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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-875523

ABSTRACT

Life cycle stages, including daughter sporocysts, cercariae, and metacercariae, of Parvatrema duboisi (Dollfus, 1923) Bartoli, 1974 (Digenea: Gymnophallidae) have been found in the Manila clam Ruditapes philippinarum from Aphaedo (Island), Shinan-gun, Jeollanam-do, Korea. The daughter sporocysts were elongated sac-like and 307-570 (av. 395) μm long and 101-213 (av. 157) μm wide. Most of the daughter sporocysts contained 15-20 furcocercous cercariae each. The cercariae measured 112-146 (av. 134) μm in total length and 35-46 (av. 40) μm in width, with 69-92 (av. 85) μm long body and 39-54 (av. 49) μm long tail. The metacercariae were 210-250 (av. 231) μm in length and 170-195 (av. 185) μm in width, and characterized by having a large oral sucker, genital pore some distance anterior to the ventral sucker, no ventral pit, and 1 compact or slightly lobed vitellarium, strongly suggesting P. duboisi. The metacercariae were experimentally infected to ICR mice, and adults were recovered at day 7 post-infection. The adult flukes were morphologically similar to the metacercariae except in the presence of up to 20 eggs in the uterus. The daughter sporocysts and metacercariae were molecularly (ITS1-5.8S rDNA-ITS2) analyzed to confirm the species, and the results showed 99.8-99.9% identity with P. duboisi reported from Kyushu, Japan and Gochang, Korea. These results confirmed the presence of various life cycle stages of P. duboisi in the Manila clam, R. philippinarum, playing the role of the first as well as the second intermediate host, on Aphae-do (Island), Shinan-gun, Korea.

2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-903874

ABSTRACT

Acanthoparyphium shinanense n. sp. (Digenea: Echinostomatidae) is described from chicks experimentally infected with the metacercariae encysted in 2 brackish water clam species, Ruditapes philippinarum and Coecella chinensis, in the Republic of Korea. The metacercariae were round to oval, armed with 23 collar spines, and 0.216 (0.203-0.226) mm in diameter. From 5 chicks experimentally infected each with 200 metacercariae, 34 juvenile (5-day-old worms) and 104 adult flukes (7-day-old worms) were harvested from their small intestines, with the average worm recovery rate of 13.8%. The adult flukes were 3.18 (2.89-3.55) mm long and 0.68 (0.61-0.85) mm wide, with an elongated, posteriorly tapering body, and a prominent head collar armed with 23 collar spines arranged in a single uninterrupted row. The posterior testis of A. shinanense was longitudinally elongated, which is similar to Acanthoparyphium spinulosum Johnston, 1917 but unique from the other closely related species, including Acanthoparyphium tyosenense Yamaguti, 1939, Acanthoparyphium kurogamo Yamaguti, 1939, and Acanthoparyphium marilae Yamaguti, 1934. The eggs of A. shinanense were larger than those of A. spinulosum, and the anterior extent of 2 lateral groups of vitellaria was slightly more limited in A. shinanense than in A. spinulosum. Molecular analysis of nuclear and mitochondrial genes revealed low homology with A. spinulosum from USA (96.1% in 5.8S rRNA) and Ukraine (97.9% in 28S rRNA), Acanthoparyphium n. sp. from USA (98.0% in 28S rRNA), and Acanthoparyphium sp. from Australia, Kuwait, and New Zealand. Biological characteristics, including its first intermediate host and natural definitive hosts, as well as its zoonotic capability, should be elucidated.

3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-903864

ABSTRACT

A 12-year nationwide survey (2008-2019) was performed to investigate the prevalence of Enterobius vermicularis infection among preschool children in Seoul, 4 large cites (Busan, Incheon, Daegu, and Ulsan), and 9 provinces (grouped into 5 localities) in the Republic of Korea (=Korea). The survey was carried out once a year by 16 regional offices of the Korea Association of Health Promotion. The cello-tape perianal swab method (1 smear per child) was applied to detect eggs of E. vermicularis and other helminths. According to the results, the egg positive rate of E. vermicularis infection in 2008-2009 was 1.8-2.0%, but it decreased gradually to 0.6% in 2019 (P<0.05). The prevalence was significantly higher in boys (0.7-5.0%, mean 1.8%) than in girls (0.5-2.8%, mean 1.3%) (P<0.05). The 2 most southern localities, Jejudo (Province) and Jeolla-do (inclusive of Jeollabuk-do and Jeollanam-do) and a mid-western province, Gyeonggi-do, revealed higher prevalences, whereas Seoul and Gangwon-do showed lower prevalences. The results indicate that a low-grade prevalence of E. vermicularis infection (less than 4%) has been maintained for the recent 12 years among preschool children in Korea. Continuous monitoring of enterobiasis in the child age group is necessary in Korea.

