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1.
Neurointervention ; : 149-158, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1002567

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#To propose standardized and feasible imaging protocols for constructing artificial intelligence (AI) database in acute stroke by assessing the current practice at tertiary hospitals in South Korea and reviewing evolving AI models. @*Materials and Methods@#A nationwide survey on acute stroke imaging protocols was conducted using an electronic questionnaire sent to 43 registered tertiary hospitals between April and May 2021. Imaging protocols for endovascular thrombectomy (EVT) in the early and late time windows and during follow-up were assessed. Clinical applications of AI techniques in stroke imaging and required sequences for developing AI models were reviewed. Standardized and feasible imaging protocols for data curation in acute stroke were proposed. @*Results@#There was considerable heterogeneity in the imaging protocols for EVT candidates in the early and late time windows and posterior circulation stroke. Computed tomography (CT)-based protocols were adopted by 70% (30/43), and acquisition of noncontrast CT, CT angiography and CT perfusion in a single session was most commonly performed (47%, 14/30) with the preference of multiphase (70%, 21/30) over single phase CT angiography. More hospitals performed magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based protocols or additional MRI sequences in a late time window and posterior circulation stroke. Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) were most commonly performed MRI sequences with considerable variation in performing other MRI sequences. AI models for diagnostic purposes required noncontrast CT, CT angiography and DWI while FLAIR, dynamic susceptibility contrast perfusion, and T1-weighted imaging (T1WI) were additionally required for prognostic AI models. @*Conclusion@#Given considerable heterogeneity in acute stroke imaging protocols at tertiary hospitals in South Korea, standardized and feasible imaging protocols are required for constructing AI database in acute stroke. The essential sequences may be noncontrast CT, DWI, CT/MR angiography and CT/MR perfusion while FLAIR and T1WI may be additionally required.

2.
Korean Journal of Radiology ; : 1875-1885, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-918211

ABSTRACT

Objective@#Central nervous system involvement in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been increasingly reported. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the incidence of radiologically demonstrated neurologic complications and detailed neuroimaging findings associated with COVID-19. @*Materials and Methods@#A systematic literature search of MEDLINE/PubMed and EMBASE databases was performed up to September 17, 2020, and studies evaluating neuroimaging findings of COVID-19 using brain CT or MRI were included. Several cohort-based outcomes, including the proportion of patients with abnormal neuroimaging findings related to COVID-19 were evaluated. The proportion of patients showing specific neuroimaging findings was also assessed. Subgroup analyses were also conducted focusing on critically ill COVID-19 patients and results from studies that used MRI as the only imaging modality. @*Results@#A total of 1394 COVID-19 patients who underwent neuroimaging from 17 studies were included; among them, 3.4% of the patients demonstrated COVID-19-related neuroimaging findings. Olfactory bulb abnormalities were the most commonly observed (23.1%). The predominant cerebral neuroimaging finding was white matter abnormality (17.6%), followed by acute/subacute ischemic infarction (16.0%), and encephalopathy (13.0%). Significantly more critically ill patients had COVID-19-related neuroimaging findings than other patients (9.1% vs. 1.6%; p = 0.029). The type of imaging modality used did not significantly affect the proportion of COVID-19-related neuroimaging findings. @*Conclusion@#Abnormal neuroimaging findings were occasionally observed in COVID-19 patients. Olfactory bulb abnormalities were the most commonly observed finding. Critically ill patients showed abnormal neuroimaging findings more frequently than the other patient groups. White matter abnormalities, ischemic infarctions, and encephalopathies were the common cerebral neuroimaging findings.

3.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e22-2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-892093

