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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-913832

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Assessing lymph node metastasis, tumor-derived DNA, or tumor-derived RNA has previously been studied in place of immunohistochemical assay. Because a direct reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification method (direct RT-LAMP) has been previously developed in order to rapidly identify viruses in place of RNA extraction, our team hypothesized that a direct RT-LAMP assay can be employed as a substitute in order to detect tumor involvement of lymph nodes within breast cancer patients. @*Materials and Methods@#A total amount of 92 lymph nodes removed across 40 patients possessing breast cancer were collected at Kyungpook National University Chilgok Hospital between the months of November 2015 and February 2016. All samples were then evaluated and contrasted via both a direct RT-LAMP assay and routine histopathologic examination. @*Results@#The sensitivity and specificity of the direct RT-LAMP assay were 85.7% and 100%, respectively. The positive predictive value and negative predictive value were 100% and 94.4%, respectively. @*Conclusion@#Direct RT-LAMP assay is capable of facilitating the detection of sentinel lymph node metastasis within breast cancer patients intraoperatively possessing an excellent sensitivity via a cost-effective and time-saving manner.

2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-874496

ABSTRACT

Objective@#The genetic background of mood disorders is gradually emerging through the use of large multicenter samples but a detailed phenotyping is complementary in elucidating the role of modulating variants. @*Methods@#In the present paper we focused on the possible modulatory effects of ARC gene variants on two independent mood disorder samples of European (n = 246 bipolar disorder) and Korean (n = 132 bipolar disorder; n = 242 major depressive disorder [MDD]) ancestry. @*Results@#No result survived Bonferroni correction, however we evidenced promising trend toward possible association between ARC gene variants and mood disorder phenotypes. In particular, we evidenced weak correlations of ARC single nucleotide polymorphisms with depressive symptoms severity (evaluated through Hamilton depression rating scale scores) in the MDD Korean (rs7465272) and European (rs11167152) samples. Additionally rs10110456 was found to be related to Family History, while rs7465272 was related to suicide risk in the Korean sample. Finally, rs7465272 was associated with body mass index in the European sample. @*Conclusion@#Overall, ARC gene variants may have a partial role in modulatory effect on treatment efficacy or phenotypes of mood disorders. Further studies, on larger samples may provide a better understanding on the role of ARC gene variants in the symptom severity and treatment outcomes in patients with mood disorders.

3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-874483

ABSTRACT

Objective@#We report the results of pharmacogenomics-based antidepressant treatment (PGXt) results in treating treatment-resistant major depressive disorder (TRD) patients in real practice. @*Methods@#Nine patients were prescribed NeuropharmagenⓇ for selection of antidepressants for individual patient and their clinical outcomes were followed. @*Results@#After treatment by PGXt results from current antidepressants, substantial reduction of depressive symptoms was observed at some point and maintained during observation period in six patients. @*Conclusion@#Our case series potentially shows the clinical utility and benefit of PGXt for treatment of TRD patients.

4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-914082

ABSTRACT

The mainstay of schizophrenia treatment is pharmacological therapy using various antipsychotics including first- and second-generation antipsychotics which have different pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic property leading to differential presentation of adverse events (AEs) and treatment effects such as negative symptoms, cognitive symptoms and cormorbid symptoms. Major treatment guidelines suggest the use of antipsychotic monotherapy (APM) as a gold standard in the treatment of schizophrenia. However, the effects of APM is inadequate and less potent to achieve symptom remission as well as functional recovery in real practice which has been consistently reported in numerous controlled clinical trials, large practical trials, independent small studies and systematic reviews till today. Therefore antipsychotic polypharmacy (APP) regardless of the class of antipsychotics has been also commonly utilized for many reasons in real world practice. However, APP has also crucial pitfalls including increase of total psychotics including antipsychotics, high-doses of antipsychotics used, poor compliance, drug-drug interaction and risks for developing AEs, all of which are paradoxically related to poor clinical outcomes, whereas APP has also substantial advantages in reduction of re-hospitalization, severe psychopathology and targeted control of concurrent symptoms. Given currently limited therapeutic options, it is also important to properly utilize APP in order to maximize its clinical utility and minimize its risk for better treatment outcomes for patients with schizophrenia, based on risk/benefit with full understanding of pharmacological and clinical issues on APP. The present paper intends to address intriguing and important issues in the use of APP in real world practice.

