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1.
Journal of the Korean Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry ; : 275-282, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1001614

ABSTRACT

Objectives@#This study aimed to identify the psychiatric comorbidity status of adult patients diagnosed with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and determine the impact of comorbidities on neuropsychological outcomes in ADHD. @*Methods@#The study participants were 124 adult patients with ADHD. Clinical psychiatric assessments were performed by two boardcertified psychiatrists in accordance with the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition. All participants were assessed using the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview Plus version 5.0.0 to evaluate comorbidities. After screening, neuropsychological outcomes were assessed using the Comprehensive Attention Test (CAT) and the Korean version of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, Fourth Edition (K-WAIS-IV). @*Results@#Mood disorders (38.7%) were the most common comorbidity of ADHD, followed by anxiety (18.5%) and substance use disorders (13.7%). The ADHD with comorbidities group showed worse results on the Perceptual Organization Index and Working Memory Index sections of the K-WAIS than the ADHD-alone group (p=0.015 and p=0.024, respectively). In addition, the presence of comorbidities was associated with worse performance on simple visual commission errors in the CAT tests (p=0.024). @*Conclusion@#These findings suggest that psychiatric comorbidities are associated with poor neuropsychological outcomes in adult patients with ADHD, highlighting the need to identify comorbidities in these patients.

2.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e194-2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1001141

ABSTRACT

Background@#This study aimed to analyze the suicidal warning signs of Korean students with different psychometric profiles based on teacher reports. @*Methods@#This was a retrospective cohort study based on Korean school teachers’ responses to the Student Suicide Report Form. In total, 546 consecutive cases of student suicide were reported from 2017 to 2020. After missing data were excluded, 528 cases were included. The report consisted of demographic factors, the Korean version of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) for teacher reporting, and warning signs of suicide. Frequency analysis, multiple response analysis, the χ2 test, and Latent Class Analysis (LCA) were performed. @*Results@#Based on the scores of the Korean version of the teacher-reported SDQ, the group was divided into nonsymptomatic (n = 411) and symptomatic (n = 117) groups. Based on the LCA results, four latent hierarchical models were selected. The four classes of deceased students showed significant differences in school type (χ2 = 20.410, P < 0.01), physical illness (χ2 = 7.928, P < 0.05), mental illness (χ2 = 94.332, P < 0.001), trigger events (χ2 = 14.817, P < 0.01), self-harm experience (χ2 = 30.618, P < 0.001), suicide attempts (χ2 = 24.072, P < 0.001), depressive symptoms (χ2 = 59.561, P < 0.001), anxiety (χ2 = 58.165, P < 0.001), impulsivity (χ2 = 62.241, P < 0.001), and social problems (χ2 = 64.952, P < 0.001). @*Conclusion@#Notably, many students who committed suicide did not have any psychiatric pathology. The proportion of the group with a prosocial appearance was also high. Therefore, the actual suicide warning signals were similar regardless of students’ difficulties and prosocial behaviors, so it is necessary to include this information in gatekeeper education.

3.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e221-2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1001096

ABSTRACT

Background@#This study aimed to examine the factors associated with internet gaming disorder (IGD) and the mediating role of pediatric symptoms (attention, externalizing problems and internalizing problems) in children and adolescents with a family history of addiction as an adverse childhood experience (ACE). @*Methods@#A total of 2,586 children and adolescents (mean age = 14.04 ± 2.34; age range = 11–19 years; 50.5% boys) completed the Internet Game Use-Elicited Symptom Screen and the Pediatric Symptom Checklist-17. IBM SPSS Statistics 21 was used to calculate descriptive statistics and Pearson correlation coefficients and to conduct multiple regression analyses.Mediation analysis was performed using the Sobel test and the SPSS PROCESS macro. Serial multiple mediation analysis was performed using bootstrapping with 5,000 replications. @*Results@#The higher levels of Attention problems (β = −0.228, P < 0.001) and externalizing problems (β = −0.213, P < 0.001) were associated with IGD. Furthermore, the indirect effect of the independent variable on the dependent variable through the mediators was significant (Sobel’s T: Z = −5.006, P < 0.001). These findings suggest that attention and externalizing problems mediate the effect of family history of addiction on IGD. @*Conclusion@#This study demonstrated the associations among the family history of addiction, IGD, and pediatric symptoms (attention, externalizing problems, and internalizing problems) among Korean children and adolescents. Therefore, we need to pay attention to pediatric symptoms and develop systematic alternatives to improve mental health among Korean children and adolescents with a family history of addiction as ACEs.

