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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-914214

ABSTRACT

Background@#To compare the efficacy and safety of two insulin self-titration algorithms, Implementing New Strategies with Insulin Glargine for Hyperglycemia Treatment (INSIGHT) and EDITION, for insulin glargine 300 units/mL (Gla-300) in Korean individuals with uncontrolled type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). @*Methods@#In a 12-week, randomized, open-label trial, individuals with uncontrolled T2DM requiring basal insulin were randomized to either the INSIGHT (adjusted by 1 unit/day) or EDITION (adjusted by 3 units/week) algorithm to achieve a fasting self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) in the range of 4.4 to 5.6 mmol/L. The primary outcome was the proportion of individuals achieving a fasting SMBG ≤5.6 mmol/L without noct urnal hypoglycemia at week 12. @*Results@#Of 129 individuals (age, 64.1±9.5 years; 66 [51.2%] women), 65 and 64 were randomized to the INSIGHT and EDITION algorithms, respectively. The primary outcome of achievement was comparable between the two groups (24.6% vs. 23.4%, P=0.876). Compared with the EDITION group, the INSIGHT group had a greater reduction in 7-point SMBG but a similar decrease in fasting plasma glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin. The increment of total daily insulin dose was significantly higher in the INSIGHT group than in the EDITION group (between-group difference: 5.8±2.7 units/day, P=0.033). However, body weight was significantly increased only in the EDITION group (0.6±2.4 kg, P=0.038). There was no difference in the occurrence of hypoglycemia between the two groups. Patient satisfaction was significantly increased in the INSIGHT group (P=0.014). @*Conclusion@#The self-titration of Gla-300 using the INSIGHT algorithm was effective and safe compared with that using the EDITION algorithm in Korean individuals with uncontrolled T2DM (ClinicalTrials.gov number: NCT03406663).

2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-914213

ABSTRACT

Background@#To evaluate the effects of teneligliptin on glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels, continuous glucose monitoring (CGM)-derived time in range, and glycemic variability in elderly type 2 diabetes mellitus patients. @*Methods@#This randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled study was conducted in eight centers in Korea (clinical trial registration number: NCT03508323). Sixty-five participants aged ≥65 years, who were treatment-naïve or had been treated with stable doses of metformin, were randomized at a 1:1 ratio to receive 20 mg of teneligliptin (n=35) or placebo (n=30) for 12 weeks. The main endpoints were the changes in HbA1c levels from baseline to week 12, CGM metrics-derived time in range, and glycemic variability. @*Results@#After 12 weeks, a significant reduction (by 0.84%) in HbA1c levels was observed in the teneligliptin group compared to that in the placebo group (by 0.08%), with a between-group least squares mean difference of –0.76% (95% confidence interval [CI], –1.08 to –0.44). The coefficient of variation, standard deviation, and mean amplitude of glycemic excursion significantly decreased in participants treated with teneligliptin as compared to those in the placebo group. Teneligliptin treatment significantly decreased the time spent above 180 or 250 mg/dL, respectively, without increasing the time spent below 70 mg/dL. The mean percentage of time for which glucose levels remained in the 70 to 180 mg/dL time in range (TIR70–180) at week 12 was 82.0%±16.0% in the teneligliptin group, and placebo-adjusted change in TIR70–180 from baseline was 13.3% (95% CI, 6.0 to 20.6). @*Conclusion@#Teneligliptin effectively reduced HbA1c levels, time spent above the target range, and glycemic variability, without increasing hypoglycemia in our study population.