5.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-901063

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#This study compared the contrast sensitivity before and after surgery for intermittent exotropia and consecutive esotropia and examined the correlation between contrast sensitivity and other visual function factors. @*Methods@#The medical records of patients who underwent surgery for consecutive esotropia after surgery for intermittent exotropia were analyzed retrospectively. To analyze changes after each surgery, contrast sensitivity was tested before surgery for exotropia, before surgery for consecutive esotropia, and 3 months after surgery for consecutive esotropia. The changes in contrast sensitivity were analyzed, and correlation analyses between contrast sensitivity and the Titmus test and Worth 4 Dot (W4D) test were performed. @*Results@#The study included 14 patients. In consecutive esotropia, the contrast sensitivity was significantly improved at 7.1 and 10.2 cycles per degree (cpd) under mesopic conditions in the presence of glare and at 10.2 cpd under photopic conditions with and without glare after esotropia surgery (p < 0.05). There was a significant negative correlation between contrast sensitivity and stereopsis at 1.1 cpd under photopic conditions without glare before esotropia surgery (p = 0.011). Comparing the contrast sensitivity according to the W4D results, the fusion group had significantly better contrast sensitivity than the non-fusion group at 10.2 cpd under photopic conditions without glare and 2.9, 4.5, and 7.1 cpd with glare before exotropia surgery (p < 0.05). @*Conclusions@#The contrast sensitivity at high spatial frequencies improved after surgery for consecutive esotropia and there was a significant negative correlation between the contrast sensitivity and stereopsis in consecutive esotropia. This means that in patients with esotropia, the contrast sensitivity test is an indirect indicator of visual function.

6.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-901019

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#To report the case of a 14-year-old female patient with one-and-a-half syndrome subsequently diagnosed with multiple sclerosis involving the pons.Case summary: A 14-year-old girl without any underlying disease presented with difficulty focusing and mild headache for 5 days. The patient showed conjugate gaze palsy to the left, limited adduction in the left eye, and abducting nystagmus in the right eye, which indicated one-and-half syndrome. T2 fluid-attenuated inversion recovery brain magnetic resonance imaging revealed multiple punctate hyperintensities in the pontine tegmentum, bilateral cerebral white matter, and cerebellum. Cerebrospinal fluid examination revealed oligoclonal bands and multiple sclerosis was diagnosed. The patient was treated with intravenous steroids and beta-interferon. Seven weeks later, limitation of eyeball movement and nystagmus had resolved completely. @*Conclusions@#At the young age of 14 years, a patient presenting with one-and-a-half syndrome was diagnosed with multiple sclerosis. Children with multiple sclerosis may experience severe physical and cognitive impairments, and brainstem involvement predicts an especially poor prognosis. Early diagnosis and active treatment may help to prevent poor outcomes.

7.
Journal of Breast Disease ; (2): 16-25, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-899025

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#This study aimed to determine the clinicopathologic factors, including tumor elasticity, affecting neoadjuvant chemotherapy response in breast cancer. @*Methods@#Among 95 patients who received neoadjuvant chemotherapy for clinical stage IIa-IIIc primary breast cancer, 75 underwent strain elastography assessments. The patients were divided into soft and hard tumor groups based on the Tsukuba elasticity scoring system. Pathologic factors, including tumor cellularity and stromal characteristics, were evaluated using core needle biopsy specimens collected before neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Pathologic complete response (pCR) was defined as the absence of invasive carcinoma in the breast and axillary lymph nodes. Residual cancer burden (RCB) was also calculated in 79 cases. @*Results@#Twenty-two patients achieved pCR (23.2%). The rates of estrogen receptor (ER) negativity (p=0.04), progesterone receptor (PR) negativity (p=0.03), and nuclear grade 3 (p=0.03) were higher in patients with pCR than those in patients without pCR. The rates of PR negativity (p=0.03), nuclear grade 3 (p=0.01), and high tumor-infiltrating lymphocyte (TIL) levels (p=0.04) were significantly higher in the favorable RCB group (RCB-0 and I) than those in the unfavorable RCB group (RCB-II and III). No significant difference in tumor elasticity was observed between the groups (p=0.30). Hormone receptor (HR) negativity was an independent predictor of favorable RCB in the multivariate analysis (p=0.04). @*Conclusion@#Tumor elasticity was not associated with pCR or RCB. HR negativity was an independent predictor of favorable RCB.