4.
Psychiatry Investigation ; : 284-292, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-968557

ABSTRACT

Objective@#The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of the Soma experiencing motion (Soma e-motion) program on interoceptive awareness and self-compassion among novices. @*Methods@#A total of 19 adults (clinical group=9, non-clinical group=10) participated in the intervention. Psychological and physical changes after program were qualitatively analyzed using in-depth interviews. The Korean Multidimensional Assessment of Interoceptive Awareness (K-MAIA) and the Korean version of the Self-Compassion Scale (K-SCS) were used as quantitative measures. @*Results@#The non-clinical group showed statistically significant differences in the K-MAIA scores (z=-2.805, p0.05; K-SCS: z=-0.178, p>0.05). According to the in-depth interviews, the results of the qualitative analysis were categorized into five dimensions (psychological and emotional, physical, cognitive, behavioral, and aspects participants found challenging and needs improvement). @*Conclusion@#The Soma e-motion program was feasible for improving interoceptive awareness and self-compassion in the non-clinical group. However, further research is needed to investigate the clinical efficacy of the Soma e-motion program for clinical group.

5.
Psychiatry Investigation ; : 220-228, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-926909

ABSTRACT

Objective@#This study aimed to explore whether screen time and the screen type impacted various health aspects of children, including physical activity (PA), sleep quality, and eating habits. Additionally, we investigated whether children’s eating behavior while using electronic devices affects their physical and mental health. @*Methods@#We conducted an online survey asking for screen use (duration, type, and purpose), PA, eating habits, sleep problems, and level of depression. The participants were children between the ages of 3 and 7 years, and the survey was answered by the participants’ parents from March 3 to March 20, 2021. @*Results@#A screen time of ≥2 h in children was associated with various clinical characteristics, such as body mass index (BMI), sleep problems, depression, decreased PA, and unusual eating habits. Children’s food eating behavior while using electronic devices was predicted by a total screen time ≥2 h, smartphone screen time ≥2 h, sleep problems, owning electronic devices, and eating unhealthy food. @*Conclusion@#There was an interplay among children’s PAs, eating behaviors, depression, sleep problems, and screen time in this pandemic era. Therefore, guiding children on the correct use of electronic devices and helping them eat healthy are paramount during this COVID-19 pandemic.

6.
Psychiatry Investigation ; : 241-248, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-903213

ABSTRACT

Objective@#This study investigated the types of daily life stressors associated with social media use in adolescents with problematic Internet/smartphone use in a city in Korea. @*Methods@#Data from 2,997 Internet and smartphone users who participated in a survey about the actual use of smart digital media in Korea were included. The measurement tools included questionnaires on Internet and smartphone usage patterns and types of daily life stressors as well as the Internet Gaming Use-Elicited Symptom Screen and a smartphone addiction scale. The subjects were divided into a problematic Internet/smartphone use group and a control group. We compared the types of daily life stressors associated with social media use for each group. @*Results@#All types of daily life stressors were more prevalent in the problematic Internet use group than in the control group. In the problematic Internet/smartphone use group, the types of daily life stressors that were positively associated with social media use were sibling rivalry and physical health. In the control group, social media use was negatively associated with daily life stressors related to appearance and heterosexual relationships. @*Conclusion@#There is a need to provide personalized stress management related to social media use for adolescents with problematic Internet/smartphone use.

7.
Psychiatry Investigation ; : 530-538, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-903207

ABSTRACT

Objective@#This study aimed to evaluate the reliability and validity of the Korean version of the Pornography Craving Questionnaire (K-PCQ) using classical test theory and item response theory. @*Methods@#The goodness of fit test and differential item functioning (DIF) analysis based on the Rasch model, confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), exploratory factor analysis (EFA), and correlation analysis were used to test its reliability and validity. @*Results@#Response data from 226 students were analyzed. According to the goodness of fit test, the outfit mean square value of only one item, Item 11, was greater than 2. The CFA results revealed that all items of the K-PCQ measured a single construct. The EFA results revealed that the K-PCQ had excellent internal reliability. The DIF analysis results showed that the measurement of pornography craving using the K-PCQ did not differ based on gender. The result of Poly-DIMTEST supported the unidimensionality of the K-PCQ. The cut-off value of pornography craving was suggested as a measure of -0.0908 which corresponds to 46 (54.8%) out of a maximum score of 84. @*Conclusion@#The items of the K-PCQ are unidimensional and have good reliability and validity. The K-PCQ will be useful in clinical practice and research as a screening tool for pornography craving.