4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-903853

ABSTRACT

Human infection with Taenia asiatica or a hybrid between Taenia saginata and T. asiatica has not been reported in Cambodia. We detected for the first time a hybrid form between T. saginata and T. asiatica in Preah Vihear Province, Cambodia. An adult tapeworm specimen, i.e., 75 cm long strobila without scolex, was expelled from a 27-year-old man after praziquantel medication and purging. It was morphologically indistinguishable between T. saginata and T. asiatica. Several proglottids were molecularly analyzed to confirm the tapeworm species. The mitochondrial gene encoding cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) and nuclear genes encoding elongation factor-1α (ef1) and ezrin-radixin-moesin (ERM)-like protein (elp) were sequenced, and a single-allele analysis was performed to confirm the haploid genotype. The results revealed that our sample showed a discrepancy between the mitochondrial and 2 nuclear genes. It possessed homozygous sequences typical of T. saginata at cox1 and ef1 loci. However, it was heterozygous at the elp locus, with 1 allele in T. asiatica (elpA) and 1 in T. saginata (elpC), which indicates that it is a hybrid between T. saginata and T. asiatica. The present results confirmed the presence of a hybrid between T. saginata and T. asiatica in Cambodia and strongly suggest the existence of also ‘pure’ T. asiatica in Cambodia.

5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-896170

ABSTRACT

Acanthoparyphium shinanense n. sp. (Digenea: Echinostomatidae) is described from chicks experimentally infected with the metacercariae encysted in 2 brackish water clam species, Ruditapes philippinarum and Coecella chinensis, in the Republic of Korea. The metacercariae were round to oval, armed with 23 collar spines, and 0.216 (0.203-0.226) mm in diameter. From 5 chicks experimentally infected each with 200 metacercariae, 34 juvenile (5-day-old worms) and 104 adult flukes (7-day-old worms) were harvested from their small intestines, with the average worm recovery rate of 13.8%. The adult flukes were 3.18 (2.89-3.55) mm long and 0.68 (0.61-0.85) mm wide, with an elongated, posteriorly tapering body, and a prominent head collar armed with 23 collar spines arranged in a single uninterrupted row. The posterior testis of A. shinanense was longitudinally elongated, which is similar to Acanthoparyphium spinulosum Johnston, 1917 but unique from the other closely related species, including Acanthoparyphium tyosenense Yamaguti, 1939, Acanthoparyphium kurogamo Yamaguti, 1939, and Acanthoparyphium marilae Yamaguti, 1934. The eggs of A. shinanense were larger than those of A. spinulosum, and the anterior extent of 2 lateral groups of vitellaria was slightly more limited in A. shinanense than in A. spinulosum. Molecular analysis of nuclear and mitochondrial genes revealed low homology with A. spinulosum from USA (96.1% in 5.8S rRNA) and Ukraine (97.9% in 28S rRNA), Acanthoparyphium n. sp. from USA (98.0% in 28S rRNA), and Acanthoparyphium sp. from Australia, Kuwait, and New Zealand. Biological characteristics, including its first intermediate host and natural definitive hosts, as well as its zoonotic capability, should be elucidated.

