitalized patients or nursing home residents. We identified the most common inappropriate medications, drug-disease interactions, drug-drug interactions and prescribing omissions presented among tools. @*Results@#From among 9,788 identified reports screened, 60 met our inclusion criteria; finally, 27 were eligible for data analysis considering originality and up-to-dateness. Most tools presented explicit criteria (93%), and only one was specific to community-dwelling elderly. The most common PIM was tricyclic antidepressants. Use of diltiazem and verapamil in patients with heart failure and the combination of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory analgesics and warfarin were the most frequent disease-specific PIM and druginteraction, respectively. @*Conclusions@#Although several medication review tools have been developed for older adults, specific guidelines for community-dwelling populations remain limited. Furthermore, the list of PIMs differed among available tools. In future, specific but integrating MUR tools need to be developed for clinical practice considering this population.

4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-900070

ABSTRACT

Background@#Risk of fragility fractures increases in patients with diabetes mellitus, independent of bone mineral density. In the present study, the effects of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) on differentiation and function of osteoblasts and osteoclasts were investigated. @*Methods@#AGEs and 25 mM glucose were administered to marrow-derived macrophages and MCT3T3-E1 cells. The effects of AGEs on osteoclast differentiation was investigated using tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) assay. The effects of AGEs on osteoblast differentiation was investigated using alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and bone nodule formation assays. Expression of osteoclast-specific and osteoblast-specific genes and effects on cell signaling pathways associated with cell differentiation were analyzed using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and western blotting. @*Results@#AGEs significantly decreased TRAP-positive multinucleated cell formation in receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand-induced marrow-derived macrophages in a dose-dependent manner. AGEs suppressed the expression of osteoclast-specific genes, JNK, p38, AKT, intercellular adhesion molecule 1, and lymphocyte function-associated antigen 1 in marrow-derived macrophages. AGEs decreased ALP activity and showed a tendency to decrease bone nodule formation in MC3T3-E1 cells. AGEs suppressed the expression of osteoblast-specific genes, lysyl hydroxylase and lysyl oxidase in MC3T3-E1 cells. @*Conclusion@#AGEs suppressed differentiation and function of osteoclasts and osteoblasts, and collagen cross-linking activity. It suggests that AGE may induce bone fragility through low bone turnover and deterioration of bone quality.

5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-900034

ABSTRACT

Background@#Methylglyoxal (MG) is associated with the pathogenesis of age- and diabetes-related complications. Spironolactone is a competitive antagonist of aldosterone that is widely employed in the treatment of hypertension and heart failure. This study examined the effects of spironolactone on MG-induced cellular dysfunction in MC3T3-E1 osteoblastic cells. @*Methods@#MC3T3-E1 cells were treated with spironolactone in the presence of MG. The mitochondrial function, bone formation activity, oxidative damage, inflammatory cytokines, glyoxalase I activity, and glutathione (GSH) were measured. @*Results@#Pretreatment of MC3T3-E1 osteoblastic cells with spironolactone prevented MG-induced cell death, and improved bone formation activity. Spironolactone reduced MG-induced endoplasmic reticulum stress, production of intracellular reactive oxygen species, mitochondrial superoxides, cardiolipin peroxidation, and inflammatory cytokines. Pretreatment with spironolactone also increased the level of reduced GSH and the activity of glyoxalase I. MG induced mitochondrial dysfunction, but markers of mitochondrial biogenesis such as mitochondrial membrane potential, adenosine triphosphate, proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1α, and nitric oxide were significantly improved by treatment of spironolactone. @*Conclusion@#Spironolactone could prevent MG-induced cytotoxicity in MC3T3-E1 osteoblastic cells by reduction of oxidative stress. The oxidative stress reduction was explained by spironolactone's inhibition of advanced glycation end-product formation, restoring mitochondrial dysfunction, and anti-inflammatory effect.

