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1.
Journal of Korean Diabetes ; : 106-112, 2022.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-939047

ABSTRACT

People with obesity are at high risk of type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and certain types of malignancy. A significant reduction in muscle mass is also associated with increased risk of developing sarcopenia. In general, body composition is affected by several factors, including ethnicity, environment, genetics, and lifestyle patterns. Assessment of body composition is an important tool for maintaining good general health and longevity, and is utilized by physicians and researchers to monitor disease severity and nutritional status. It can also be used to monitor the effectiveness of dietary and drug interventions. Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry is regarded as the gold standard method for analyzing body composition. However, there is an associated risk of a small amount of radiation exposure. In addition, severely obese people are not candidates for this method. Recently, bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) has been developed. BIA poses no radiation hazard, is easy applicable and relatively inexpensive. Thus, BIA is widely used in fitness centers as well as in hospitals. Several studies have been conducted to assess the effectiveness of BIA for measuring body composition, but most have focused on subjects of European descent. Of note, body composition differs among ethnic groups: Asians have a greater tendency toward obesity at a lower body mass index than Caucasians. Therefore, an ethnicity-specific approach is required for precise estimation of body composition using BIA. In conclusion, healthcare providers should have a thorough understanding of body composition assessment and the advantages and disadvantages of different measurement methods.

2.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-938268

ABSTRACT

Background@#The rapid increase in the number of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) patients led to the operation of COVID-19 facilities for patients with mild COVID-19 in South Korea. We analyzed the correlation and effect of risk factors associated with the worsening of patients with mild COVID-19 leading to their transfer from a community treatment center to a hospital. @*Methods@#This retrospective cohort observational study included 1,208 COVID-19 patients with mild symptoms who were admitted to the Namsan Community Treatment Center between June 2020 and January 2021. A chi-square test was performed to examine the differences in the transfer rate by age, sex, nationality, presence of symptoms at admission, and season, and a multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed to examine the association of variables to the hospitalization rate. @*Results@#Of the 1,208 patients, 212 (17.5%) were transferred to a hospital due to clinical deterioration. Increasing odds of hospital transfer were associated significantly with higher age and presentation in autumn, whereas sex and symptomatic illness at admission did not show a statistically significant association. @*Conclusion@#The findings indicate the importance of the initial risk classification of COVID-19 patients based on thorough assessment and close monitoring, timely allocation of appropriate resources to high-risk groups that are likely to develop severe disease, and reduction of medical resource wastage and limiting of administrative force to ensure that patients receive the best treatment.

3.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-938262

ABSTRACT

Since December 2019, most countries have struggled with the novel coronavirus, severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2). During the coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, weight gain became prevalent because the preventive measures against the spread of SARS-CoV-2 infection resulted in decreased physical activity and increased consumption of unhealthy food among the general public.Current Concepts: Several mechanisms have been proposed for the association between obesity and COVID-19. SARS-CoV-2 infection aggravates inflammation and hypoxia in obese people, which can lead to severe COVID-19 disease. COVID-19 affects the immune system, resulting in various complications. Several cytokines, including interleukin-6, are integral to the progression of COVID-19. Thus, COVID-19-associated inflammation and immune dysfunction predispose patients to the complications of obesity, such as cardiovascular diseases and diabetes mellitus.Discussion and Conclusion: Obese patients are commonly prescribed antidiabetic agents, blood pressure lowering medications, and lipid-lowering medications such as statins. The routine intake of these drugs is a protective factor against all-cause mortality. During the COVID-19 pandemic, preventive measures, such as minimizing team sports and closing public exercise facilities, might have contributed to the weight gain in obese individuals. Thus, an active lifestyle with regular home exercise and a healthy diet should be advised for obese patients.