8.
Psychiatry Investigation ; : 241-248, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-895509

ABSTRACT

Objective@#This study investigated the types of daily life stressors associated with social media use in adolescents with problematic Internet/smartphone use in a city in Korea. @*Methods@#Data from 2,997 Internet and smartphone users who participated in a survey about the actual use of smart digital media in Korea were included. The measurement tools included questionnaires on Internet and smartphone usage patterns and types of daily life stressors as well as the Internet Gaming Use-Elicited Symptom Screen and a smartphone addiction scale. The subjects were divided into a problematic Internet/smartphone use group and a control group. We compared the types of daily life stressors associated with social media use for each group. @*Results@#All types of daily life stressors were more prevalent in the problematic Internet use group than in the control group. In the problematic Internet/smartphone use group, the types of daily life stressors that were positively associated with social media use were sibling rivalry and physical health. In the control group, social media use was negatively associated with daily life stressors related to appearance and heterosexual relationships. @*Conclusion@#There is a need to provide personalized stress management related to social media use for adolescents with problematic Internet/smartphone use.

9.
Psychiatry Investigation ; : 530-538, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-895503

ABSTRACT

Objective@#This study aimed to evaluate the reliability and validity of the Korean version of the Pornography Craving Questionnaire (K-PCQ) using classical test theory and item response theory. @*Methods@#The goodness of fit test and differential item functioning (DIF) analysis based on the Rasch model, confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), exploratory factor analysis (EFA), and correlation analysis were used to test its reliability and validity. @*Results@#Response data from 226 students were analyzed. According to the goodness of fit test, the outfit mean square value of only one item, Item 11, was greater than 2. The CFA results revealed that all items of the K-PCQ measured a single construct. The EFA results revealed that the K-PCQ had excellent internal reliability. The DIF analysis results showed that the measurement of pornography craving using the K-PCQ did not differ based on gender. The result of Poly-DIMTEST supported the unidimensionality of the K-PCQ. The cut-off value of pornography craving was suggested as a measure of -0.0908 which corresponds to 46 (54.8%) out of a maximum score of 84. @*Conclusion@#The items of the K-PCQ are unidimensional and have good reliability and validity. The K-PCQ will be useful in clinical practice and research as a screening tool for pornography craving.

10.
Psychiatry Investigation ; : 114-121, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-832510

ABSTRACT

Objective@#The study aimed to describe the frequency and associations of the number of medical visits for the violent victimization and mental health problems in adolescents in South Korea. @*Methods@#In 2017, 62,276 middle and high school students participated in the thirteenth Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey (KYRBS). The frequency of violence victimization during the last 12 months was measured. The collected data were analyzed by applying descriptive statistics, chi-square tests, multiple linear regression, and logistic regression analysis, using the SPSS 22.0. The data were weighted to generate national estimates. @*Results@#Among the respondents (sample size=62,276, weighted=3,027,488), 3.7% of boys and 1.7% of girls had experienced being treated by a doctor due to violence during the recent past 12 months. In multiple linear regression analysis, feelings of sadness or hopeless, suicide ideation, suicide plan, suicide attempt were positively associated with violence victimization (F=32656.037, p<0.001) dose response. @*Conclusion@#The results found cross-sectional evidence that violence victimization was associated with higher suicide behavior and depressed mood. The victims of violence should be referred follow-up for physical and psychological issues. Also, a policy including the first responders and medical staffs should be initiated.

11.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e240-2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831605

ABSTRACT

Background@#We aimed to evaluate the feasibility of trauma-focused group therapy in adolescents exposed to traumatic events in Korea. @*Methods@#We recruited 22 adolescents (mean age, 16 years; standard deviation, 1.43; range, 13–18 years). Children in Disaster: Evaluation and Recovery (CIDER) V1.0 is a trauma-focused group therapy comprising eight 50-minute-long sessions. The effectiveness of the intervention was evaluated using the Korean version of the Children's Response to Traumatic Events Scale-Revised (K-CRTES-R), the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), the State Anxiety Inventory for Children (SAIC), and the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQL). The data were analyzed by the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. @*Results@#A significant improvement was revealed in trauma-related symptom scores (Z = −2.85, P < 0.01), depressive symptom scores (Z = −2.35, P< 0.05) and quality of life scores (Z = −3.08, P< 0.01). Additionally, a marginally significant improvement was found in anxiety symptom scores (Z = −1.90, P = 0.058). @*Conclusion@#CIDER is a potentially effective intervention for adolescents exposed to traumatic events. Larger controlled trials are needed.