8.
Journal of Breast Cancer ; : 164-174, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898981

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#In this trial, we investigated the efficacy and safety of adjuvant letrozole for hormone receptor (HR)-positive breast cancer. Here, we report the clinical outcome in postmenopausal women with HR-positive breast cancer treated with adjuvant letrozole according to estrogen receptor (ER) expression levels. @*Methods@#In this multi-institutional, open-label, observational study, postmenopausal patients with HR-positive breast cancer received adjuvant letrozole (2.5 mg/daily) for 5 years unless they experienced disease progression or unacceptable toxicity or withdrew their consent. The patients were stratified into the following 3 groups according to ER expression levels using a modified Allred score (AS): low, intermediate, and high (AS 3–4, 5–6, and 7–8, respectively). ER expression was centrally reviewed. The primary objective was the 5-year disease-free survival (DFS) rate. @*Results@#Between April 25, 2010, and February 5, 2014, 440 patients were enrolled. With a median follow-up of 62.0 months, the 5-year DFS rate in all patients was 94.2% (95% confidence interval [CI], 91.8–96.6). The 5-year DFS and recurrence-free survival (RFS) rates did not differ according to ER expression; the 5-year DFS rates were 94.3% and 94.1%in the low-to-intermediate and high expression groups, respectively (p = 0.6), and the corresponding 5-year RFS rates were 95.7% and 95.4%, respectively (p = 0.7). Furthermore, 25 patients discontinued letrozole because of drug toxicity. @*Conclusion@#Treatment with adjuvant letrozole showed very favorable treatment outcomes and good tolerability among Korean postmenopausal women with ER-positive breast cancer, independent of ER expression.

9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-897918

ABSTRACT

Objective@#In a number of controlled clinical trials and naturalistic studies, aripiprazole once monthly (AOM) has been found to be effective and safe as acute and maintenance treatment options for schizophrenia. However, such clinical data have been presented in selected patient population (i.e., antipsychotic monotherapy, etc.), in particular, clinical information on switching to AOM from antipsychotic polypharmacy and/or other long acting injectable antipsychotics (LAIs) has been scarce till today. @*Methods@#The study period was from the first switching day to AOM up to 12 months in patients with antipsychotic polypharmacy (APpoly)/LAIs (baseline, month 3, month 6, and month 12). Available demographics and clinical information were retrieved from electronic medical records (EMRs). Available scores of Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF), Clinical Global Impression-Clinical Benefit (CGI-CB), CGI-severity, Visual Analog Scale on Satisfaction-Patient/Health Professional (VAS-P/HP), and the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale-Insigh (PANSS-I) scores were also taken from EMR. Proportional change of functional impairment before and after AOM was also captured. @*Results@#Data of 18 patients were available. Most commonly used combined APs before AOM were aripiprazole, blonanserin, quetiapine, and risperidone. At least 2 APs (n = 2.4) were combined before AOM. Scores of GAF (10.7% increase), CGI-CB (46.2% decrease), VAS-P (47.8% increase), VAS-HP (40.8% increase), and PANSS-I (27.9% increase) (all p = 0.001) were significantly improved from baseline to month 12, respectively. Approximately 59% of patients improved individual functioning with different level (i.e., employment, back to school, etc.) after AOM treatment at month 12. @*Conclusion@#The present study have clearly shown the clinical benefit and utility of switching to AOM for treatment of patients with APpoly/LAIs in routine practice. Subsequent, adequately-powered, well-controlled clinical trials may be necessary to confirm our findings in near future.

10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-897897

ABSTRACT

Antipsychotic monotherapy (APM) is considered best-acceptable treatment option regardless of antipsychotic class and formulation types for treating schizophrenia. However, antipsychotic polypharmacy (APP) has been also widely utilized in routine clinical practice. Despite APP has some clinical benefits it has also numerous pitfalls in relation with increased total number and doses of APs leading to adverse events as well as decrease of treatment adherence and persistence resulting in poor clinical outcomes. Recent introduction of long-acting injectable antipsychotics (LAIs) to the market has offered a chance for better medication adherence/persistence and also provided a simplification of treatment regime leading to more stabilized treatment for schizophrenia patients. When we cannot stay away from APP in the treatment of schizophrenia, clinicians need to find more proper APP regimens and thereby utilization of APP in efficient way should be a practical strategy to benefit schizophrenia patient in a real world treatment setting. With this regard, LAIs can be one of available APP regimen for treatment of schizophrenia in routine practice since their clinical utility and pharmacokinetic stability over oral APs have been well-elaborated today. However, when we have to commence LAIs as a part of APP with oral APs or other LAIs, every effort should be made before doing so whether or not validated and available treatment options or other clinical factors were not done or evaluated yet. Any treatment guidelines do not support APP regardless of the formulation of APP regimen or address two or more LAIs for treatment of schizophrenia till today.