6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-896160

ABSTRACT

A 12-year nationwide survey (2008-2019) was performed to investigate the prevalence of Enterobius vermicularis infection among preschool children in Seoul, 4 large cites (Busan, Incheon, Daegu, and Ulsan), and 9 provinces (grouped into 5 localities) in the Republic of Korea (=Korea). The survey was carried out once a year by 16 regional offices of the Korea Association of Health Promotion. The cello-tape perianal swab method (1 smear per child) was applied to detect eggs of E. vermicularis and other helminths. According to the results, the egg positive rate of E. vermicularis infection in 2008-2009 was 1.8-2.0%, but it decreased gradually to 0.6% in 2019 (P<0.05). The prevalence was significantly higher in boys (0.7-5.0%, mean 1.8%) than in girls (0.5-2.8%, mean 1.3%) (P<0.05). The 2 most southern localities, Jejudo (Province) and Jeolla-do (inclusive of Jeollabuk-do and Jeollanam-do) and a mid-western province, Gyeonggi-do, revealed higher prevalences, whereas Seoul and Gangwon-do showed lower prevalences. The results indicate that a low-grade prevalence of E. vermicularis infection (less than 4%) has been maintained for the recent 12 years among preschool children in Korea. Continuous monitoring of enterobiasis in the child age group is necessary in Korea.

7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-896149

ABSTRACT

Human infection with Taenia asiatica or a hybrid between Taenia saginata and T. asiatica has not been reported in Cambodia. We detected for the first time a hybrid form between T. saginata and T. asiatica in Preah Vihear Province, Cambodia. An adult tapeworm specimen, i.e., 75 cm long strobila without scolex, was expelled from a 27-year-old man after praziquantel medication and purging. It was morphologically indistinguishable between T. saginata and T. asiatica. Several proglottids were molecularly analyzed to confirm the tapeworm species. The mitochondrial gene encoding cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) and nuclear genes encoding elongation factor-1α (ef1) and ezrin-radixin-moesin (ERM)-like protein (elp) were sequenced, and a single-allele analysis was performed to confirm the haploid genotype. The results revealed that our sample showed a discrepancy between the mitochondrial and 2 nuclear genes. It possessed homozygous sequences typical of T. saginata at cox1 and ef1 loci. However, it was heterozygous at the elp locus, with 1 allele in T. asiatica (elpA) and 1 in T. saginata (elpC), which indicates that it is a hybrid between T. saginata and T. asiatica. The present results confirmed the presence of a hybrid between T. saginata and T. asiatica in Cambodia and strongly suggest the existence of also ‘pure’ T. asiatica in Cambodia.

8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-919311

ABSTRACT

The Chinese edible frogs, Hoplobatrachus rugulosus (n=20), and the striped snakehead fish, Channa striata (n=34), were purchased from local markets in 3 administrative regions of Cambodia (Phnom Penh, Pursat, and Takeo Provinces) from May 2017 to April 2019, and their infection status with Gnathostoma sp. larvae was investigated. The frogs and fish were transported to the laboratory with ice and examined using the artificial digestion method. Advanced 3rd-stage larvae (AdL3) of Gnathostoma spinigerum, 24 in total number (1-6 larvae/frog), were detected from 6 (60.0%) out of 10 frogs purchased from Phnom Penh. No gnathostome larvae were detected in 10 frogs purchased from Takeo Province and 34 snakeheads from Phnom Penh, Pursat, and Takeo Provinces. AdL3 isolated from the frogs were 2.55- 3.90 mm long and 0.31-0.36 mm wide. They had a characteristic head bulb (0.081×0.191 mm in average size) with 4 rows of hooklets, a muscular long esophagus (0.950-1.230 mm long), and 2 pairs of cervical sacs (0.530-0.890 mm long). The average number of hooklets in the 1st, 2nd, 3rd, and 4th rows was 41, 45, 48, and 51, respectively. These features were consistent with G. spinigerum AdL3. By the present study, it has been first confirmed that the Chinese edible frog, H. rugulosus, from Phnom Penh serves as a second intermediate host for G. spinigerum, although their intensity of infection was not so high compared to other previously reported localities.