6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-899942

ABSTRACT

Background@#Acromegaly is a rare, slowly progressive disease. Its mechanism is not fully understood, and epidemiological research on Korean patients with acromegaly is scarce.The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence and prevalence of acromegaly and assess the comorbidities and survival benefits based on treatment options. @*Methods@#This nationwide population-based cohort study was conducted using data of the Korean Health Insurance Review and Assessment claims database to evaluate the incidence of newly diagnosed acromegaly cases during 2013–2017. @*Results@#During the 5-year period, 1,093 patients were newly diagnosed with acromegaly.The average annual incidence was 4.2 cases per million per year, and the prevalence was 32.1 cases per million during this period. The incidence of hypertension was low after medical treatment (hazard ratio, 0.257; 95% confidence interval, 0.082–0.808; P = 0.020), but the incidence of diabetes showed no significant difference across treatment modalities. Over a period of 6 years since diagnosis, we found that patients treated for acromegaly had a significantly higher survival rate than those untreated (P < 0.001). @*Conclusion@#The annual incidence rate of Korean patients with acromegaly was similar to that reported in previous studies. Using nationwide population data, our study emphasized the importance of treatment in acromegaly patients.

7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-899919

ABSTRACT

Background@#Selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) were associated with an increased risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE) due to the estrogen effect. In this study, we investigated the effect of SERMs on VTE compared to bisphosphonates (BPs) using the Korean National Health Insurance claims database. @*Methods@#This was a retrospective cohort study. Women over 50 years old who were first prescribed BPs or SERMs for osteoporosis treatment in 2012 were included. The difference in VTE incidence between the SERMs and BP groups was compared. Both groups were followed up for VTE or PE occurrence, death, or until December 2016. The study population was analyzed by 3:1 matching according to age using a multivariate Cox model. @*Results@#The hazard ratio (HR) for VTE was 0.72 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.40–1.28) in the SERMs group compared to BP group. Older age (60–69 vs. 50–59 years: HR, 3.77; 95% CI, 2.07–6.86 and 70–79 vs. 50–59 years: HR, 5.88; 95% CI, 3.14–11.02), major osteoporotic fracture (HR, 1.77; 95% CI, 1.16- 2.70), atrial fibrillation (HR, 3.31; 95% CI, 1.35–8.11), and estrogen replacement (HR, 3.40; 95% CI, 2.01–5.73) all increased VTE risk. In subgroup analysis of the SERMs group, past hospitalization (HR, 2.24; 95% CI, 1.02–4.92), estrogen replacement (HR, 5.75; 95% CI, 2.29–14.39), and glucocorticoid replacement (HR, 2.71; 95% CI, 1.05–7.0) increased VTE risk. @*Conclusion@#SERMs did not increase the risk of VTE compared to BPs in Koreans with osteoporosis. However, old age and estrogen replacement both increased VTE risk.

8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-915798

ABSTRACT

Background@#Papillary breast lesions (PBLs) comprise diverse entities from benign and atypical lesions to malignant tumors. Although PBLs are characterized by a papillary growth pattern, it is challenging to achieve high diagnostic accuracy and reproducibility. Thus, we investigated the diagnostic reproducibility of PBLs in core needle biopsy (CNB) specimens with World Health Organization (WHO) classification. @*Methods@#Diagnostic reproducibility was assessed using interobserver variability (kappa value, κ) and agreement rate in the pathologic diagnosis of 60 PBL cases on CNB among 20 breast pathologists affiliated with 20 medical institutions in Korea. This analysis was performed using hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining and immunohistochemical (IHC) staining for cytokeratin 5 (CK5) and p63. The pathologic diagnosis of PBLs was based on WHO classification, which was used to establish simple classifications (4-tier, 3-tier, and 2-tier). @*Results@#On WHO classification, H&E staining exhibited ‘fair agreement’ (κ = 0.21) with a 47.0% agreement rate. Simple classifications presented improvement in interobserver variability and agreement rate. IHC staining increased the kappa value and agreement rate in all the classifications. Despite IHC staining, the encapsulated/solid papillary carcinoma (EPC/SPC) subgroup (κ = 0.16) exhibited lower agreement compared to the non-EPC/SPC subgroup (κ = 0.35) with WHO classification, which was similar to the results of any other classification systems. @*Conclusions@#Although the use of IHC staining for CK5 and p63 increased the diagnostic agreement of PBLs in CNB specimens, WHO classification exhibited a higher discordance rate compared to any other classifications. Therefore, this result warrants further intensive consensus studies to improve the diagnostic reproducibility of PBLs with WHO classification.