3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-924931

ABSTRACT

Background@#Prevailing insulin regimens for glycemic control in hospitalized patients have changed over time. We aimed to determine whether the current basal-bolus insulin (BBI) regimen is superior to the previous insulin regimen, mainly comprising split-mixed insulin therapy. @*Methods@#This was a single tertiary center, retrospective observational study that included non-critically ill patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus who were treated with split-mixed insulin regimens from 2004 to 2007 (period 1) and with BBI from 2008 to 2018 (period 2). Patients from each period were analyzed after propensity score matching. The mean difference in glucose levels and the achievement of fasting and preprandial glycemic targets by day 6 of admission were assessed. The total daily insulin dose, incidence of hypoglycemia, and length of hospital stay were also evaluated. @*Results@#Among 244 patients from each period, both fasting glucose (estimated mean±standard error, 147.4±3.1 mg/dL vs. 129.4±3.2 mg/dL, P<0.001, day 6) and preprandial glucose (177.7±2.8 mg/dL vs. 152.8±2.8 mg/dL, P<0.001, day 6) were lower in period 2 than in period 1. By day 6 of hospital admission, 42.6% and 67.2% of patients achieved a preprandial glycemic target of <140 mg/dL in periods 1 and 2, respectively (relative risk, 2.00; 95% confidence interval, 1.54 to 2.59), without an increased incidence of hypoglycemia. Length of stay was shorter in period 2 (10.23±0.26 days vs. 8.70±0.26 days, P<0.001). @*Conclusion@#BBI improved glycemic control in a more efficacious manner than a split-mixed insulin regimen without increasing the risk of hypoglycemia in a hospital setting.

4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-874542

ABSTRACT

Background@#The influence of serial changes of adipokines on maternal glucose metabolism from pregnancy to postpartum periods in women with previous gestational diabetes mellitus (pGDM) has not been thoroughly explored. We tried to examine the relationship between the serial changes of adipokines and the development of diabetes mellitus (DM) in women with pGDM. @*Methods@#We longitudinally measured following adipokines: high molecular weight (HMW) adiponectin, retinol-binding protein-4 (RBP-4), lipocalin-2, and chemerin, during pregnancy, and at 2 months and 3 years after delivery. Based on glucose status at postpartum 3 years, we divided into three groups: normal glucose tolerance (GDM-NGT, n=20), impaired glucose tolerance (GDM-IGT, n=23), and GDM-DM (n=22). We analyzed the correlations between adipokines and various metabolic parameters. @*Results@#Plasma HMW adiponectin levels were not different among the three groups during pregnancy. However, HMW adiponectin levels increased at 3 years after the delivery in women with GDM-NGT compared with women with GDM-DM. In the GDM-IGT group, HMW adiponectin levels increased at 2 months postpartum compared to pregnancy period. In contrast, HMW adiponectin levels showed no alternation after parturition in women with GDM-DM. HMW adiponectin was negatively correlated with body mass index and a homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance. Other adipokines such as RBP-4, lipocalin-2, and chemerin neither showed any differences among the groups nor any significant correlations with 3 years postpartum status of glucose intolerance. @*Conclusion@#Serial changes of HMW adiponectin are associated with the maintenance of glucose metabolism in women with pGDM after delivery.

5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898116

ABSTRACT

Background@#The effect of intrauterine hyperglycemia on fat mass and regional fat proportion of the offspring of mothers with gestational diabetes mellitus (OGDM) remains to be determined. @*Methods@#The body composition of OGDM (n=25) and offspring of normoglycemic mothers (n=49) was compared using dualenergy X-ray absorptiometry at age 5 years. The relationship between maternal glucose concentration during a 100 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and regional fat mass or proportion was analyzed after adjusting for maternal prepregnancy body mass index (BMI). @*Results@#BMI was comparable between OGDM and control (median, 16.0 kg/m2 vs. 16.1 kg/m2 ). Total, truncal, and leg fat mass were higher in OGDM compared with control (3,769 g vs. 2,245 g, P=0.004; 1,289 g vs. 870 g, P=0.017; 1,638 g vs. 961 g, P=0.002, respectively), whereas total lean mass was lower in OGDM (15,688 g vs. 16,941 g, P=0.001). Among OGDM, total and truncal fat mass were correlated with fasting and 3-hour glucose concentrations of maternal 100 g OGTT during pregnancy (total fat mass, r=0.49, P=0.018 [fasting], r=0.473, P=0.023 [3-hour]; truncal fat mass, r=0.571, P=0.004 [fasting], r=0.558, P=0.006 [3-hour]), but there was no correlation between OGDM leg fat mass and maternal OGTT during pregnancy. Regional fat indices were not correlated with concurrent maternal 75 g OGTT values. @*Conclusion@#Intrauterine hyperglycemia is associated with increased fat mass, especially truncal fat, in OGDM aged 5 years.

