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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-917835

ABSTRACT

We present the postmortem findings of an unexpected death due to acute myocardial infarction (AMI) with microthrombi and thrombosis in other vessels after the first dose of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccination (ChAdOx1 nCov-19). The deceased was a 69-year-old woman who complained of nonspecific symptoms shortly after vaccination and was found dead on the sixth day. Postmortem examination revealed AMI and complications (left ventricular rupture, hemopericardium) with microthrombi in small cardiac vessels, which are similar to the characteristic findings of myocardial injury caused by microthrombi in patients with COVID-19. Nonobstructive thromboembolism in the pulmonary arteries and inferior vena cava, and fibrin microthrombi in some small vessels in the brain were also observed. It is unclear whether these findings are associated with COVID-19 vaccination, and further comprehensive studies are needed.

2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-917834

ABSTRACT

This study presents a case of sudden cardiac death due to cardiac small vessel vasculitis after coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) mRNA vaccination (BNT162b2). The deceased was a 76-year-old woman with diabetes mellitus (DM) and chronic hypertension (HTN), who experienced generalized pain for a month after the first dose of vaccination, and unexpectedly died. Postmortem examination revealed small vessel vasculitis in the heart, lungs and vaccinated site of the left arm. These features were similar to those observed in a previously reported case of a patient with COVID-19 and cardiac endotheliitis and multisystem inflammatory syndrome. In addition, DM and HTN may contribute to vaccine-induced immunologic changes and vascular dysfunction. However, further studies with additional cases are needed.

3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-917827

ABSTRACT

We present an unexpected fatal case of pulmonary embolism due to venous thrombosis after vaccination for coronavirus disease 2019 (ChAdOx1 nCov-19). The deceased was a 64-year-old woman with Alzheimer disease. The deceased had fever shortly after vaccination, and presented sudden dyspnea and died 8 days after vaccination. On postmortem examination, pulmonary embolism and venous thrombosis were noted in deep veins of both lower legs. Even though the psychomotor function of the deceased became fragile due to Alzheimer disease, the deceased was not bed-ridden, and major known risk factors related to venous thrombosis were not explicit in this case. Because there are not enough data related to vaccination and thrombosis, we hope that this case would be helpful in unraveling pathogenesis of venous thrombosis after vaccination and in determining whether there is any association between thrombosis and vaccination.

4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-917816

ABSTRACT

We present two cases of death associated with chronic methamphetamine abuse. Several findings were observed in chronic methamphetamine abuse; pathologic changes in the heart and coronary artery, pulmonary embolism by foreign materials (drug materials), small scars on the subcutaneous vein on the arms with skin infection and sepsis, and so on. These complications can be fatal pathological findings that explain sudden death. The toxicological test results should be carefully interpreted; the presence of methamphetamine in the toxicological results should not automatically be interpreted as acute intoxication. A meticulous postmortem examination with review of the scene, circumstances and past history is crucial in identifying these findings and interpreting them appropriately.

5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-836588

ABSTRACT

The deceased was a 6-month-old male infant who was transferred to the hospital due to jaundice and vomiting. During admission, subdural hemorrhage and retinal hemorrhage were observed; additionally, a rib fracture was identified on the previous radiography images, which had eventually healed by the time of the follow-up study. This case was reported to the police, alleging child abuse, which led to a medicolegal dispute between the hospital and the deceased's parents. In addition, bleeding tendency and coagulopathy related to vitamin K deficiency were also found. The past history revealed that the deceased had diarrhea, jaundice, and experienced several episodes of acholic stools, and low levels of vitamin D at birth. On postmortem examination, the brain already revealed liquefactive necrosis, but subdural hemorrhage was still observed. The optic nerves of both eyes revealed hemorrhage with focal retinal hemorrhage.No definite fracture was identified; however, osteopenia was observed in the long bones. The liver showed septal fibrosis and cholestasis which is nearly biliary cirrhosis, and mild dilation of the intrahepatic and extrahepatic bile ducts, suggesting a choledochal cyst. This case illustrates that subdural hemorrhage related to vitamin K deficiency could occur in an infant with a choledochal cyst.When subdural hemorrhage is encountered in a child with what is considered an intentional head injury, the possibility of spontaneous hemorrhage should be excluded.