4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-937201

ABSTRACT

Most malignant lymphomas of the head and neck region are non-Hodgkin lymphomas (NHL), and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma is the most common subtype. The prevalence of malignant lymphoma among parotid tumors is low, approximately 1% to 4%. The most common symptom of parotid lymphoma is a unilateral, non-tender, firm mass that slowly grows in size over time. As its clinical manifestations are non-specific, a comprehensive assessment is required for an accurate diagnosis. The initial work-up includes imaging tools, such as computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. However, NHL of the parotid gland is difficult to distinguish from other types of benign tumors prior to biopsy; histopathological evaluation and subsequent immunohistochemical staining are needed for the final diagnosis. Once a definitive diagnosis is established, patients should be referred to an oncologist for staging. Treatment is mainly based on systemic chemotherapy, whereas radiotherapy is indicated for certain cases. Here, we report the case of a 53-year-old man who presented with a progressively enlarging mass in the right parotid area, which was later diagnosed as malignant lymphoma of the parotid gland after superficial parotidectomy.

5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-902023

ABSTRACT

Background@#Rosacea is a common chronic inflammatory skin disease, which primarily affects the central face. In 2002, the National Rosacea Society (NRS) committee developed the first diagnostic criteria for rosacea, based on its subtypes. The revised classification in 2017 prompted a proposal to transit from a subtyping to a phenotyping approach, reflecting current insights into rosacea pathogenesis, pathophysiology, and management. @*Objective@#This study aimed to elucidate the clinical features of rosacea and compare two diagnostic criteria in rosacea patients. @*Methods@#We performed a clinical study on 100 patients with rosacea diagnosed according to the 2002 NRS criteria. The age, sex, clinical features, subtypes, severity, and predisposing factors were evaluated using the questionnaire. In addition, we compared the 2002 and 2017 criteria, and evaluated patients if they met the revised criteria. @*Results@#According to the 2002 NRS classification, the erythematotelangiectatic type (88.0%) was the most frequent, followed by the papulopustular (43.0%), ocular (13.0%), and phymatous (6.0%) types. There were 44 overlapping cases, including 38 cases with 2 subtypes mixed and 6 cases with three subtypes. Six patients were diagnosed with rosacea using the 2002 NRS criteria but they did not satisfy the revised 2017 criteria. @*Conclusion@#We found that the diagnostic features of the 2002 criteria are too ambiguous for the diagnosis of rosacea. Therefore, we recommend that dermatologists recognize the necessity of a transition from a subtyping to a phenotyping approach, according to the 2017 criteria for the diagnosis of rosacea.

6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-902020

ABSTRACT

The introduction of immune checkpoint inhibitors, including anti-programmed cell death receptor-1 antibodies (anti-PD-1 Ab), such as nivolumab and pembrolizumab, represents a major breakthrough in cancer therapy. The PD-1 pathway inhibits T cell activation, maintaining a normal and balanced immune response. Anti-PD-1 Ab induces T cell activity by inhibiting the suppressive effect of PD-1 signaling on T cells. Excessive stimulation of T cells represents a potential mechanism for multiple skin lesions. To the best of our knowledge, reports on cutaneous adverse effects during treatment with anti-PD-1 Ab are limited in the dermatological literature of Korea. Herein, we report two rare cases of nivolumab-induced lichenoid drug eruption and pembrolizumab-induced psoriasis.

7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-901947

ABSTRACT

Background@#Cobalt is an important contact allergen and is contained mainly in metal products. Recent studies have reported an association between leather exposure and cobalt allergic contact dermatitis. However, there is no study on this subject in Korea. @*Objective@#The aim of this study is to examine cobalt content and release from leather sofas, shoes, watch straps, and gloves sold in Korea, and to investigate leather exposure in cobalt allergic contact dermatitis. @*Methods@#We collected 38 leather samples of leather sofa, 15 leather shoes, 8 leather watch straps, and 10 leather gloves sold in Korea. The cobalt spot test and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry were used to confirm cobalt content and release from leather samples. @*Results@#All 71 leather samples were negative for cobalt in the spot test. No cobalt was found in the 35 leathers tested by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry. @*Conclusion@#Unlike previous studies, cobalt was not identified in leather in this study. Therefore, the possibility of cobalt allergic contact dermatitis caused by leather is relatively low in Korea. However, further studies with larger numbers of leather samples are needed to obtain more accurate results.