12.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e282-2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831532

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the mediating effect of depressive symptoms on the relationship between adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and problematic internet use. The study participants were 180 students between the ages of 9 and 18 years. Path analysis was performed to measure the relationships among ACEs, depressive symptoms and problematic internet use. ACEs significantly affected depressive symptoms (standardized regression weight, 0.36; P < 0.01), and depressive symptoms also affected problematic internet use (standardized regression weight, 0.40; P < 0.01). We found that depressive symptoms had a significant mediating effect on the relationship between problematic internet use and ACEs. The management of depressive symptoms would be important to prevent problematic internet use in children and adolescents with ACEs.

13.
Journal of the Korean Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry ; : 5-25, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-892977

ABSTRACT

Objectives@#Adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is an important mental health problem that needs resolution, especially considering the high rates of ADHD continuation from childhood to adolescence/adulthood and the high prevalence of ADHD in adults. Adults with ADHD have lifelong negative impacts and require close monitoring with long-term follow-up. Hence, the establishment of a Korean practice parameter for adult ADHD is necessary to minimize discontinuation of treatment and enable information sharing among Korean mental health professionals. @*Methods@#The Korean practice parameter was developed using an evidence-based approach consisting of expert consensus survey coupled with literature review. @*Results@#According to the expert consensus survey, the most commonly used diagnostic methods were clinical psychiatric interview (20.66%) and self-report scales (19.25%) followed by attention (14.71%) and psychological tests (14.24%). Key evaluation instruments currently available in Korea are the World Health Organization Adult ADHD Self-Report Rating Scale, Korean Adult ADHD Rating Scale, Diagnostic Interview for ADHD in Adults, Barkley Deficits in Executive Functioning Scale for adults, Comprehensive Attention Test, Conners’ Continuous Performance Test, and the subtests of Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, Digit Span and Letter-Number Sequencing. Although pharmacotherapy is recommended as the first-line of treatment for adult ADHD, we recommend that it be followed by a multimodal and multidisciplinary approach including psychoeducation, pharmacotherapy, cognitive behavior therapy and coaching. @*Conclusion@#The Korean practice parameter introduces not only general information for the diagnosis and treatment of adult ADHD on a global scale, but also the process of diagnosis and treatment options tailored to the Korean population.

14.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e421-2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-892035

ABSTRACT

Background@#This study aimed to investigate the impact of exposure to adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and stress among the community-based urban pediatric population in Korea. @*Methods@#In 2017, the analysis was conducted on 3,937 children and adolescents in an urban area in Korea based on the impact of actual traumatic experience, addiction, and mental health. The respondents were excluded if they were missing data on the survey, resulting in a final sample size of 3,556. The collected data were analyzed by applying cross-sectional and correlation analyses. @*Results@#Among the respondents in the study group (mean age = 13.77), 43.1% were boys (n = 1,532) and 56.9% were girls (n = 2,024). Overall, 23.5% (n = 835) reported at least one ACE and 1.8% (n = 63) reported experiencing four or more ACEs. Emotional abuse (13.2%) was the most commonly reported ACE, followed by abandonment (7.7%) and physical abuse (7.5%).Self-reported measures of stress were associated with the ACE scores. @*Conclusion@#This is the first study of self-reported ACEs from a community-based pediatric population in Korea. We found that the number of the students revealed more than one ACEs was similar to the data in the US community study with self-reporting among the community samples and exposure to adverse experiences is highly correlated with various stress responses.