6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-740693

ABSTRACT

We present the case of a 23-year-old man who suddenly collapsed during a physical altercation with his friends while in a drunken state. The post-mortem computed tomography (CT) with angiography revealed acute basal subarachnoid hemorrhage with rupture of the left middle cerebral artery. On autopsy, the head, face, mandible and neck showed multifocal hemorrhages with fracture of the hyoid bone, and the pathologic findings of the brain was consistent with CT findings. However, the vascular rupture site was not observed macroscopically. On histologic examination, a microscopic focal rupture was identified at the proximal portion of the middle cerebral artery, and possibility of arteriopathy was considered. This case illustrates that other parts of intracerebral arteries (other than the vertebral arteries) can be the culprit of rupture in the case of traumatic basal subarachnoid hemorrhage, and the post-mortem angiographic findings can be helpful in targeting the site of vascular injury. Furthermore, meticulous sampling of intracranial vessels could help find the vascular rupture site and identify any histologic findings suspicious of arteriopathy. Therefore, we suggest that post-mortem angiography can be an effective and adjunctive tool for a tailored approach in finding the vascular injury, and that histologic examination of both the intracranial and extracranial arteries be important to medicolegally ensure the death of traumatic basal subarachnoid hemorrhage and to examine presence of arteriopathy as a predisposing factor.


Subject(s)
Angiography , Arteries , Autopsy , Brain , Causality , Forensic Pathology , Friends , Head , Hemorrhage , Humans , Hyoid Bone , Mandible , Middle Cerebral Artery , Neck , Rupture , Subarachnoid Hemorrhage , Subarachnoid Hemorrhage, Traumatic , Vascular System Injuries , Young Adult
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-759874

ABSTRACT

We present the case of a 48-year-old woman who complained of sustained dyspnea and newly developed dyspnea, who then suddenly and unexpectedly expired during bronchoscopy. On postmortem examination, the deceased had advanced gastric cancer as a primary tumor. Frequent lymphatic tumor emboli were observed with some pulmonary lymphangitic carcinomatosis (PLC), and pulmonary tumor thrombotic microangiopathy (PTMA). PLC and PTMA are lethal forms of pulmonary metastasis, and PTMA can lead to sudden death. The characteristic findings of PLC and PTMA in the deceased were not predominant, however, and the clinical manifestation was not acutely deteriorating. These findings are, therefore, insufficient to explain the deceased's sudden death. Clinically, the deceased manifested hypoxemia, bradycardia and cardiac arrest during bronchoscopy and then soon expired, suggesting the possibility of cardiovascular complication related to bronchoscopy. Despite several limitations, we assumed that the sudden unexpected death might have been induced by cardiovascular complications related to bronchoscopy and due to the underlying pathologic condition by PLC and PTMA.


Subject(s)
Hypoxia , Autopsy , Bradycardia , Bronchoscopy , Carcinoma , Death, Sudden , Dyspnea , Female , Forensic Pathology , Heart Arrest , Humans , Middle Aged , Neoplasm Metastasis , Stomach Neoplasms , Thrombotic Microangiopathies
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-917810

ABSTRACT

We present the case of a 48-year-old woman who complained of sustained dyspnea and newly developed dyspnea, who then suddenly and unexpectedly expired during bronchoscopy. On postmortem examination, the deceased had advanced gastric cancer as a primary tumor. Frequent lymphatic tumor emboli were observed with some pulmonary lymphangitic carcinomatosis (PLC), and pulmonary tumor thrombotic microangiopathy (PTMA). PLC and PTMA are lethal forms of pulmonary metastasis, and PTMA can lead to sudden death. The characteristic findings of PLC and PTMA in the deceased were not predominant, however, and the clinical manifestation was not acutely deteriorating. These findings are, therefore, insufficient to explain the deceased's sudden death. Clinically, the deceased manifested hypoxemia, bradycardia and cardiac arrest during bronchoscopy and then soon expired, suggesting the possibility of cardiovascular complication related to bronchoscopy. Despite several limitations, we assumed that the sudden unexpected death might have been induced by cardiovascular complications related to bronchoscopy and due to the underlying pathologic condition by PLC and PTMA.