8.
Annals of Dermatology ; : 289-292, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-896798

ABSTRACT

Poroid hidradenoma (PH) is a rare benign tumor that shows differentiation of the eccrine sweat gland. It occurs mainly in adults, presenting as a 0.5 to 2 cm-sized intradermal nodule, mostly on the head, extremities, trunk and neck. We report two rare cases of PH, one on the face and the other on the heel. The first patient was a 50-year-old male who had a solitary, skin-colored nodule on his right temple for 6 months.The second patient was a 67-year-old female who presented with a solitary, bean-sized, tender nodule on her left heel for 1 year. The common histological examination finding was a well-circumscribed tumor composed of solid portions and large cystic spaces in the center. The tumor cells consisted of small, monomorphic poroid cells and large cuticular cells in both cases. To our knowledge, only few cases of PH have been reported. Herein, we report two rare cases of PHs with literature review

9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-894319

ABSTRACT

Background@#Rosacea is a common chronic inflammatory skin disease, which primarily affects the central face. In 2002, the National Rosacea Society (NRS) committee developed the first diagnostic criteria for rosacea, based on its subtypes. The revised classification in 2017 prompted a proposal to transit from a subtyping to a phenotyping approach, reflecting current insights into rosacea pathogenesis, pathophysiology, and management. @*Objective@#This study aimed to elucidate the clinical features of rosacea and compare two diagnostic criteria in rosacea patients. @*Methods@#We performed a clinical study on 100 patients with rosacea diagnosed according to the 2002 NRS criteria. The age, sex, clinical features, subtypes, severity, and predisposing factors were evaluated using the questionnaire. In addition, we compared the 2002 and 2017 criteria, and evaluated patients if they met the revised criteria. @*Results@#According to the 2002 NRS classification, the erythematotelangiectatic type (88.0%) was the most frequent, followed by the papulopustular (43.0%), ocular (13.0%), and phymatous (6.0%) types. There were 44 overlapping cases, including 38 cases with 2 subtypes mixed and 6 cases with three subtypes. Six patients were diagnosed with rosacea using the 2002 NRS criteria but they did not satisfy the revised 2017 criteria. @*Conclusion@#We found that the diagnostic features of the 2002 criteria are too ambiguous for the diagnosis of rosacea. Therefore, we recommend that dermatologists recognize the necessity of a transition from a subtyping to a phenotyping approach, according to the 2017 criteria for the diagnosis of rosacea.

10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-894316

ABSTRACT

The introduction of immune checkpoint inhibitors, including anti-programmed cell death receptor-1 antibodies (anti-PD-1 Ab), such as nivolumab and pembrolizumab, represents a major breakthrough in cancer therapy. The PD-1 pathway inhibits T cell activation, maintaining a normal and balanced immune response. Anti-PD-1 Ab induces T cell activity by inhibiting the suppressive effect of PD-1 signaling on T cells. Excessive stimulation of T cells represents a potential mechanism for multiple skin lesions. To the best of our knowledge, reports on cutaneous adverse effects during treatment with anti-PD-1 Ab are limited in the dermatological literature of Korea. Herein, we report two rare cases of nivolumab-induced lichenoid drug eruption and pembrolizumab-induced psoriasis.

11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-894243

ABSTRACT

Background@#Cobalt is an important contact allergen and is contained mainly in metal products. Recent studies have reported an association between leather exposure and cobalt allergic contact dermatitis. However, there is no study on this subject in Korea. @*Objective@#The aim of this study is to examine cobalt content and release from leather sofas, shoes, watch straps, and gloves sold in Korea, and to investigate leather exposure in cobalt allergic contact dermatitis. @*Methods@#We collected 38 leather samples of leather sofa, 15 leather shoes, 8 leather watch straps, and 10 leather gloves sold in Korea. The cobalt spot test and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry were used to confirm cobalt content and release from leather samples. @*Results@#All 71 leather samples were negative for cobalt in the spot test. No cobalt was found in the 35 leathers tested by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry. @*Conclusion@#Unlike previous studies, cobalt was not identified in leather in this study. Therefore, the possibility of cobalt allergic contact dermatitis caused by leather is relatively low in Korea. However, further studies with larger numbers of leather samples are needed to obtain more accurate results.