9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-919309

ABSTRACT

The prevalence and intensity of Opisthorchis viverrini metacercariae (OvMc) were investigated in fish from 3 southern administrative regions along the Mekong River in Cambodia, i.e., Phnom Penh, Takeo, and Kandal Provinces from 2017 to 2020. A total of 295 freshwater fish (24 species) were transported to our laboratory with ice and examined using the artificial digestion method. In Phnom Penh, among 4 fish species positive for OvMc, 9 (23.7%) of 38 specimens examined were infected, and their intensity of infection averaged 4.3 metacercariae per infected fish. In Takeo Province, among 10 fish species positive for OvMc, 24 (38.1%) out of 63 fish examined were infected, and their intensity of infection was av. 14.4 metacercariae per infected fish. In particular, all of 3 Osteochilus schlegelii fish examined were infected, and their infection intensity was high, 34.7 metacercariae per fish. In Kandal Province, among 6 fish species positive for OvMc, 46 (90.2%) out of 51 specimens examined were infected, and their infection intensity was 24.0 metacercaraie per infected fish. All fish of Systomus orphoides (n=17), Barbonymus altus (n=14), and Rasbora aurotaenia (n=2) were infected, and their intensity of infection averaged 37.7, 21.6, and 18.5 metacercariae per fish, respectively. Metacercariae of Haplochis yokogawai, Haplorchis taichui, and Centrocestus formosanus were detected in fish from Takeo and Kandal Provinces. From these results, it has been confirmed that a variety of fish species from Phnom Penh, Takeo, and Kandal Provinces are commonly infected with OvMc, and preventive measures to avoid human O. viverrini infection should be performed in Cambodia.

10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-919301

ABSTRACT

Soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections are still a considerable challenge in Myanmar. We undertook a control program for STH infections (especially Trichuris trichiura) among schoolchildren in Myanmar using mass drug administration (MDA) and health education. Around 1,700 schoolchildren from 15 primary schools in 3 suburban districts (Shwe Pyi Thar, Twantay, and Kyauktan) of the Yangon Region were subjected in this study during 2017-2019. All of the schoolchildren in each school were orally administered albendazole (400 mg in a single dose) 2, 3, and 4 times a year in 2017, 2018, and 2019, respectively. The results revealed that the egg positive rate of any intestinal helminths (including STH) was reduced from 37.6% (649/1,724) in 2017 to 22.8% (352/1,542) in 2019. The egg positive rate of Ascaris lumbricoides was decreased remarkably from 23.3% (402/1,724) in 2017 to 3.6% (56/1,542) in 2019. However, that of T. trichiura was only slightly reduced from 26.9% (464/1,724) in 2017 to 20.2% (312/1,542) in 2019. The intensity of infection with A. lumbricoides and T. trichiura was both more or less reduced, and the proportion of light infection cases with A. lumbricoides and T. trichiura increased from 35.6% in 2017 to 64.3% in 2019 and from 70.3% in 2017 to 81.7% in 2019, respectively. The results indicated that repeated MDAs (2-4 times a year for 3 years) using albendazole on schoolchildren in Myanmar failed to control T. trichiura infection. For a successful control of trichuriasis in Myanmar, new MDA strategies, using a modified albendazole regimen (multiple daily doses for 2 or 3 days) or an alternative anthelmintic drug, such as oxantel pamoate, is strongly recommended.

11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-903849

ABSTRACT

Human hookworm infections caused by adult Ancylostoma spp. and Necator americanus are one of the most important tropical diseases. We performed a survey of intestinal helminths using the Kato-Katz fecal examination technique targeting 1,156 villagers residing in 2 northern provinces (Preah Vihear and Stung Treng) of Cambodia in 2018. The results revealed a high overall egg positive rate of intestinal helminths (61.9%), and the egg positive rate of hookworms was 11.6%. Nine of the hookworm egg positive cases in Preah Vihear Province were treated with 5-10 mg/kg pyrantel pamoate followed by purging with magnesium salts, and a total of 65 adult hookworms were expelled in diarrheic stools. The adult hookworms were analyzed morphologically and molecularly to confirm the species. The morphologies of the buccal cavity and dorsal rays on the costa were observed with a light microscope, and the nucleotide sequences of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) gene were analyzed. The majority of the hookworm adults (90.7%) were N. americanus, whereas the remaining 9.3% were Ancylostoma ceylanicum, a rare hookworm species infecting humans. The results revealed a high prevalence of hookworm infections among people in a northern part of Cambodia, suggesting the necessity of a sustained survey combined with control measures against hookworm infections.