6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890412

ABSTRACT

Background@#The effect of intrauterine hyperglycemia on fat mass and regional fat proportion of the offspring of mothers with gestational diabetes mellitus (OGDM) remains to be determined. @*Methods@#The body composition of OGDM (n=25) and offspring of normoglycemic mothers (n=49) was compared using dualenergy X-ray absorptiometry at age 5 years. The relationship between maternal glucose concentration during a 100 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and regional fat mass or proportion was analyzed after adjusting for maternal prepregnancy body mass index (BMI). @*Results@#BMI was comparable between OGDM and control (median, 16.0 kg/m2 vs. 16.1 kg/m2 ). Total, truncal, and leg fat mass were higher in OGDM compared with control (3,769 g vs. 2,245 g, P=0.004; 1,289 g vs. 870 g, P=0.017; 1,638 g vs. 961 g, P=0.002, respectively), whereas total lean mass was lower in OGDM (15,688 g vs. 16,941 g, P=0.001). Among OGDM, total and truncal fat mass were correlated with fasting and 3-hour glucose concentrations of maternal 100 g OGTT during pregnancy (total fat mass, r=0.49, P=0.018 [fasting], r=0.473, P=0.023 [3-hour]; truncal fat mass, r=0.571, P=0.004 [fasting], r=0.558, P=0.006 [3-hour]), but there was no correlation between OGDM leg fat mass and maternal OGTT during pregnancy. Regional fat indices were not correlated with concurrent maternal 75 g OGTT values. @*Conclusion@#Intrauterine hyperglycemia is associated with increased fat mass, especially truncal fat, in OGDM aged 5 years.

7.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-832383

ABSTRACT

Background@#The definition of the high-risk group for gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) defined by the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists was changed from the criteria composed of five historic/demographic factors (old criteria) to the criteria consisting of 11 factors (new criteria) in 2017. To compare the predictive performances between these two sets of criteria. @*Methods@#This is a secondary analysis of a large prospective cohort study of non-diabetic Korean women with singleton pregnancies designed to examine the risk of GDM in women with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Maternal fasting blood was taken at 10 to 14 weeks of gestation and measured for glucose and lipid parameters. GDM was diagnosed by the two-step approach. @*Results@#Among 820 women, 42 (5.1%) were diagnosed with GDM. Using the old criteria, 29.8% (n=244) of women would have been identified as high risk versus 16.0% (n=131) using the new criteria. Of the 42 women who developed GDM, 45.2% (n=19) would have been mislabeled as not high risk by the old criteria versus 50.0% (n=21) using the new criteria (1-sensitivity, 45.2% vs. 50.0%, P>0.05). Among the 778 patients who did not develop GDM, 28.4% (n=221) would have been identified as high risk using the old criteria versus 14.1% (n=110) using the new criteria (1-specificity, 28.4% vs. 14.1%, P<0.001). @*Conclusion@#Compared with the old criteria, use of the new criteria would have decreased the number of patients identified as high risk and thus requiring early GDM screening by half (from 244 [29.8%] to 131 [16.0%]).

8.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-832375

ABSTRACT

Monogenic diabetes, including maturity-onset diabetes of the young, neonatal diabetes, and other rare forms of diabetes, results from a single gene mutation. It has been estimated to represent around 1% to 6% of all diabetes. With the advances in genome sequencing technology, it is possible to diagnose more monogenic diabetes cases than ever before. In Korea, 11 studies have identified several monogenic diabetes cases, using Sanger sequencing and whole exome sequencing since 2001. The recent largest study, using targeted exome panel sequencing, found a molecular diagnosis rate of 21.1% for monogenic diabetes in clinically suspected patients. Mutations in glucokinase (GCK), hepatocyte nuclear factor 1α (HNF1A), and HNF4A were most commonly found. Genetic diagnosis of monogenic diabetes is important as it determines the therapeutic approach required for patients and helps to identify affected family members. However, there are still many challenges, which include a lack of simple clinical criterion for selecting patients for genetic testing, difficulties in interpreting the genetic test results, and high costs for genetic testing. In this review, we will discuss the latest updates on monogenic diabetes in Korea, and suggest an algorithm to screen patients for genetic testing. The genetic tests and non-genetic markers for accurate diagnosis of monogenic diabetes will be also reviewed.