9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-875135

ABSTRACT

Sesamoid bones and accessory ossicles are normal anatomic variants with varying morphological appearances and incidences. They are usually small osseous fragments with well-corticated margins located adjacent to the joint space and bone. Patients with sesamoid bones and accessory ossicles are usually asymptomatic and commonly encountered in clinical practice. These sesamoids and accessory bones are occasionally painful because of fractures, dislocations, degenerative changes, avascular necrosis, accessory bone infections, or abnormalities of the adjacent tissue, such as nerve entrapment, tenosynovitis, or soft tissue impingement. This article aimed to illustrate the imaging features of symptomatic sesamoids bones and accessory ossicles at various anatomic locations and describe their clinical features and radiological differential diagnosis.

10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-874068

ABSTRACT

Nonepisodic angioedema with eosinophilia (NEAE) is a rare disease characterized by nonrecurrent angioedema with eosinophilia and normal serum IgM levels occurring predominantly in an East Asian female population. A 49-year-old male patient visited our clinic due to swelling of both the scrotums and the lower extremities, and fever. He had history of nasal polyp, cephalosporin allergy, and asthma. He was diagnosed as having NEAE and was treated with systemic corticosteroid, then he was symptom-free for more than 8 months. He had been administered omalizumab for 3 months due to uncontrolled asthma prior to the onset of angioedema which had helped taper the oral corticosteroid, and this may be associated with presentation of NEAE. Here, we report a case of NEAE in a male patient which presented with constitutional symptoms such as fever and scrotal edema

11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-904172

ABSTRACT

Cough is the most common respiratory symptom that can have various causes. It is a major clinical problem that can reduce a patient’s quality of life. Thus, clinical guidelines for the treatment of cough were established in 2014 by the cough guideline committee under the Korean Academy of Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases. From October 2018 to July 2020, cough guidelines were revised by members of the committee based on the first guidelines. The purpose of these guidelines is to help clinicians efficiently diagnose and treat patients with cough. This article highlights the recommendations and summary of the revised Korean cough guidelines. It includes a revised algorithm for the evaluation of acute, subacute, and chronic cough. For a chronic cough, upper airway cough syndrome (UACS), cough variant asthma (CVA), and gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) should be considered in differential diagnoses. If UACS is suspected, first-generation antihistamines and nasal decongestants can be used empirically. In cases with CVA, inhaled corticosteroids are recommended to improve cough. In patients with suspected chronic cough due to symptomatic GERD, proton pump inhibitors are recommended. Chronic bronchitis, bronchiectasis, bronchiolitis, lung cancer, aspiration, intake of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor, intake of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor, habitual cough, psychogenic cough, interstitial lung disease, environmental and occupational factors, tuberculosis, obstructive sleep apnea, peritoneal dialysis, and unexplained cough can also be considered as causes of a chronic cough. Chronic cough due to laryngeal dysfunction syndrome has been newly added to the guidelines.