9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-917798

ABSTRACT

We present the case of a 23-year-old man who suddenly collapsed during a physical altercation with his friends while in a drunken state. The post-mortem computed tomography (CT) with angiography revealed acute basal subarachnoid hemorrhage with rupture of the left middle cerebral artery. On autopsy, the head, face, mandible and neck showed multifocal hemorrhages with fracture of the hyoid bone, and the pathologic findings of the brain was consistent with CT findings. However, the vascular rupture site was not observed macroscopically. On histologic examination, a microscopic focal rupture was identified at the proximal portion of the middle cerebral artery, and possibility of arteriopathy was considered. This case illustrates that other parts of intracerebral arteries (other than the vertebral arteries) can be the culprit of rupture in the case of traumatic basal subarachnoid hemorrhage, and the post-mortem angiographic findings can be helpful in targeting the site of vascular injury. Furthermore, meticulous sampling of intracranial vessels could help find the vascular rupture site and identify any histologic findings suspicious of arteriopathy. Therefore, we suggest that post-mortem angiography can be an effective and adjunctive tool for a tailored approach in finding the vascular injury, and that histologic examination of both the intracranial and extracranial arteries be important to medicolegally ensure the death of traumatic basal subarachnoid hemorrhage and to examine presence of arteriopathy as a predisposing factor.

10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-740678

ABSTRACT

Popliteal venous aneurysms can be a cause of fatal pulmonary thromboembolism. We report a case of a 47-year-old woman who suddenly died of fatal pulmonary thromboembolism. Deep vein thrombosis was not observed, but a venous aneurysm with intraluminal thrombi formation was identified on the left popliteal vein. This case illustrates that venous aneurysms can be presented as fatal pulmonary thromboembolism, and that they should be considered as a rare cause of pulmonary thromboembolism.


Subject(s)
Aneurysm , Female , Forensic Pathology , Humans , Middle Aged , Popliteal Vein , Pulmonary Embolism , Venous Thrombosis
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-740670

ABSTRACT

Venipuncture is a routine and relatively safe and painless medical procedure, necessary for accurate diagnosis and treatment. However, given that pain related to medical procedures may have adverse effects for children, could venipuncture cause deaths in infants and children? We analyzed our cases of unexpected death after venipuncture and conducted a literature review on them. A vasovagal response to noxious stimuli may explain such a sudden death immediately after venipuncture, commonly presented as needle phobia, breath-holding spell, and reflex anoxic seizure in the literature, despite the fact that the current medical evidence is not enough to prove their casual relationship. In addition, pain prevention and management during medical procedure is incorporated in clinical guidelines for pediatric patients, because painful medical procedures negatively affect child development. Thus, prevention and management of pain related to medical procedure may be helpful to avoid an adverse vasovagal response to noxious stimuli from occurring.


Subject(s)
Autopsy , Child , Child Development , Death, Sudden , Diagnosis , Forensic Pathology , Humans , Infant , Infant Death , Needles , Phlebotomy , Phobic Disorders , Reflex , Seizures
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-740667

ABSTRACT

Fibromuscular dysplasia (FMD) of the coronary artery is a rare cause of sudden cardiac death; however, its prevalence and fatality may have been overlooked so far. A 47-year-old man complained of pain in his back and shoulder and became unconscious. Despite resuscitation, he died 3 hours after symptom onset. The heart weight was in the normal range; however, all three major coronary arteries showed intimal thickening without atherosclerosis or inflammatory cell infiltration. Fragmentations and duplications of the internal elastic lamina which are histologic features of intimal fibroplasia, a focal-type FMD, were observed. The prevalence of coronary FMD remains unknown, although it may be related to spontaneous coronary artery dissection and sudden death. The histopathologic confirmation of coronary FMD and exclusion of other possible coronary diseases through autopsy are essential to reveal the nature of the disease and therefore apply the information in dealing with legal problems after death.