9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763685

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Women with one abnormal value (OAV) in a 100 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) during pregnancy are reported to have an increased risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes. However, there is limited data about whether women with OAV will progress to gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) when the OGTT is repeated. METHODS: To identify clinical and metabolic predictors for GDM in women with OAV, we conducted a retrospective study and identified women with OAV in the OGTT done at 24 to 30 weeks gestational age (GA) and repeated the second OGTT between 32 and 34 weeks of GA. RESULTS: Among 137 women with OAV in the initial OGTT, 58 (42.3%) had normal, 40 (29.2%) had OAV and 39 (28.5%) had GDM in the second OGTT. Maternal age, prepregnancy body mass index, weight gain from prepregnancy to the second OGTT, GA at the time of the OGTT, and parity were similar among normal, OAV, and GDM groups. Plasma glucose levels in screening tests were different (151.8±15.7, 155.8±14.6, 162.5±20.3 mg/dL, P<0.05), but fasting, 1-, 2-, and 3-hour glucose levels in the initial OGTT were not. Compared to women with screen negative, women with untreated OAV had a higher frequency of macrosomia. CONCLUSION: We demonstrated that women with OAV in the initial OGTT significantly progressed to GDM in the second OGTT. Clinical parameters predicting progression to GDM were not found. Repeating the OGTT in women with OAV in the initial test may be helpful to detect GDM progression.


Subject(s)
Blood Glucose , Body Mass Index , Diabetes, Gestational , Fasting , Female , Gestational Age , Glucose , Glucose Tolerance Test , Humans , Mass Screening , Maternal Age , Parity , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Outcome , Pregnant Women , Retrospective Studies , Weight Gain
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763647

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We aimed to identify the postpartum metabolic factors that were associated with the development of diabetes in women with a history of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). In addition, we examined the role of the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in the prediction of future diabetes. METHODS: We conducted a prospective study of 179 subjects who previously had GDM but did not have diabetes at 2 months postpartum. The initial postpartum examination including a 75-g OGTT and the frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test (FSIVGTT) was performed 12 months after delivery, and annual follow-up visits were made thereafter. RESULTS: The insulinogenic index (IGI30) obtained from the OGTT was significantly correlated with the acute insulin response to glucose (AIRg) obtained from the FSIVGTT. The disposition indices obtained from the OGTT and FSIVGTT were also significantly correlated. Women who progressed to diabetes had a lower insulin secretory capacity including IGI30, AIRg, and disposition indices obtained from the FSIVGTT and OGTT compared with those who did not. However, the insulin sensitivity indices obtained from the OGTT and FSIVGTT did not differ between the two groups. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that the 2-hour glucose and disposition index obtained from the FSIVGTT were significant postpartum metabolic risk factors for the development of diabetes. CONCLUSION: We identified a crucial role of β-cell dysfunction in the development of diabetes in Korean women with previous GDM. The 2-hour glucose result from the OGTT is an independent predictor of future diabetes. Therefore, the OGTT is crucial for better prediction of future diabetes in Korean women with previous GDM.


Subject(s)
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Diabetes, Gestational , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Glucose , Glucose Tolerance Test , Humans , Insulin , Insulin Resistance , Logistic Models , Postpartum Period , Pregnancy , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-785713

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We investigated the pregnancy outcomes in women who were diagnosed with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) by the International Association of the Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Groups (IADPSG) criteria but not by the Carpenter-Coustan (CC) criteria.METHODS: A total of 8,735 Korean pregnant women were identified at two hospitals between 2014 and 2016. Among them, 2,038 women participated in the prospective cohort to investigate pregnancy outcomes. Diagnosis of GDM was made via two-step approach with 50-g glucose challenge test for screening followed by diagnostic 2-hour 75-g oral glucose tolerance test. Women were divided into three groups: non-GDM, GDM diagnosed exclusively by the IADPSG criteria, and GDM diagnosed by the CC criteria.RESULTS: The incidence of GDM was 2.1% according to the CC criteria, and 4.1% by the IADPSG criteria. Women diagnosed with GDM by the IADPSG criteria had a higher body mass index (22.0±3.1 kg/m² vs. 21.0±2.8 kg/m², P<0.001) and an increased risk of preeclampsia (odds ratio [OR], 6.90; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.84 to 25.87; P=0.004) compared to non-GDM women. Compared to neonates of the non-GDM group, those of the IADPSG GDM group had an increased risk of being large for gestational age (OR, 2.39; 95% CI, 1.50 to 3.81; P<0.001), macrosomia (OR, 2.53; 95% CI, 1.26 to 5.10; P=0.009), and neonatal hypoglycemia (OR, 3.84; 95% CI, 1.01 to 14.74; P=0.049); they were also at an increased risk of requiring phototherapy (OR, 1.57; 95% CI, 1.07 to 2.31; P=0.022) compared to the non-GDM group.CONCLUSION: The IADPSG criteria increased the incidence of GDM by nearly three-fold, and women diagnosed with GDM by the IADPSG criteria had an increased risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes in Korea.