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Central dark-signal intensity with high-signal, hypertrophic mucosal wall of paranasal sinuses on T2-weighted images (T2WI) is a characteristic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) feature of sinonasal fungus ball. However, this finding is usually interpreted as non-fungal chronic sinusitis with central normal sinus air. In addition, T1-weighted images (T1WI) and T2WI are basic sequences of all magnetic resonance (MR) examinations. Therefore, we evaluated the usefulness of T1WI for detecting fungus balls comparing with computed tomography (CT) findings and T2-weighted MRI findings.@*METHODS@#This retrospective study was approved by the Institutional Review Board of Korea University Guro Hospital. Two reviewers assessed preoperative CT and MR images of 55 patients with pathologically confirmed fungus balls. Reviewers evaluated the presence and patterns of calcifications on CT. Overall signals and the presence and extent of certain signals of fungus balls on MRI were also assessed. The relationship between calcifications and MRI signals was also evaluated.@*RESULTS@#Of the patients, 89.1% had calcifications on CT. All had dark signal portions with high signal, hypertrophic mucosal walls on T2WI. Most (92.7%) patients showed iso- to hyper-intense overall signals on T1WI and 89.1% had T1-weighted high signal portions on MRI. The presence, patterns, and location of calcifications had no significant correlation with T1-weighted high-signal intensity portion.@*CONCLUSION@#Fungus ball can be suggested by the presence of the hyper-signal intensity portions in the fungal mass on T1WI in conjunction with dark-signal lesions surrounded by high-signal, hypertrophic mucosal walls in paranasal sinuses on T2WI.

4.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e22-2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-899797

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Central dark-signal intensity with high-signal, hypertrophic mucosal wall of paranasal sinuses on T2-weighted images (T2WI) is a characteristic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) feature of sinonasal fungus ball. However, this finding is usually interpreted as non-fungal chronic sinusitis with central normal sinus air. In addition, T1-weighted images (T1WI) and T2WI are basic sequences of all magnetic resonance (MR) examinations. Therefore, we evaluated the usefulness of T1WI for detecting fungus balls comparing with computed tomography (CT) findings and T2-weighted MRI findings.@*METHODS@#This retrospective study was approved by the Institutional Review Board of Korea University Guro Hospital. Two reviewers assessed preoperative CT and MR images of 55 patients with pathologically confirmed fungus balls. Reviewers evaluated the presence and patterns of calcifications on CT. Overall signals and the presence and extent of certain signals of fungus balls on MRI were also assessed. The relationship between calcifications and MRI signals was also evaluated.@*RESULTS@#Of the patients, 89.1% had calcifications on CT. All had dark signal portions with high signal, hypertrophic mucosal walls on T2WI. Most (92.7%) patients showed iso- to hyper-intense overall signals on T1WI and 89.1% had T1-weighted high signal portions on MRI. The presence, patterns, and location of calcifications had no significant correlation with T1-weighted high-signal intensity portion.@*CONCLUSION@#Fungus ball can be suggested by the presence of the hyper-signal intensity portions in the fungal mass on T1WI in conjunction with dark-signal lesions surrounded by high-signal, hypertrophic mucosal walls in paranasal sinuses on T2WI.

5.
Ultrasonography ; : 159-165, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-835307

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#The purpose of this study was to present the distribution of lesions among the six categories of the pathology reporting system for thyroid core-needle biopsy (CNB), along with the range of malignancy risk of each category based on different diagnostic criteria for benignity in a clinical cohort. @*Methods@#For 1,216 consecutive nodules (≥1 cm) of 1,125 patients who underwent CNB at two hospitals, the diagnostic results based on the six categories of thyroid CNB were analyzed. Patients were divided into three groups according to prior fine-needle aspiration (FNA) status: second-line CNB for nodules where prior FNA yielded nondiagnostic or unsatisfactory results (n=57), second-line CNB for nodules with prior FNA results of atypia/follicular lesion of undetermined significance (AUS/FLUS) (n=303), and first-line CNB (n=856). @*Results@#The proportion of nodules in each CNB category and the range of the malignancy rate for each category was as follows, in order from category I to VI: 1.8%, 23.1%-75.0%; 57.9%, 0.7%-16.7%; 16.0%, 13.2%-46.7%; 8.8%, 53.8%-56.8%; 2.0%, 100%; and 13.5%, 100%. First-line CNB was associated with a higher rate of conclusive diagnoses (category II, IV, or VI) (725 of 856, 84.7%) than second-line CNB with prior nondiagnostic or AUS/FLUS FNA results (241 of 360, 66.9%; P<0.001). @*Conclusion@#The overall distribution of nodules across the six categories of thyroid CNB and the ranges of malignancy risk for those categories were presented in a clinical cohort. First-line CNB tended to produce a higher rate of conclusive results than second-line CNB with prior inconclusive FNA results.