15.
Journal of the Korean Society of Biological Psychiatry ; : 74-83, 2020.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-901759

ABSTRACT

Objectives@#Psychological resilience plays a significant role in many aspects of mental health. The aim of this study was to find an association between childhood attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) features and adulthood psychological resilience in patients with mood disorders. @*Methods@#A total of 213 patients with mood disorders including major depressive disorder or bipolar I, II disorder and 909 healthy controls were included. We assessed childhood ADHD features using the Wender Utah Rating Scale (WURS), adulthood psychological resilience using the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC), and current depressive mood using the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). Pearson’s correlation, multiple linear regression and a mediation analyses were performed to examine the relationships between three WURS factor (impulsivity, inattention, and mood instability) scores, the BDI score, and the CD-RISC score. @*Results@#The CD-RISC score was negatively correlated with the WURS childhood inattention factor score and current BDI score in patients with mood disorders. BDI score mediated the influence of the inattention factor score on CD-RISC score among patients with mood disorders. The CD-RISC score was significantly lower in patients with mood disorders than in controls even after controlling for age, WURS scores, and the BDI score. @*Conclusions@#An evaluation of psychological resilience is important for enhancing recovery and quality of life in patients with mood disorders. When assessing psychological resilience, current depression and ADHD features in childhood, particularly inattention, should be considered.

16.
Journal of the Korean Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry ; : 5-25, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-900681

ABSTRACT

Objectives@#Adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is an important mental health problem that needs resolution, especially considering the high rates of ADHD continuation from childhood to adolescence/adulthood and the high prevalence of ADHD in adults. Adults with ADHD have lifelong negative impacts and require close monitoring with long-term follow-up. Hence, the establishment of a Korean practice parameter for adult ADHD is necessary to minimize discontinuation of treatment and enable information sharing among Korean mental health professionals. @*Methods@#The Korean practice parameter was developed using an evidence-based approach consisting of expert consensus survey coupled with literature review. @*Results@#According to the expert consensus survey, the most commonly used diagnostic methods were clinical psychiatric interview (20.66%) and self-report scales (19.25%) followed by attention (14.71%) and psychological tests (14.24%). Key evaluation instruments currently available in Korea are the World Health Organization Adult ADHD Self-Report Rating Scale, Korean Adult ADHD Rating Scale, Diagnostic Interview for ADHD in Adults, Barkley Deficits in Executive Functioning Scale for adults, Comprehensive Attention Test, Conners’ Continuous Performance Test, and the subtests of Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, Digit Span and Letter-Number Sequencing. Although pharmacotherapy is recommended as the first-line of treatment for adult ADHD, we recommend that it be followed by a multimodal and multidisciplinary approach including psychoeducation, pharmacotherapy, cognitive behavior therapy and coaching. @*Conclusion@#The Korean practice parameter introduces not only general information for the diagnosis and treatment of adult ADHD on a global scale, but also the process of diagnosis and treatment options tailored to the Korean population.

17.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e421-2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-899739

ABSTRACT

Background@#This study aimed to investigate the impact of exposure to adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and stress among the community-based urban pediatric population in Korea. @*Methods@#In 2017, the analysis was conducted on 3,937 children and adolescents in an urban area in Korea based on the impact of actual traumatic experience, addiction, and mental health. The respondents were excluded if they were missing data on the survey, resulting in a final sample size of 3,556. The collected data were analyzed by applying cross-sectional and correlation analyses. @*Results@#Among the respondents in the study group (mean age = 13.77), 43.1% were boys (n = 1,532) and 56.9% were girls (n = 2,024). Overall, 23.5% (n = 835) reported at least one ACE and 1.8% (n = 63) reported experiencing four or more ACEs. Emotional abuse (13.2%) was the most commonly reported ACE, followed by abandonment (7.7%) and physical abuse (7.5%).Self-reported measures of stress were associated with the ACE scores. @*Conclusion@#This is the first study of self-reported ACEs from a community-based pediatric population in Korea. We found that the number of the students revealed more than one ACEs was similar to the data in the US community study with self-reporting among the community samples and exposure to adverse experiences is highly correlated with various stress responses.