Subject(s)
Body Mass Index , Cohort Studies , Diabetes, Gestational , Diagnosis , Female , Gestational Age , Glucose , Glucose Tolerance Test , Humans , Hypoglycemia , Incidence , Infant, Newborn , Korea , Mass Screening , Phototherapy , Pre-Eclampsia , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Outcome , Pregnancy , Pregnant Women , Prospective Studies
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-713216

ABSTRACT

The pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes is characterized by variable degrees of insulin resistance and impaired insulin secretion. Both genetic and environmental factors serve as etiologic factors. Recent genetic studies have identified at least 83 variants associated with diabetes. A significant number of these loci are thought to be involved in insulin secretion, either through β-cell development or β-cell dysfunction. Environmental factors have changed rapidly during the past half century, and the increased prevalence of obesity and diabetes can be attributed to these changes. Environmental factors may affect epigenetic changes and alter susceptibility to diabetes. A recent epidemiologic study revealed that Korean patients with type 2 diabetes already had impaired insulin secretion and insulin resistance 10 years before the onset of diabetes. Those who developed diabetes showed impaired β-cell compensation with an abrupt decrease in insulin secretion during the last 2 years before diabetes developed. The retrograde trajectory of the disposition index differed according to the baseline subgroups of insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity. We hope that obtaining a more detailed understanding of the perturbations in the major pathophysiologic process of diabetes on the individual level will eventually lead to the implementation of precision medicine and improved patient outcomes.


Subject(s)
Compensation and Redress , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Epidemiologic Studies , Epigenomics , Genetics , Hope , Humans , Insulin , Insulin Resistance , Insulin-Secreting Cells , Obesity , Precision Medicine , Prevalence
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-153372

ABSTRACT

Ethnically specific data on genetic variation are crucial for understanding human biology and for clinical interpretation of variant pathogenicity. We analyzed data obtained by deep sequencing 1303 Korean whole exomes; the data were generated by three independent whole exome sequencing projects (named the KOEX study). The primary focus of this study was to comprehensively analyze the variant statistics, investigate secondary findings that may have clinical actionability, and identify loci that should be cautiously interpreted for pathogenicity. A total of 495 729 unique variants were identified at exonic regions, including 169 380 nonsynonymous variants and 4356 frameshift insertion/deletions. Among these, 76 607 were novel coding variants. On average, each individual had 7136 nonsynonymous single-nucleotide variants and 74 frameshift insertion/deletions. We classified 13 pathogenic and 13 likely pathogenic variants in 56 genes that may have clinical actionability according to the guidelines of the American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics, and the Association for Molecular Pathology. The carrier frequency of these 26 variants was 2.46% (95% confidence interval 1.73–3.46). To identify loci that require cautious interpretation in clinical sequencing, we identified 18 genes that are prone to sequencing errors, and 671 genes that are highly polymorphic and carry excess nonsynonymous variants. The catalog of identified variants, its annotation and frequency information are publicly available (https://koex.snu.ac.kr). These findings should be useful resources for investigating ethnically specific characteristics in human health and disease.


Subject(s)
Biology , Clinical Coding , Exome , Exons , Genetic Variation , Genetics, Medical , Genomics , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing , Humans , Pathology, Molecular , Virulence
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-225715

ABSTRACT

Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), defined as any degree of glucose intolerance with onset or first recognition during pregnancy, is characterized by underlying maternal defects in the β-cell response to insulin during pregnancy. Women with a previous history of GDM have a greater than 7-fold higher risk of developing postpartum diabetes compared with women without GDM. Various risk factors for postpartum diabetes have been identified, including maternal age, glucose levels in pregnancy, family history of diabetes, pre-pregnancy and postpartum body mass index, dietary patterns, physical activity, and breastfeeding. Genetic studies revealed that GDM shares common genetic variants with type 2 diabetes. A number of lifestyle interventional trials that aimed to ameliorate modifiable risk factors, including diet, exercise, and breastfeeding, succeeded in reducing the incidence of postpartum diabetes, weight retention, and other obesity-related morbidities. The present review summarizes the findings of previous studies on the incidence and risk factors of postpartum diabetes and discusses recent lifestyle interventional trials that attempted to prevent postpartum diabetes.