7.
Journal of the Korean Radiological Society ; : 880-895, 2019.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-916842

ABSTRACT

Headache is the most common cause of neurological disorders. The usefulness of imaging tests may vary depending on the patient's clinical situation. The Korean Society of Radiology and National Evidence-Based Healthcare Collaborating Agency have decided to develop evidence-based guidelines for the imaging tests necessary for diagnosing patients with selected, frequently encountered types of headache. Development, working, and advisory committees were formed. Recommendation statements were derived from the adaptive development methods provided by the existing guidelines. Non-contrast head CT is recommended in patients with acute thunderclap headache due to possible subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), and CT angiography is recommended to confirm aneurysmal SAH. In patients with non-acute headache and normal neurological findings, radiological examination is not recommended, but head MRI is recommended to investigate the cause of secondary headache. Non-contrast head MRI is recommended for new-onset headache with neurologic abnormalities in pregnant women.

8.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e158-2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-714364

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to qualitatively and quantitatively evaluate the effects of a metal artifact reduction for orthopedic implants (O-MAR) for brain computed tomographic angiography (CTA) in patients with aneurysm clips and coils. METHODS: The study included 36 consecutive patients with 47 intracranial metallic implants (42 aneurysm clips, 5 coils) who underwent brain CTA. The computed tomographic images with and without the O-MAR were independently reviewed both quantitatively and qualitatively by two reviewers. For quantitative analysis, image noises near the metallic implants of non-O-MAR and O-MAR images were compared. For qualitative analysis, image quality improvement and the presence of new streak artifacts were assessed. RESULTS: Image noise was significantly reduced near metallic implants (P < 0.01). Improvement of implant-induced streak artifacts was observed in eight objects (17.0%). However, streak artifacts were aggravated in 11 objects (23.4%), and adjacent vessel depiction was worsened in eight objects (17.0%). In addition, new O-MAR-related streak artifacts were observed in 32 objects (68.1%). New streak artifacts were more prevalent in cases with overlapping metallic implants on the same axial plane than in those without (P = 0.018). Qualitative assessment revealed that the overall image quality was not significantly improved in O-MAR images. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, the use of the O-MAR in patients with metallic implants significantly reduces image noise. However, the degree of the streak artifacts and surrounding vessel depiction were not significantly improved on O-MAR images.


Subject(s)
Humans , Aneurysm , Angiography , Artifacts , Brain , Noise , Orthopedics , Quality Improvement
9.
Korean Journal of Radiology ; : 566-574, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-83669

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To compare computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings between two histological types of nasal hemangiomas (cavernous hemangioma and capillary or lobular capillary hemangioma). MATERIALS AND METHODS: CT (n = 20; six pre-contrast; 20 post-enhancement) and MRI (n = 7) images from 23 patients (16 men and seven women; mean age, 43 years; range, 13-73 years) with a pathologically diagnosed nasal cavity hemangioma (17 capillary and lobular capillary hemangiomas and six cavernous hemangiomas) were reviewed, focusing on lesion location, size, origin, contour, enhancement pattern, attenuation or signal intensity (SI), and bony changes. RESULTS: The 17 capillary and lobular hemangiomas averaged 13 mm (range, 4-37 mm) in size, and most (n = 13) were round. Fourteen capillary hemangiomas had marked or moderate early phase enhancement on CT, which dissipated during the delayed phase. Four capillary hemangiomas on MRI showed marked enhancement. Bony changes were usually not seen on CT or MRI (seen on five cases, 29.4%). Half of the lesions (2/4) had low SI on T1-weighted MRI images and heterogeneously high SI with signal voids on T2-weighted images. The six cavernous hemangiomas were larger than the capillary type (mean, 20.5 mm; range, 10-39 mm) and most had lobulating contours (n = 4), with characteristic enhancement patterns (three centripetal and three multifocal nodular), bony remodeling (n = 4, 66.7%), and mild to moderate heterogeneous enhancement during the early and delayed phases. CONCLUSION: CT and MRI findings are different between the two histological types of nasal hemangiomas, particularly in the enhancement pattern and size, which can assist in preoperative diagnosis and planning of surgical tumor excision.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Hemangioma, Capillary/diagnostic imaging , Hemangioma, Cavernous/diagnosis , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Nasal Cavity/diagnostic imaging , Paranasal Sinuses/diagnostic imaging , Retrospective Studies , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
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