12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-893821

ABSTRACT

Background@#An inverse observational association between alcohol use and the risk of chronic kidney disease (CKD) or end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) has been reported. The causal effect of alcohol use on the risk of ESKD warrants additional investigation. @*Methods@#The study was an observational cohort study investigating the UK Biobank and performed Mendelian randomization (MR) analysis. Amounts of alcohol use were collected using a touchscreen questionnaire. In the observational analysis, 212,133 participants without prevalent ESKD were studied, and the association between alcohol use and the risk of prevalent CKD or incident ESKD was investigated. The genetic analysis included 337,138 participants of white British ancestry. For one-sample MR, an analysis based on a polygenic risk score (PRS) was conducted with genetically predicted alcohol intake. The MR analysis investigated ESKD outcome and related comorbidities. @*Results@#Lower alcohol use was observationally associated with a higher risk of prevalent CKD or incident ESKD. However, the genetic risk of CKD was significantly associated with lower alcohol use, suggesting reverse causation. A higher PRS for alcohol use was significantly associated with a higher risk of ESKD (per units of one phenotypical alcohol drink; adjusted odds ratio of 1.16 [95% confidence interval, 1.02–1.31]) and related comorbidities, including hypertension, diabetes mellitus, obesity, and central obesity. @*Conclusion@#The inverse observational association between alcohol use and the risk of CKD or ESKD may have been affected by reverse causation. Our study supports a causal effect of alcohol use on a higher risk of ESKD and related predisposing comorbidities.

13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-892510

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#This study examined the effects of the application of Schroth exercise-based instrument Pilates exercise on the Cobb’s angle, angle of trunk rotation, and low back pain of female patients with idiopathic scoliosis. @*Methods@#Three patients with idiopathic scoliosis at a Cobb’s angle of 20° or more participated in this study. Among the single-subject experimental research designs, a reversal (ABA) design was performed. In particular, Schroth exercise-based instrument, Pilates exercise, was performed for 10 weeks, consisting of five weeks between the baseline and intervention one period and five weeks between the intervention 1 and intervention 2 periods, and then followed up for five weeks. @*Results@#After the Schroth exercise-based instrument, Pilates exercise, was applied, the Cobb’s angle and the angle of trunk rotation decreased compared to the baseline in all subjects, and the follow-up period also showed a continuous decline. After Pilates exercise was performed, low back pain in subjects 1 and 2 was decreased in the intervention 1 period compared to the baseline. The level of low back pain in the intervention 2 period increased compared to the intervention 1 period, but a reduction was noted in the follow-up period. The low back pain in the subject was decreased in all intervention periods and the follow-up period. @*Conclusion@#Schroth exercise-based Pilates exercise improves the Cobb’s angle and the angle of trunk rotation for female patients with idiopathic scoliosis in their teens and 20s, and an effective intervention method is proposed for low back pain.

14.
Annals of Dermatology ; : 289-292, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-889094

ABSTRACT

Poroid hidradenoma (PH) is a rare benign tumor that shows differentiation of the eccrine sweat gland. It occurs mainly in adults, presenting as a 0.5 to 2 cm-sized intradermal nodule, mostly on the head, extremities, trunk and neck. We report two rare cases of PH, one on the face and the other on the heel. The first patient was a 50-year-old male who had a solitary, skin-colored nodule on his right temple for 6 months.The second patient was a 67-year-old female who presented with a solitary, bean-sized, tender nodule on her left heel for 1 year. The common histological examination finding was a well-circumscribed tumor composed of solid portions and large cystic spaces in the center. The tumor cells consisted of small, monomorphic poroid cells and large cuticular cells in both cases. To our knowledge, only few cases of PH have been reported. Herein, we report two rare cases of PHs with literature review