11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-897416

ABSTRACT

At the end of 2019, the cause of pneumonia outbreaks in Wuhan, China, was identified as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. In February 2020, the World Health Organization named the disease cause by SARS-CoV-2 as coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). In response to the pandemic, the Korean Cancer Association formed the COVID-19 task force to develop practice guidelines. This special article introduces the clinical practice guidelines for cancer patients which will help oncologists best manage cancer patients during the COVID-19 pandemic.

12.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-893420

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#To investigate the prevalence of ophthalmic manifestations in patients with Tourette syndrome using big data based on samples extracted from the Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service. @*Methods@#The study participants included Korean patients under the age of 18 years who had received a Tourette syndrome diagnostic code (F95.2) between January 1, 2012, and December 31, 2016. Ophthalmic manifestations reported to be related to Tourette syndrome such as tic disorder, blepharospasm, involuntary gaze abnormality, and strabismus were selected as ophthalmic clinical diagnostic codes; amblyopia and refractive errors that had never been investigated in conjunction with Tourette syndrome were also selected. Prevalence was investigated using big data. @*Results@#A total of 3,643 Tourette syndrome patients (2,777 men and 866 women) were included in the study. The number of patients receiving a tic disorder diagnostic code was 3,643 (100%); blepharospasm, 48 (1.3%); involuntary gaze abnormalities, 9 (0.2%); and strabismus, 109 (3%). In addition, the number of patients receiving an amblyopia diagnostic code was 29 (0.8%), and the number of patients with a refractive errors code was 1,306 (35.8%). @*Conclusions@#Tourette syndrome can be accompanied by several ophthalmic manifestations. Thus, cooperation between a neuropsychiatrist and an ophthalmologist, and regular ophthalmological examinations, are considered necessary.

13.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-893393

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#We report a case of nonarteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (NAION) in a high hyperopia and appositional angle closure glaucoma (AACG) patient mimicking glaucomatocyclitic crisis.Case summary: A 57-year-old man presented with headache, ocular pain, and visual disturbance in the right eye for 3 days. There was no past medical history. The best corrected visual acuity was 0.02 and the intraocular pressure (IOP) was 30 mmHg in the right eye. Refractive errors were +7.25 diopters in the right eye. Slit-lamp examination revealed corneal edema, anterior chamber (AC) inflammation (+1), 6 mm-dilated fixed pupil, and >1/4 peripheral AC depth in the right eye. Fundus examination revealed optic disc swelling, and visual fields test demonstrated inferior altitudinal field defects in the right eye. Glaucomatocyclitic crisis and NAION in the right eye were diagnosed. Topical anti-glaucoma eyedrops and intravenous steroid were administered. IOP was not controlled and then, gonioscopy revealed a grade 1 360° B10s appositional angle closure on Shaffer classification in the right eye. Laser iridotomy was performed. IOP increasement, ocular pain of the right eye, and headache disappeared. After 1 month later, fundus examination revealed an improved optic disc swelling and 0.4 cup-to-disc ratio in the right eye. The visual acuity in the right eye didn’t improve after 3 months. @*Conclusions@#NAION may occur in AACG patient with high hyperopia even if there is no underlying systmemic disease or small cup-to-disc ratio.

14.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-893359

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#This study compared the contrast sensitivity before and after surgery for intermittent exotropia and consecutive esotropia and examined the correlation between contrast sensitivity and other visual function factors. @*Methods@#The medical records of patients who underwent surgery for consecutive esotropia after surgery for intermittent exotropia were analyzed retrospectively. To analyze changes after each surgery, contrast sensitivity was tested before surgery for exotropia, before surgery for consecutive esotropia, and 3 months after surgery for consecutive esotropia. The changes in contrast sensitivity were analyzed, and correlation analyses between contrast sensitivity and the Titmus test and Worth 4 Dot (W4D) test were performed. @*Results@#The study included 14 patients. In consecutive esotropia, the contrast sensitivity was significantly improved at 7.1 and 10.2 cycles per degree (cpd) under mesopic conditions in the presence of glare and at 10.2 cpd under photopic conditions with and without glare after esotropia surgery (p < 0.05). There was a significant negative correlation between contrast sensitivity and stereopsis at 1.1 cpd under photopic conditions without glare before esotropia surgery (p = 0.011). Comparing the contrast sensitivity according to the W4D results, the fusion group had significantly better contrast sensitivity than the non-fusion group at 10.2 cpd under photopic conditions without glare and 2.9, 4.5, and 7.1 cpd with glare before exotropia surgery (p < 0.05). @*Conclusions@#The contrast sensitivity at high spatial frequencies improved after surgery for consecutive esotropia and there was a significant negative correlation between the contrast sensitivity and stereopsis in consecutive esotropia. This means that in patients with esotropia, the contrast sensitivity test is an indirect indicator of visual function.