18.
Journal of the Korean Society of Biological Psychiatry ; : 74-83, 2020.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-894055

ABSTRACT

Objectives@#Psychological resilience plays a significant role in many aspects of mental health. The aim of this study was to find an association between childhood attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) features and adulthood psychological resilience in patients with mood disorders. @*Methods@#A total of 213 patients with mood disorders including major depressive disorder or bipolar I, II disorder and 909 healthy controls were included. We assessed childhood ADHD features using the Wender Utah Rating Scale (WURS), adulthood psychological resilience using the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC), and current depressive mood using the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). Pearson’s correlation, multiple linear regression and a mediation analyses were performed to examine the relationships between three WURS factor (impulsivity, inattention, and mood instability) scores, the BDI score, and the CD-RISC score. @*Results@#The CD-RISC score was negatively correlated with the WURS childhood inattention factor score and current BDI score in patients with mood disorders. BDI score mediated the influence of the inattention factor score on CD-RISC score among patients with mood disorders. The CD-RISC score was significantly lower in patients with mood disorders than in controls even after controlling for age, WURS scores, and the BDI score. @*Conclusions@#An evaluation of psychological resilience is important for enhancing recovery and quality of life in patients with mood disorders. When assessing psychological resilience, current depression and ADHD features in childhood, particularly inattention, should be considered.

19.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e38-2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-765144

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Two hundred and fifty 11th grade students and teachers from Danwon High School drowned, during a school trip, in the Sewol Ferry Disaster. The goal of this study was to investigate the experiences of the psychiatrists who volunteered and provided psychiatric services to the students at Danwon High School. METHODS: From the second day to the 138th day after the disaster, pro bono psychiatrists provided post-disaster interventions to the 10th and 12th-grade Danwon High School students who did not attend the trip. Officially, 167 psychiatrists conducted outreach in approximately 550 encounters. The study questionnaires were distributed retrospectively to psychiatric volunteers who conducted outreach at Danwon High School. We surveyed the pro bono psychiatrists about their experiences, including the students' chief complaints, psychiatric problems, clinical diagnoses, and psychiatrists' treatment recommendations. RESULTS: We reached 72 (43.1%) of the 167 volunteers, and they reported on 212 (38.6%) of the 550 encounters. The common chief complaints were mental health problems, companion problems, and family problems. The most frequent psychiatric symptoms were anxiety (76.89%), depressive mood (51.42%), and concentration difficulty (50.94%). The most frequent clinical diagnoses of the students were normal reaction (41.04%), acute stress disorder (24.53%), adjustment disorder (17.92%), anxiety disorders (9.43%), and posttraumatic stress disorder (6.60%). More than half of the students needed “additional counseling/therapy” (41.04%) or “referral to psychiatric treatment” (14.15%). CONCLUSION: During the acute aftermath of the Sewol Ferry Disaster, volunteer psychiatrists were able to provide services. These services included psychiatric assessments, crisis counseling, psychological first aid, and referrals for ongoing care. More than half of the students were perceived to have a psychiatric diagnosis, and a substantial proportion of students needed further treatment. Future research should focus on the short- and long-term effects of psychiatric interventions and the characterization of post-disaster mental health needs and service provision patterns.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Humans , Adjustment Disorders , Anxiety , Anxiety Disorders , Counseling , Diagnosis , Disasters , First Aid , Friends , Mental Disorders , Mental Health , Psychiatry , Referral and Consultation , Retrospective Studies , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic , Stress Disorders, Traumatic, Acute , Volunteers
20.
Journal of the Korean Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry ; : 116-120, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-766288

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: This study was conducted to re-validate the clinical efficacy of the Korean Adult Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Rating Scale (K-AARS), which is a self-report scale for ADHD in adults, and to determine the clinical utility and cut-off scores of K-AARS. METHODS: The participants were 135 drug naïve adults with ADHD and 144 healthy controls. To diagnose ADHD based on the diagnostic criteria of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th Edition, two board-certified pediatric psychiatrists interviewed the participants and completed the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview. K-AARS was applied to all participants. K-AARS comprises six clinical subscales, one impairment subscale, and one driving behavior subscale. The receiver operating characteristic analysis was conducted to calculate the cut-off scores of K-AARS. RESULTS: All subscale scores, including six clinical subscale, impairment subscale, and driving behavior subscale scores, were found to be significant in distinguishing adults with ADHD from healthy controls. The sensitivity and specificity of the six clinical subscales were 63.0–77.0% and 66.7–79.9%, respectively. The combined total score of the six clinical subscales, had a sensitivity of 80.0% and specificity of 79.9%. CONCLUSION: The discriminative power of K-AARS for the diagnosis of ADHD in adults was excellent, and K-AARS and the empirical diagnosis of adults can be useful in diagnosing ADHD in adulthood.


Subject(s)
Adult , Humans , Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity , Diagnosis , Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders , Psychiatry , ROC Curve , Sensitivity and Specificity , Treatment Outcome
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