12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898748

ABSTRACT

Background and Objectives@#Thyroid cancer (TC) and renal cell carcinoma (RCC) display more frequent co-occurrence than would be expected by chance. We investigated clinicopathological features of patients with both primary TC and primary RCC (TC/RCC) group to facilitate a greater understanding of the relationship between two cancers. @*Materials and Methods@#A total of 53 patients who diagnosed with TC/RCC were enrolled. 13,663 TC-alone and 3279 RCC-alone patients who had undergone surgery at Samsung Medical Center between 1994 and 2014 were included as control groups. The clinicopathological characteristics of these patients were retrospectively reviewed. @*Results@#The median age at the time of TC or RCC diagnosis was 54 years in TC/RCC group and the RCC-alone group, while the patients in TC-alone group were significantly younger (47 years). The TC/RCC group showed a nearly equal sex prevalence (49% male), significantly different than the results of the TC-alone group (80% female) and RCC-alone group (71% male). A higher grade of pathologic stage (56.6% in stage 3) and greater number of patients with multifocality of thyroid tumors (45 vs. 32%), and more family history of cancer (32 vs. 0.4%) were revealed in TC/RCC group than in TC-alone group. In addition, 15.1% of patients in TC/RCC group presented with additional primary cancers such as prostate, colon, stomach, breast, and lung cancers. Conclusion: Patients in the TC/RCC group have a high rate of cancer family history, multifocality of thyroid tumors, and additional cancers. To understand this unique subset group, additional studies for environmental and genetic factors would be helpful for earlier diagnosis of combined cancers.

13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898209

ABSTRACT

Background@#Only a few studies have established the epidemiology of prolactinoma and Cushing’s disease in Korea. Furthermore, the incidence of these disease are increasing than before associated with the development of technologies. This study was designed to evaluate the epidemiology of prolactinoma and Cushing’s disease and their survival analysis according to treatment. @*Methods@#The nationwide, population-based study evaluated incidence and prevalence of prolactinoma and Cushing’s disease using de-identified claims data in The Korean Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service database between 2013 and 2017. The survival analysis investigated regarding treatment over a period of 6 years. A log-rank test and Cox proportional hazard regression analysis were used. @*Results@#The 6,056 patients with newly diagnosed prolactinoma and 584 patients with Cushing’s disease were recorded between 2013 and 2017. The annual incidence of prolactinoma was 23.5 cases per million, and its prevalence was 82.5 cases per million, and 2.3 cases per million/year and 9.8 cases per million for Cushing’s disease. The survival benefit was insignificant in prolactinoma according to treatment, but treatment of Cushing’s disease ameliorated the survival rate significantly. @*Conclusion@#Overall, the incidence of prolactinoma and Cushing’s disease was similar with those found previously, but the prevalence of two diseases were inconsistent when compared with the early studies. The present study also proposed necessity of treatment in Cushing’s disease for improving the survival rate.

14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898107

ABSTRACT

The impaired insulin secretion and increased insulin resistance (or decreased insulin sensitivity) play a major role in the pathogenesis of all types of diabetes mellitus (DM). It is very important to assess the pancreatic β-cell function and insulin resistance/ sensitivity to determine the type of DM and to plan an optimal management and prevention strategy for DM. So far, various methods and indices have been developed to assess the β-cell function and insulin resistance/sensitivity based on static, dynamic test and calculation of their results. In fact, since the metabolism of glucose and insulin is made through a complex process related with various stimuli in several tissues, it is difficult to fully reflect the real physiology. In order to solve the theoretical and practical difficulties, research on new index is still in progress. Also, it is important to select the appropriate method and index for the purpose of use and clinical situation. This review summarized a variety of traditional methods and indices to evaluate pancreatic β-cell function and insulin resistance/sensitivity and introduced novel indices.