12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-896145

ABSTRACT

Human hookworm infections caused by adult Ancylostoma spp. and Necator americanus are one of the most important tropical diseases. We performed a survey of intestinal helminths using the Kato-Katz fecal examination technique targeting 1,156 villagers residing in 2 northern provinces (Preah Vihear and Stung Treng) of Cambodia in 2018. The results revealed a high overall egg positive rate of intestinal helminths (61.9%), and the egg positive rate of hookworms was 11.6%. Nine of the hookworm egg positive cases in Preah Vihear Province were treated with 5-10 mg/kg pyrantel pamoate followed by purging with magnesium salts, and a total of 65 adult hookworms were expelled in diarrheic stools. The adult hookworms were analyzed morphologically and molecularly to confirm the species. The morphologies of the buccal cavity and dorsal rays on the costa were observed with a light microscope, and the nucleotide sequences of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) gene were analyzed. The majority of the hookworm adults (90.7%) were N. americanus, whereas the remaining 9.3% were Ancylostoma ceylanicum, a rare hookworm species infecting humans. The results revealed a high prevalence of hookworm infections among people in a northern part of Cambodia, suggesting the necessity of a sustained survey combined with control measures against hookworm infections.

13.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-833784

ABSTRACT

Gymnophallid metacercariae found in the Manila clam Ruditapes philippinarum (‘Banjirak’ in Korean) from Gochang-gun, Jeollabuk-do, Korea were morphologically and molecularly confirmed to be Parvatrema duboisi (Dollfus, 1923) Bartoli, 1974. The metacercariae were morphologically characterized by having a large oral sucker, small ventral sucker, genital pore some distance anterior to the ventral sucker, no ventral pit, and 1 compact or slightly lobed vitellarium, which were all compatible with P. duboisi. Some of the metacercariae were experimentally fed to mice, and adult flukes were recovered at day 7 post-infection. The morphology of the adult flukes was basically the same as that of the metacercariae except for the presence of uterine eggs; the uterus was filled with up to 40 eggs. The nucleotide sequences (1,193 bp) from ITS regions (ITS1, 5.8S rDNA, and ITS2) of the metacercariae showed 99.7% identity with P. duboisi and 75.7% identity with Gymnophalloides seoi deposited in GenBank. These results confirmed the presence of P. duboisi metacercariae in the Manila clam R. philippinarum in an estuary region of Gochang-gun, Korea.

14.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-833755

ABSTRACT

Soil-transmitted helminths, including Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura, are important intestinal parasites mostly affecting younger people in developing countries. In 2014-2015, we performed mass fecal examinations targeting a total of 2,227 schoolchildren in 3 districts (South Dagon, North Dagon, and Hlaing-thar-yar) of Yangon Region, Myanmar, using the Kato-Katz thick smear technique. The egg positive children were subjected to a mass drug administration (MDA) using a single oral dose of 400 mg albendazole. The pre-treatment egg positive rate (EPG/person) of A. lumbricoides averaged 17.2% (15,532); it was 25.2% (21,796), 14.2% (11,816), and 12.8% (12,983) in 3 districts, respectively, and that of T. trichiura averaged 19.4% (1,074), and was 24.1% (1,040), 12.3% (852), and 21.2% (1,330) in 3 districts, respectively. Follow-up fecal examinations performed 4 months post-MDA revealed considerable decreases of A. lumbricoides prevalence (EPG/person) to av. 8.3% (12,429), and 13.7% (17,640), 8.0% (7,797), and 4.5% (11,849) in 3 districts, respectively. However, T. trichiura did not show any recognizable decrease in the prevalence (EPG/person) remaining at av. 18.2% (862), and 18.5% (888), 11.5% (812), and 23.3% (887) in 3 districts, respectively. The results demonstrated difficulty in short-term control of T. trichiura by MDA using albendazole and suggested necessity of either a long-term MDA (>10 years) or changing the albendazole regimen into 2~3-day course (total 800 or 1,200 mg), or using an alternative drug/drug combination.

15.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-833754

ABSTRACT

Taenia saginata infection has seldom been reported in Cambodia. In this study, we performed a survey of intestinal parasites in 1,156 residents of Preah Vihear and Stung Treng Provinces in 2018. The results revealed that 26 (2.4%) cases were positive for Taenia spp. eggs. In order to obtain the strobilae of the tapeworms, 2 patients in Preah Vihear were treated with praziquantel and purged with magnesium salts. The proglottids expelled after the medication were morphologically and molecularly analyzed to determine the species. The main uterine lateral braches in gravid proglottids were >15 in number suggesting that they are either T. saginata or Taenia asiatica. The sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) gene and 2 nuclear loci, elongation factor-1 alpha (ef1) and ezrin-radixin-moesin-like protein (elp), were identical to the sequences of T. saginata available in GenBank but distant from Taenia solium, T. asiatica, and T. saginata-T. asiatica hybrid. This is the first report of the presence of T. saginata in the northern part of Cambodia bordering Lao PDR based on a molecular confirmation.