Subject(s)
Atherosclerosis , Autopsy , Cause of Death , Coronary Disease , Coronary Vessels , Death, Sudden , Death, Sudden, Cardiac , Fibromuscular Dysplasia , Heart , Humans , Middle Aged , Prevalence , Reference Values , Resuscitation , Shoulder , Tunica Intima
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-917775

ABSTRACT

Venipuncture is a routine and relatively safe and painless medical procedure, necessary for accurate diagnosis and treatment. However, given that pain related to medical procedures may have adverse effects for children, could venipuncture cause deaths in infants and children? We analyzed our cases of unexpected death after venipuncture and conducted a literature review on them. A vasovagal response to noxious stimuli may explain such a sudden death immediately after venipuncture, commonly presented as needle phobia, breath-holding spell, and reflex anoxic seizure in the literature, despite the fact that the current medical evidence is not enough to prove their casual relationship. In addition, pain prevention and management during medical procedure is incorporated in clinical guidelines for pediatric patients, because painful medical procedures negatively affect child development. Thus, prevention and management of pain related to medical procedure may be helpful to avoid an adverse vasovagal response to noxious stimuli from occurring.

14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-917772

ABSTRACT

Fibromuscular dysplasia (FMD) of the coronary artery is a rare cause of sudden cardiac death; however, its prevalence and fatality may have been overlooked so far. A 47-year-old man complained of pain in his back and shoulder and became unconscious. Despite resuscitation, he died 3 hours after symptom onset. The heart weight was in the normal range; however, all three major coronary arteries showed intimal thickening without atherosclerosis or inflammatory cell infiltration. Fragmentations and duplications of the internal elastic lamina which are histologic features of intimal fibroplasia, a focal-type FMD, were observed. The prevalence of coronary FMD remains unknown, although it may be related to spontaneous coronary artery dissection and sudden death. The histopathologic confirmation of coronary FMD and exclusion of other possible coronary diseases through autopsy are essential to reveal the nature of the disease and therefore apply the information in dealing with legal problems after death.

15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-917768

ABSTRACT

Popliteal venous aneurysms can be a cause of fatal pulmonary thromboembolism. We report a case of a 47-year-old woman who suddenly died of fatal pulmonary thromboembolism. Deep vein thrombosis was not observed, but a venous aneurysm with intraluminal thrombi formation was identified on the left popliteal vein. This case illustrates that venous aneurysms can be presented as fatal pulmonary thromboembolism, and that they should be considered as a rare cause of pulmonary thromboembolism.

16.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-217845

ABSTRACT

We report the case of a 66-year-old man who died of fatal delayed hemothorax after blunt trauma to the chest. When the deceased was transferred to the hospital, his vital signs were stable; hence, medical attention was focused only on the fracture on right ankle. Three days after the orthopedic surgery, he became unsettled with symptoms similar to delirium and exhibited unstable vital signs; he then suddenly died. On autopsy, a beveled fracture was identified on the posterior aspect of the left second rib with hemothorax. It was because of a rupture in the intercostal artery at the fracture site that a simple fracture in a rib, following a blunt chest trauma can be a potentially life-threatening condition. We suggest that a meticulous examination should be performed at the rib fracture sites when a blunt trauma to the chest is suspected even when there are no internal organ injuries identified except hemothorax.