15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-896468

ABSTRACT

Cough is the most common respiratory symptom that can have various causes. It is a major clinical problem that can reduce a patient’s quality of life. Thus, clinical guidelines for the treatment of cough were established in 2014 by the cough guideline committee under the Korean Academy of Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases. From October 2018 to July 2020, cough guidelines were revised by members of the committee based on the first guidelines. The purpose of these guidelines is to help clinicians efficiently diagnose and treat patients with cough. This article highlights the recommendations and summary of the revised Korean cough guidelines. It includes a revised algorithm for the evaluation of acute, subacute, and chronic cough. For a chronic cough, upper airway cough syndrome (UACS), cough variant asthma (CVA), and gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) should be considered in differential diagnoses. If UACS is suspected, first-generation antihistamines and nasal decongestants can be used empirically. In cases with CVA, inhaled corticosteroids are recommended to improve cough. In patients with suspected chronic cough due to symptomatic GERD, proton pump inhibitors are recommended. Chronic bronchitis, bronchiectasis, bronchiolitis, lung cancer, aspiration, intake of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor, intake of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor, habitual cough, psychogenic cough, interstitial lung disease, environmental and occupational factors, tuberculosis, obstructive sleep apnea, peritoneal dialysis, and unexplained cough can also be considered as causes of a chronic cough. Chronic cough due to laryngeal dysfunction syndrome has been newly added to the guidelines.

16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-894150

ABSTRACT

Background@#Sarcopenia is a skeletal muscle disorder that involves the loss of muscle mass and function. Handgrip strength (HGS) is the most commonly used tool to assess muscle strength to diagnose sarcopenia. HGS is also associated with various diseases and health outcomes. Thus, we aimed this study to examine the HGS status in Korean adults and relevant factors of HGS. @*Methods@#Data was obtained from the 7th Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES), a population-based nationwide survey. The estimated mean value of HGS was calculated in each age group. The mean HGS in men and women aged over 40 was compared according to the household income level, lifestyle factors, and comorbidities. @*Results@#A total of 16,708 participants were included in this study. The mean HGS showed a maximum value in the 30s for both men and women, and then tended to decrease with increasing age. When analyzed for people aged 40 or older, the mean HGS was significantly higher in the current or past smoker, drinker, and aerobic exercise groups in both men and women. The mean HGS was lower in the group with comorbidities such as hypertension, dyslipidemia, type 2 diabetes, and bone diseases. @*Conclusion@#Our study found that the mean HGS was significantly different between those with and without underlying chronic diseases. In groups with relevant comorbidities, close monitoring for the development of sarcopenia and taking preventive measures such as exercise and nutritional support may be recommended.

17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-894141

ABSTRACT

Background@#and Objective: The use of potentially inappropriate medications (PIMs) increases the risk of negative health outcomes, including drug-related admissions. Tools for structured medication review have been developed to ensure optimal medication use and safety. Here, we aimed to evaluate medication use review (MUR) tools for community-dwelling older patients. @*Methods@#We performed a systematic review of the literature according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and MetaAnalyses Statement (PRISMA). We searched PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Library from 1991 to 2020, excluding tools that are specifically applied to hospitalized patients or nursing home residents. We identified the most common inappropriate medications, drug-disease interactions, drug-drug interactions and prescribing omissions presented among tools. @*Results@#From among 9,788 identified reports screened, 60 met our inclusion criteria; finally, 27 were eligible for data analysis considering originality and up-to-dateness. Most tools presented explicit criteria (93%), and only one was specific to community-dwelling elderly. The most common PIM was tricyclic antidepressants. Use of diltiazem and verapamil in patients with heart failure and the combination of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory analgesics and warfarin were the most frequent disease-specific PIM and druginteraction, respectively. @*Conclusions@#Although several medication review tools have been developed for older adults, specific guidelines for community-dwelling populations remain limited. Furthermore, the list of PIMs differed among available tools. In future, specific but integrating MUR tools need to be developed for clinical practice considering this population.