15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-875198

ABSTRACT

Kikuchi’s disease, also referred to as histiocytic necrotizing lymphadenopathy, is a benign self-limiting lymphadenitis accompanied by mild fever and night sweats. This disorder usually affects young women and presents with non-specific cutaneous findings. A 15-year-old female adolescent presented with erythematous papules and plaques on both cheeks accompanied by fever, night sweats, and right cervical lymphadenopathy. Histopathological evaluation of a skin biopsy specimen showed mild perivascular and periadnexal infiltration in the dermis.Fine-needle aspiration biopsy of lymph nodes revealed coagulative necrosis with lymphocytic, histiocytic, and karyorrhectic debris. We present a rare case of Kikuchi’s disease that was diagnosed based on histopathological evaluation of skin and lymph node specimens.

16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-875178

ABSTRACT

Clear cell hidradenoma (CCH) is a rare benign tumor that shows differentiation toward the structure of a sweat gland. Recently, hidradenoma has been re-classified into apocrine and eccrine variants and CCH has been classified as apocrine differentiation. A 34-year-old man without any underlying diseases presented with an erythematous, papilliform, 1-cm exophytic nodule on the left neck that had been present for 3 years. Skin biopsy specimens were obtained by excision biopsy of his left neck. Histopathologic findings showed a well-circumscribed tumor composed of solid portions with polyhedral cells and clear cells, a tubular space with columnar cells, and decapitation secretion. Additionally, round, basophilic, poroid cells, tubular structures containing hyalinized material, and intercellular bridges were observed in the epidermis. Herein, we present a rare case of CCH with apocrine and eccrine differentiation.

17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-874538

ABSTRACT

Background@#Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) analogues regulate glucose homeostasis and have anti-inflammatory properties, but cause gastrointestinal side effects. The fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) is a hormonal regulator of lipid and glucose metabolism that has poor pharmacokinetic properties, including a short half-life. To overcome these limitations, we investigated the effect of a low-dose combination of a GLP-1 analogue and FGF21 on atherosclerosis-related molecular pathways. @*Methods@#C57BL/6J mice were fed a high-fat diet for 30 weeks followed by an atherogenic diet for 10 weeks and were divided into four groups: control (saline), liraglutide (0.3 mg/kg/day), FGF21 (5 mg/kg/day), and low-dose combination treatment with liraglutide (0.1 mg/kg/day) and FGF21 (2.5 mg/kg/day) (n=6/group) for 6 weeks. The effects of each treatment on various atherogenesisrelated pathways were assessed. @*Results@#Liraglutide, FGF21, and their low-dose combination significantly reduced atheromatous plaque in aorta, decreased weight, glucose, and leptin levels, and increased adiponectin levels. The combination treatment upregulated the hepatic uncoupling protein-1 (UCP1) and Akt1 mRNAs compared with controls. Matric mentalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) were downregulated and phosphorylated Akt (p-Akt) and phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (p-ERK) were upregulated in liver of the liraglutide-alone and combination-treatment groups. The combination therapy also significantly decreased the proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells. Caspase-3 was increased, whereas MMP-9, ICAM-1, p-Akt, and p-ERK1/2 were downregulated in the liraglutide-alone and combination-treatment groups. @*Conclusion@#Administration of a low-dose GLP-1 analogue and FGF21 combination exerts beneficial effects on critical pathways related to atherosclerosis, suggesting the synergism of the two compounds.