15.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-893315

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#To report the case of a 14-year-old female patient with one-and-a-half syndrome subsequently diagnosed with multiple sclerosis involving the pons.Case summary: A 14-year-old girl without any underlying disease presented with difficulty focusing and mild headache for 5 days. The patient showed conjugate gaze palsy to the left, limited adduction in the left eye, and abducting nystagmus in the right eye, which indicated one-and-half syndrome. T2 fluid-attenuated inversion recovery brain magnetic resonance imaging revealed multiple punctate hyperintensities in the pontine tegmentum, bilateral cerebral white matter, and cerebellum. Cerebrospinal fluid examination revealed oligoclonal bands and multiple sclerosis was diagnosed. The patient was treated with intravenous steroids and beta-interferon. Seven weeks later, limitation of eyeball movement and nystagmus had resolved completely. @*Conclusions@#At the young age of 14 years, a patient presenting with one-and-a-half syndrome was diagnosed with multiple sclerosis. Children with multiple sclerosis may experience severe physical and cognitive impairments, and brainstem involvement predicts an especially poor prognosis. Early diagnosis and active treatment may help to prevent poor outcomes.

16.
Journal of Breast Disease ; (2): 16-25, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-891321

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#This study aimed to determine the clinicopathologic factors, including tumor elasticity, affecting neoadjuvant chemotherapy response in breast cancer. @*Methods@#Among 95 patients who received neoadjuvant chemotherapy for clinical stage IIa-IIIc primary breast cancer, 75 underwent strain elastography assessments. The patients were divided into soft and hard tumor groups based on the Tsukuba elasticity scoring system. Pathologic factors, including tumor cellularity and stromal characteristics, were evaluated using core needle biopsy specimens collected before neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Pathologic complete response (pCR) was defined as the absence of invasive carcinoma in the breast and axillary lymph nodes. Residual cancer burden (RCB) was also calculated in 79 cases. @*Results@#Twenty-two patients achieved pCR (23.2%). The rates of estrogen receptor (ER) negativity (p=0.04), progesterone receptor (PR) negativity (p=0.03), and nuclear grade 3 (p=0.03) were higher in patients with pCR than those in patients without pCR. The rates of PR negativity (p=0.03), nuclear grade 3 (p=0.01), and high tumor-infiltrating lymphocyte (TIL) levels (p=0.04) were significantly higher in the favorable RCB group (RCB-0 and I) than those in the unfavorable RCB group (RCB-II and III). No significant difference in tumor elasticity was observed between the groups (p=0.30). Hormone receptor (HR) negativity was an independent predictor of favorable RCB in the multivariate analysis (p=0.04). @*Conclusion@#Tumor elasticity was not associated with pCR or RCB. HR negativity was an independent predictor of favorable RCB.

17.
Journal of Breast Cancer ; : 164-174, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-891277

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#In this trial, we investigated the efficacy and safety of adjuvant letrozole for hormone receptor (HR)-positive breast cancer. Here, we report the clinical outcome in postmenopausal women with HR-positive breast cancer treated with adjuvant letrozole according to estrogen receptor (ER) expression levels. @*Methods@#In this multi-institutional, open-label, observational study, postmenopausal patients with HR-positive breast cancer received adjuvant letrozole (2.5 mg/daily) for 5 years unless they experienced disease progression or unacceptable toxicity or withdrew their consent. The patients were stratified into the following 3 groups according to ER expression levels using a modified Allred score (AS): low, intermediate, and high (AS 3–4, 5–6, and 7–8, respectively). ER expression was centrally reviewed. The primary objective was the 5-year disease-free survival (DFS) rate. @*Results@#Between April 25, 2010, and February 5, 2014, 440 patients were enrolled. With a median follow-up of 62.0 months, the 5-year DFS rate in all patients was 94.2% (95% confidence interval [CI], 91.8–96.6). The 5-year DFS and recurrence-free survival (RFS) rates did not differ according to ER expression; the 5-year DFS rates were 94.3% and 94.1%in the low-to-intermediate and high expression groups, respectively (p = 0.6), and the corresponding 5-year RFS rates were 95.7% and 95.4%, respectively (p = 0.7). Furthermore, 25 patients discontinued letrozole because of drug toxicity. @*Conclusion@#Treatment with adjuvant letrozole showed very favorable treatment outcomes and good tolerability among Korean postmenopausal women with ER-positive breast cancer, independent of ER expression.