18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-892366

ABSTRACT

Background@#Risk of fragility fractures increases in patients with diabetes mellitus, independent of bone mineral density. In the present study, the effects of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) on differentiation and function of osteoblasts and osteoclasts were investigated. @*Methods@#AGEs and 25 mM glucose were administered to marrow-derived macrophages and MCT3T3-E1 cells. The effects of AGEs on osteoclast differentiation was investigated using tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) assay. The effects of AGEs on osteoblast differentiation was investigated using alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and bone nodule formation assays. Expression of osteoclast-specific and osteoblast-specific genes and effects on cell signaling pathways associated with cell differentiation were analyzed using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and western blotting. @*Results@#AGEs significantly decreased TRAP-positive multinucleated cell formation in receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand-induced marrow-derived macrophages in a dose-dependent manner. AGEs suppressed the expression of osteoclast-specific genes, JNK, p38, AKT, intercellular adhesion molecule 1, and lymphocyte function-associated antigen 1 in marrow-derived macrophages. AGEs decreased ALP activity and showed a tendency to decrease bone nodule formation in MC3T3-E1 cells. AGEs suppressed the expression of osteoblast-specific genes, lysyl hydroxylase and lysyl oxidase in MC3T3-E1 cells. @*Conclusion@#AGEs suppressed differentiation and function of osteoclasts and osteoblasts, and collagen cross-linking activity. It suggests that AGE may induce bone fragility through low bone turnover and deterioration of bone quality.

19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-892330

ABSTRACT

Background@#Methylglyoxal (MG) is associated with the pathogenesis of age- and diabetes-related complications. Spironolactone is a competitive antagonist of aldosterone that is widely employed in the treatment of hypertension and heart failure. This study examined the effects of spironolactone on MG-induced cellular dysfunction in MC3T3-E1 osteoblastic cells. @*Methods@#MC3T3-E1 cells were treated with spironolactone in the presence of MG. The mitochondrial function, bone formation activity, oxidative damage, inflammatory cytokines, glyoxalase I activity, and glutathione (GSH) were measured. @*Results@#Pretreatment of MC3T3-E1 osteoblastic cells with spironolactone prevented MG-induced cell death, and improved bone formation activity. Spironolactone reduced MG-induced endoplasmic reticulum stress, production of intracellular reactive oxygen species, mitochondrial superoxides, cardiolipin peroxidation, and inflammatory cytokines. Pretreatment with spironolactone also increased the level of reduced GSH and the activity of glyoxalase I. MG induced mitochondrial dysfunction, but markers of mitochondrial biogenesis such as mitochondrial membrane potential, adenosine triphosphate, proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1α, and nitric oxide were significantly improved by treatment of spironolactone. @*Conclusion@#Spironolactone could prevent MG-induced cytotoxicity in MC3T3-E1 osteoblastic cells by reduction of oxidative stress. The oxidative stress reduction was explained by spironolactone's inhibition of advanced glycation end-product formation, restoring mitochondrial dysfunction, and anti-inflammatory effect.

20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-892238

ABSTRACT

Background@#Acromegaly is a rare, slowly progressive disease. Its mechanism is not fully understood, and epidemiological research on Korean patients with acromegaly is scarce.The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence and prevalence of acromegaly and assess the comorbidities and survival benefits based on treatment options. @*Methods@#This nationwide population-based cohort study was conducted using data of the Korean Health Insurance Review and Assessment claims database to evaluate the incidence of newly diagnosed acromegaly cases during 2013–2017. @*Results@#During the 5-year period, 1,093 patients were newly diagnosed with acromegaly.The average annual incidence was 4.2 cases per million per year, and the prevalence was 32.1 cases per million during this period. The incidence of hypertension was low after medical treatment (hazard ratio, 0.257; 95% confidence interval, 0.082–0.808; P = 0.020), but the incidence of diabetes showed no significant difference across treatment modalities. Over a period of 6 years since diagnosis, we found that patients treated for acromegaly had a significantly higher survival rate than those untreated (P < 0.001). @*Conclusion@#The annual incidence rate of Korean patients with acromegaly was similar to that reported in previous studies. Using nationwide population data, our study emphasized the importance of treatment in acromegaly patients.

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