18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-901525

ABSTRACT

Background@#An inverse observational association between alcohol use and the risk of chronic kidney disease (CKD) or end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) has been reported. The causal effect of alcohol use on the risk of ESKD warrants additional investigation. @*Methods@#The study was an observational cohort study investigating the UK Biobank and performed Mendelian randomization (MR) analysis. Amounts of alcohol use were collected using a touchscreen questionnaire. In the observational analysis, 212,133 participants without prevalent ESKD were studied, and the association between alcohol use and the risk of prevalent CKD or incident ESKD was investigated. The genetic analysis included 337,138 participants of white British ancestry. For one-sample MR, an analysis based on a polygenic risk score (PRS) was conducted with genetically predicted alcohol intake. The MR analysis investigated ESKD outcome and related comorbidities. @*Results@#Lower alcohol use was observationally associated with a higher risk of prevalent CKD or incident ESKD. However, the genetic risk of CKD was significantly associated with lower alcohol use, suggesting reverse causation. A higher PRS for alcohol use was significantly associated with a higher risk of ESKD (per units of one phenotypical alcohol drink; adjusted odds ratio of 1.16 [95% confidence interval, 1.02–1.31]) and related comorbidities, including hypertension, diabetes mellitus, obesity, and central obesity. @*Conclusion@#The inverse observational association between alcohol use and the risk of CKD or ESKD may have been affected by reverse causation. Our study supports a causal effect of alcohol use on a higher risk of ESKD and related predisposing comorbidities.

19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-900214

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#This study examined the effects of the application of Schroth exercise-based instrument Pilates exercise on the Cobb’s angle, angle of trunk rotation, and low back pain of female patients with idiopathic scoliosis. @*Methods@#Three patients with idiopathic scoliosis at a Cobb’s angle of 20° or more participated in this study. Among the single-subject experimental research designs, a reversal (ABA) design was performed. In particular, Schroth exercise-based instrument, Pilates exercise, was performed for 10 weeks, consisting of five weeks between the baseline and intervention one period and five weeks between the intervention 1 and intervention 2 periods, and then followed up for five weeks. @*Results@#After the Schroth exercise-based instrument, Pilates exercise, was applied, the Cobb’s angle and the angle of trunk rotation decreased compared to the baseline in all subjects, and the follow-up period also showed a continuous decline. After Pilates exercise was performed, low back pain in subjects 1 and 2 was decreased in the intervention 1 period compared to the baseline. The level of low back pain in the intervention 2 period increased compared to the intervention 1 period, but a reduction was noted in the follow-up period. The low back pain in the subject was decreased in all intervention periods and the follow-up period. @*Conclusion@#Schroth exercise-based Pilates exercise improves the Cobb’s angle and the angle of trunk rotation for female patients with idiopathic scoliosis in their teens and 20s, and an effective intervention method is proposed for low back pain.

20.
Endocrinology and Metabolism ; : 1131-1141, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-914257

ABSTRACT

Background@#Conventional diagnostic approaches for adrenal tumors require multi-step processes, including imaging studies and dynamic hormone tests. Therefore, this study aimed to discriminate adrenal tumors from a single blood sample based on the combination of liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) and machine learning algorithms in serum profiling of adrenal steroids. @*Methods@#The LC-MS-based steroid profiling was applied to serum samples obtained from patients with nonfunctioning adenoma (NFA, n=73), Cushing’s syndrome (CS, n=30), and primary aldosteronism (PA, n=40) in a prospective multicenter study of adrenal disease. The decision tree (DT), random forest (RF), and extreme gradient boost (XGBoost) were performed to categorize the subtypes of adrenal tumors. @*Results@#The CS group showed higher serum levels of 11-deoxycortisol than the NFA group, and increased levels of tetrahydrocortisone (THE), 20α-dihydrocortisol, and 6β-hydroxycortisol were found in the PA group. However, the CS group showed lower levels of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and its sulfate derivative (DHEA-S) than both the NFA and PA groups. Patients with PA expressed higher serum 18-hydroxycortisol and DHEA but lower THE than NFA patients. The balanced accuracies of DT, RF, and XGBoost for classifying each type were 78%, 96%, and 97%, respectively. In receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analysis for CS, XGBoost, and RF showed a significantly greater diagnostic power than the DT. However, in ROC analysis for PA, only RF exhibited better diagnostic performance than DT. @*Conclusion@#The combination of LC-MS-based steroid profiling with machine learning algorithms could be a promising one-step diagnostic approach for the classification of adrenal tumor subtypes.

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