18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890214

ABSTRACT

Objective@#In a number of controlled clinical trials and naturalistic studies, aripiprazole once monthly (AOM) has been found to be effective and safe as acute and maintenance treatment options for schizophrenia. However, such clinical data have been presented in selected patient population (i.e., antipsychotic monotherapy, etc.), in particular, clinical information on switching to AOM from antipsychotic polypharmacy and/or other long acting injectable antipsychotics (LAIs) has been scarce till today. @*Methods@#The study period was from the first switching day to AOM up to 12 months in patients with antipsychotic polypharmacy (APpoly)/LAIs (baseline, month 3, month 6, and month 12). Available demographics and clinical information were retrieved from electronic medical records (EMRs). Available scores of Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF), Clinical Global Impression-Clinical Benefit (CGI-CB), CGI-severity, Visual Analog Scale on Satisfaction-Patient/Health Professional (VAS-P/HP), and the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale-Insigh (PANSS-I) scores were also taken from EMR. Proportional change of functional impairment before and after AOM was also captured. @*Results@#Data of 18 patients were available. Most commonly used combined APs before AOM were aripiprazole, blonanserin, quetiapine, and risperidone. At least 2 APs (n = 2.4) were combined before AOM. Scores of GAF (10.7% increase), CGI-CB (46.2% decrease), VAS-P (47.8% increase), VAS-HP (40.8% increase), and PANSS-I (27.9% increase) (all p = 0.001) were significantly improved from baseline to month 12, respectively. Approximately 59% of patients improved individual functioning with different level (i.e., employment, back to school, etc.) after AOM treatment at month 12. @*Conclusion@#The present study have clearly shown the clinical benefit and utility of switching to AOM for treatment of patients with APpoly/LAIs in routine practice. Subsequent, adequately-powered, well-controlled clinical trials may be necessary to confirm our findings in near future.

19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890193

ABSTRACT

Antipsychotic monotherapy (APM) is considered best-acceptable treatment option regardless of antipsychotic class and formulation types for treating schizophrenia. However, antipsychotic polypharmacy (APP) has been also widely utilized in routine clinical practice. Despite APP has some clinical benefits it has also numerous pitfalls in relation with increased total number and doses of APs leading to adverse events as well as decrease of treatment adherence and persistence resulting in poor clinical outcomes. Recent introduction of long-acting injectable antipsychotics (LAIs) to the market has offered a chance for better medication adherence/persistence and also provided a simplification of treatment regime leading to more stabilized treatment for schizophrenia patients. When we cannot stay away from APP in the treatment of schizophrenia, clinicians need to find more proper APP regimens and thereby utilization of APP in efficient way should be a practical strategy to benefit schizophrenia patient in a real world treatment setting. With this regard, LAIs can be one of available APP regimen for treatment of schizophrenia in routine practice since their clinical utility and pharmacokinetic stability over oral APs have been well-elaborated today. However, when we have to commence LAIs as a part of APP with oral APs or other LAIs, every effort should be made before doing so whether or not validated and available treatment options or other clinical factors were not done or evaluated yet. Any treatment guidelines do not support APP regardless of the formulation of APP regimen or address two or more LAIs for treatment of schizophrenia till today.

20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-889712

ABSTRACT

At the end of 2019, the cause of pneumonia outbreaks in Wuhan, China, was identified as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. In February 2020, the World Health Organization named the disease cause by SARS-CoV-2 as coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). In response to the pandemic, the Korean Cancer Association formed the COVID-19 task force to develop practice guidelines. This special article introduces the clinical practice guidelines for cancer patients which will help oncologists best manage cancer patients during the COVID-19 pandemic.

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