16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-786631

ABSTRACT

Anisakiasis (anisakidosis) refers to a foodborne zoonosis caused by ingesting raw or undercooked marine fish or cephalopods infected with anisakid larvae. The present study was performed to investigate the prevalence of anisakid larvae in anchovies (Engraulis japonica) purchased from 2 local markets in Gyeongsangnam-do, the Republic of Korea (=Korea), during 2018–2019. Anchovies were transported to our laboratory and examined by pepsin-HCl artificial digestion technique followed by microscopic observations and molecular analyses. The overall prevalence of anisakid larvae was 19.5% (39/200), from which a total of 51 larvae (av. 1.3 larvae/infected anchovy) were recovered. Sequencing of the larvae targeting the ITS region, including ITS1, 5.8S rRNA, and ITS2 genes confirmed the species of larvae as Anisakis pegreffii (54.9%; 28/51), Hysterothylacium sinense (23.5%; 12/51), and Hysterothylacium aduncum (21.5%; 11/51). The results suggested that anchovies could be a potential source of human anisakiasis in Korea.


Subject(s)
Anisakiasis , Anisakis , Cephalopoda , Digestion , Humans , Korea , Larva , Prevalence , Republic of Korea
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-786630

ABSTRACT

Gymnophalloides seoi (Digenea: Gymnophallidae) is a human intestinal trematode contracted by eating raw oysters (Crassostrea gigas) in the Republic of Korea (=Korea). It has been known to be highly endemic in Aphae Island, Shinan-gun, Jeollanam-do (Province). However, recent epidemiological status of G. seoi has not been reported since the 1990s. In this study, we investigated the prevalence of G. seoi metacercariae in natural and cultured oysters collected from 3 islands and 2 coastal areas in western parts of Korea. The oysters were examined using the artificial digestion method followed by stereomicroscopy. The overall positive rate of G. seoi metacercariae in natural oysters was 66.0% (99/150), and the oysters collected from Yubu Island showed the highest infection rate (74.0%). However, the metacercarial density per oyster was relatively low (1.5–2.4 per oyster). By contrast, no metacercaria was found in cultured oysters purchased from 2 coastal areas in Chungcheongnam-do. Thus, we could confirm that natural oysters produced from 3 western coastal islands are infected with G. seoi metacercariae, whereas cultured oysters purchased from 2 coastal areas were free from infection.


Subject(s)
Digestion , Eating , Humans , Islands , Korea , Metacercariae , Methods , Ostreidae , Prevalence , Republic of Korea
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-91223

ABSTRACT

In order to determine the status of Enterobius vermicularis infection among schoolchildren in suburban areas of Myanmar, 761 primary schoolchildren in 3 different townships around Yangon City were subjected to a survey using cello-tape anal swabs. The subjected schoolchildren were 383 boys and 378 girls who were 5-7 years of age. Only 1 anal swab was obtained from each child. The overall egg positive rate of E. vermicularis was 47.2% (359 positives), and sex difference was not remarkable (48.6% in boys and 45.8% in girls). However, the positive rate was the highest in South Dagon (54.6%) followed by Hlaing Thayar (43.8%) and North Dagon (34.8%). This difference was highly correlated with the living standards of the people in each township. Nucleotide sequence of the 5S rDNA from the eggs on the cello-tape (2 children) revealed 99.7% identity with that of E. vermicularis reported in GenBank. The results indicated that E. vermicularis infection is highly prevalent among primary schoolchildren around Yangon, Myanmar.


Subject(s)
Animals , Child , Child, Preschool , Enterobiasis/diagnosis , Enterobius/genetics , Female , Humans , Male , Myanmar/epidemiology , Parasite Egg Count , Prevalence , Students/statistics & numerical data
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