Subject(s)
Aged , Ankle , Arteries , Autopsy , Delirium , Hemothorax , Humans , Orthopedics , Rib Fractures , Ribs , Rupture , Thorax , Vital Signs
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-49322

ABSTRACT

Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) genome analysis has been a potent tool in forensic practice as well as in the understanding of human phylogeny in the maternal lineage. The traditional mtDNA analysis is focused on the control region, but the introduction of massive parallel sequencing (MPS) has made the typing of the entire mtDNA genome (mtGenome) more accessible for routine analysis. The complete mtDNA information can provide large amounts of novel genetic data for diverse populations as well as improved discrimination power for identification. The genetic diversity of the mtDNA sequence in different ethnic populations has been revealed through MPS analysis, but the Korean population not only has limited MPS data for the entire mtGenome, the existing data is mainly focused on the control region. In this study, the complete mtGenome data for 186 Koreans, obtained using Ion Torrent Personal Genome Machine (PGM) technology and retrieved from rather common mtDNA haplogroups based on the control region sequence, are described. The results showed that 24 haplogroups, determined with hypervariable regions only, branched into 47 subhaplogroups, and point heteroplasmy was more frequent in the coding regions. In addition, sequence variations in the coding regions observed in this study were compared with those presented in other reports on different populations, and there were similar features observed in the sequence variants for the predominant haplogroups among East Asian populations, such as Haplogroup D and macrohaplogroups M9, G, and D. This study is expected to be the trigger for the development of Korean specific mtGenome data followed by numerous future studies.

18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-67293

ABSTRACT

Acute fatty liver of pregnancy (AFLP) is one of the sudden unexpected causes in pregnancy and maternal deaths. It has been considered as a potential fatal disease in pregnancy, but the postmortem findings of AFLP is not well known. Because an unexpected maternal death may lead to a legal dispute, forensic pathologists should be aware of clinical presentations and postmortem findings of AFLP. Therefore, we presented our case and reviewed with literatures.


Subject(s)
Autopsy , Dissent and Disputes , Fatty Liver , Forensic Pathology , Maternal Death , Pregnancy
19.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-67292

ABSTRACT

Investigating neonatal deaths in the toilets is challenging for forensic pathologists. During the postmortem examination, they should evaluate whether the baby was alive or a stillbirth and determine any causes of death, such as prenatal cause, infection, anatomical abnormalities, birth or other blunt force injury, drowning, and asphyxia. We retrieved two cases of neonatal deaths in the toilets and reviewed their autopsy findings and circumstances. However, findings from the postmortem examination were insignificant. Their lung examinations revealed non-expanded alveoli, and hydrostatic tests were negative. However, the cases cannot be confirmed as stillbirths because of the possibility that they might be alive for a short period of time after birth and then exposed into the water in the toilet or to accidental or non-accidental asphyxia or that they might have died because of neglect. These cases illustrate that the death scene and the associated circumstances should be meticulously and carefully investigated.


Subject(s)
Asphyxia , Autopsy , Cause of Death , Drowning , Forensic Pathology , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Lung , Parturition , Perinatal Death , Stillbirth , Water
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-204992

ABSTRACT

Recently, it has been reported that transfused patients can generate admixture-like genetic profiles. As genetic material of the donor can survive for a reasonable time after transfusion, the recipient's genomic DNA is likely to have a mixture pattern. An autopsy case of a man transfused perimortem generated a mixture patterned short tandem repeat profile. Notably, the patient was transfused mostly with nuclear-deficient cells, limiting the donor genetic material available for the recipient. As a result, mixture-like patterns were observed consistently, regardless of change in input DNA content; the sample DNA content, which was serially diluted, ranged from 1 ng to 0.0625 ng. The distributions of foreign peaks appeared to be irreproducible, showing stochastic behaviors throughout the genotyped results. This study suggests that a cautious approach is required when genotyping of a patient who has undergone recent transfusion. One must consider the possibility of obtaining a mixture patterned profile in such patients, and therefore, choose parenchymal organs or tissues for reliable results.


Subject(s)
Autopsy , Blood Transfusion , DNA , DNA Fingerprinting , Humans , Microsatellite Repeats , Tissue Donors
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