Subject(s)
Body Mass Index , Breast Feeding , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Diabetes, Gestational , Diet , Epidemiology , Female , Glucose , Glucose Intolerance , Humans , Incidence , Insulin , Life Style , Maternal Age , Motor Activity , Postpartum Period , Pregnancy , Risk Factors
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-126424

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The identification of a marker for hypoglycemia could help patients achieve strict glucose control with a lower risk of hypoglycemia. 1,5-Anhydro-D-glucitol (1,5-AG) reflects postprandial hyperglycemia in patients with well-controlled diabetes, which contributes to glycemic variability. Because glycemic variability is related to hypoglycemia, we aimed to evaluate the value of 1,5-AG as a marker of hypoglycemia. METHODS: We enrolled 18 adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) receiving insulin therapy and assessed the occurrence of hypoglycemia within a 3-month period. We measured 1,5-AG level, performed a survey to score the severity of hypoglycemia, and applied a continuous glucose monitoring system (CGMS). RESULTS: 1,5-AG was significantly lower in the high hypoglycemia-score group compared to the low-score group. Additionally, the duration of insulin treatment was significantly longer in the high-score group. Subsequent analyses were adjusted by the duration of insulin treatment and mean blood glucose, which was closely associated with both 1,5-AG level and hypoglycemia risk. In adjusted correlation analyses, 1,5-AG was negatively correlated with hypoglycemia score, area under the curve at 80 mg/dL, and low blood glucose index during CGMS (P=0.068, P=0.033, and P=0.060, respectively). CONCLUSION: 1,5-AG level was negatively associated with hypoglycemia score determined by recall and with documented hypoglycemia after adjusting for mean glucose and duration of insulin treatment. As a result, this level could be a marker of the risk of hypoglycemia in patients with well-controlled T2DM receiving insulin therapy.


Subject(s)
Adult , Blood Glucose , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Glucose , Humans , Hyperglycemia , Hypoglycemia , Insulin
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-121105

ABSTRACT

Type 2 diabetes (T2DM) is a common complex metabolic disorder that has a strong genetic predisposition. During the past decade, progress in genetic association studies has enabled the identification of at least 75 independent genetic loci for T2DM, thus allowing a better understanding of the genetic architecture of T2DM. International collaborations and large-scale meta-analyses of genome-wide association studies have made these achievements possible. However, whether the identified common variants are causal is largely unknown. In addition, the detailed mechanism of how these genetic variants exert their effect on the pathogenesis of T2DM requires further investigation. Currently, there are ongoing large-scale sequencing studies to identify rare, functional variants for T2DM. Environmental factors also have a crucial role in the development of T2DM. These could modulate gene expression via epigenetic mechanisms, including DNA methylation, histone modification and microRNA regulation. There is evidence that epigenetic changes are important in the development of T2DM. Recent studies have identified several DNA methylation markers of T2DM from peripheral blood and pancreatic islets. In this review, we will briefly summarize the recent progress in the genetic and epigenetic research on T2DM and discuss how environmental factors, genetics and epigenetics can interact in the pathogenesis of T2DM.


Subject(s)
Cooperative Behavior , DNA Methylation , Epigenomics , Gene Expression , Genetic Association Studies , Genetic Loci , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Genetics , Genome-Wide Association Study , Histones , Islets of Langerhans , MicroRNAs
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-145680

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We developed a patient-centered, smartphone-based, diabetes care system (PSDCS). This study aims to test the feasibility of glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) reduction with the PSDCS. METHODS: This study was a single-arm pilot study. The participants with type 2 diabetes mellitus were instructed to use the PSDCS, which integrates a Bluetooth-connected glucometer, digital food diary, and wearable physical activity monitoring device. The primary end point was the change in HbA1c from baseline after a 12-week intervention. RESULTS: Twenty-nine patients aged 53.9±9.1 years completed the study. HbA1c and fasting plasma glucose levels decreased significantly from baseline (7.7%±0.7% to 7.1%±0.6%, P<0.0001; 140.9±39.1 to 120.1±31.0 mg/dL, P=0.0088, respectively). The frequency of glucose monitoring correlated with the magnitude of HbA1c reduction (r=-0.57, P=0.0013). The components of the diabetes self-care activities, including diet, exercise, and glucose monitoring, were significantly improved, particularly in the upper tertile of HbA1c reduction. There were no severe adverse events during the intervention. CONCLUSION: A 12-week application of the PSDCS to patients with inadequately controlled type 2 diabetes resulted in a significant HbA1c reduction with tolerable safety profiles; these findings require confirmation in a future randomized controlled trial.


Subject(s)
Blood Glucose , Delivery of Health Care , Diabetes Mellitus , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Diet , Diet Records , Fasting , Glucose , Glycated Hemoglobin A , Humans , Motor Activity , Pilot Projects , Self Care , Smartphone
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-25936

ABSTRACT

Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) is a critical regulator of carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, adipocyte differentiation and inflammatory response. Post-translational modification of PPARγ and its degradation involve several pathways, including the ubiquitin–proteasome system. Here, we identified F-box only protein 9 (FBXO9) as an E3 ubiquitin ligase of PPARγ. We screened interacting partners of PPARγ using immunoprecipitation and mass spectrometric analysis and identified FBXO9 as an E3 ubiquitin ligase of PPARγ. FBXO9 directly interacted with PPARγ through the activation function-1 domain and ligand-binding domain. FBXO9 decreased the protein stability of PPARγ through induction of ubiquitination. We found that the F-box motif of FBXO9 was required for its ubiquitination function. The activity of PPARγ was significantly decreased by FBXO9 overexpression. Furthermore, FBXO9 overexpression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes resulted in decreased levels of endogenous PPARγ and suppression of adipogenesis. These results suggest that FBXO9 is an important enzyme that regulates the stability and activity of PPARγ through ubiquitination.


Subject(s)
Adipocytes , Adipogenesis , F-Box Motifs , Immunoprecipitation , Lipid Metabolism , PPAR gamma , Protein Processing, Post-Translational , Protein Stability , Ubiquitin , Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases , Ubiquitination
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-15196

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The prevalence of novel type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) antibodies targeting eukaryote translation elongation factor 1 alpha 1 autoantibody (EEF1A1-AAb) and ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme 2L3 autoantibody (UBE2L3-AAb) has been shown to be negatively correlated with age in T1DM subjects. Therefore, we aimed to investigate whether age affects the levels of these two antibodies in nondiabetic subjects. METHODS: EEF1A1-AAb and UBE2L3-AAb levels in nondiabetic control subjects (n=150) and T1DM subjects (n=101) in various ranges of age (18 to 69 years) were measured using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The cutoff point for the presence of each autoantibody was determined based on control subjects using the formula: [mean absorbance+3×standard deviation]. RESULTS: In nondiabetic subjects, there were no significant correlations between age and EEF1A1-AAb and UBE2L3-AAb levels. However, there was wide variation in EEF1A1-AAb and UBE2L3-AAb levels among control subjects <40 years old; the prevalence of both EEF1A1-AAb and UBE2L3-AAb in these subjects was 4.4%. When using cutoff points determined from the control subjects <40 years old, the prevalence of both autoantibodies in T1DM subjects was decreased (EEFA1-AAb, 15.8% to 8.9%; UBE2L3-AAb, 10.9% to 7.9%) when compared to the prevalence using the cutoff derived from the totals for control subjects. CONCLUSION: There was no association between age and EEF1A1-AAb or UBE2L3-AAb levels in nondiabetic subjects. However, the wide variation in EEF1A1-AAb and UBE2L3-AAb levels apparent among the control subjects <40 years old should be taken into consideration when determining the cutoff reference range for the diagnosis of T1DM.


Subject(s)
Antibodies , Autoantibodies , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 , Diagnosis , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Eukaryota , Humans , Peptide Elongation Factor 1 , Peptide Elongation Factors , Prevalence , Reference Values , Young Adult
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