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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-913976

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#This study aimed to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of hepatitis C virus (HCV) screening compared to no screening in the Korean population from societal and healthcare system perspectives. @*Methods@#A published decision-tree plus Markov model was used to compare the expected costs and quality-adjusted life years (QALY) between one-time universal HCV screening and no screening in the population aged 40–65 years using the National Health Examination (NHE) program. Input parameters were obtained from analyses of the National Health Insurance claims data, Korean HCV cohort data, or from the literature review. The population aged 40–65 years was simulated in a model spanning a lifetime from both the healthcare system and societal perspectives, which included the cost of productivity loss due to HCV-related deaths. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) between universal screening and no screening was estimated. @*Results@#The HCV screening strategy had an ICER of $2,666/QALY and $431/QALY from the healthcare system and societal perspectives, respectively. Both ICERs were far less than the willingness-to-pay threshold of $25,000/QALY, showing that universal screening was highly cost-effective compared to no screening. In various sensitivity analyses, the most influential parameters on cost-effectiveness were the antibodies to HCV (anti-HCV) prevalence, screening costs, and treatment acceptance; however, all ICERs were consistently less than the threshold. If the anti-HCV prevalence was over 0.18%, screening could be cost-effective. @*Conclusions@#One-time universal HCV screening in the Korean population aged 40–65 years using NHE program would be highly cost-effective from both healthcare system and societal perspectives.

2.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 21-28, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-875606

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Painful muscle cramps are a common complication in liver cirrhosis patients, and no effective treatment is available.This pilot study aimed to evaluate whether taurine supplementation improves muscle cramps in Korean cirrhotic patients. @*Materials and Methods@#Ten cirrhotic patients who experienced muscle cramps one or more times/week were enrolled in this prospective single-arm study and administered with an oral taurine solution (1 g/50 mL) thrice a day for 4 weeks. Taurine was discontinued for the subsequent 4 weeks. The frequency and intensity of muscle cramps were evaluated using a questionnaire at weeks 0, 2, 4, 6, and 8 after the start of treatment. @*Results@#At baseline, the median frequency of muscle cramps was six times/week, and all patients had severe pain. Muscle cramp scores (frequency×intensity) decreased in seven patients by weeks 4 and 8 after treatment initiation. Compared to baseline muscle cramp scores [median 21, interquartile range (IQR): 8–84], median muscle cramp scores were lower at week 4 (6.5, IQR: 3–12, p=0.126) and week 8 (5, IQR: 1.5–56, p=0.066). All five patients whose baseline plasma taurine levels were below the normal limit showed increased taurine levels at week 4; 60% of them experienced improvements in their muscle cramps. Of the five patients with normal or higher taurine levels, 80% experienced an improvement in symptoms at week 4. The safety and tolerability of the 4-week taurine therapy were excellent. @*Conclusion@#Oral taurine therapy for 4 weeks improved muscle cramps safely in cirrhotic patients.

3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-875506

ABSTRACT

Background@#/Aim: This study aimed to establish the real-world effectiveness and safety of grazoprevir/elbasvir (EBR/GZR) therapy in South Korea. @*Methods@#A total of 242 patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype 1 or 4 infection who started EBR/GZR were consecutively enrolled from seven tertiary hospitals. Retrospective analysis of the fractions of patients that achieved sustained virological response (SVR) was performed, and the incidence of adverse events was noted. @*Results@#The mean age of enrolled patients was 59.0 ± 12.6 years and 47.5% were males. Patients with HCV genotype 1b accounted for 93.8% (n = 227), and patients with HCV of unspecified genotype 1 accounted for 5.8% (n = 14). Hypertension was the most common comorbid disease (29.8%) followed by diabetes (22.7%) and chronic kidney disease (CKD, 12.4%). SVR rates of treatment-naïve and treatment-experienced patients were 85.5% (182/213) and 93.1% (27/29), respectively, in the intention-to-treat analyses, whereas in the per-protocol analyses, those were 97.8% (179/183) and 100% (28/28), respectively. Fewer patients with HCV genotype 1 of unspecified subtype achieved SVR (81.8%, n = 11) compared to the patients with SVR infected with genotype 1b (99%, n = 198, p < 0.001). All patients with CKD showed SVR. Itching (12%) and dyspepsia (4.1%) were common adverse events. Of the four patients who discontinued the antiviral therapy, one experienced mild fatigue but neither treatment withdrawal was because of an adverse event. @*Conclusions@#EBR/GZR showed high real-world effectiveness and safety in Korean patients with chronic HCV infection regardless of the previous antiviral treatment, liver cirrhosis, or CKD status.

4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-875484

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#The risk factors for the development of primary biliary cholangitis (PBC) is unclear. This study aimed to investigate the risk factors associated with PBC in Korea through a questionnaire survey. @*Methods@#Consecutively enrolled 103 PBC patients from six referral hospitals and 100 age- and sex-matched community controls participated in this study. A standardized questionnaire survey including demographics, lifestyle, individual and familial medical history and reproductive history was prospectively collected and analyzed. @*Results@#The PBC patients had a mean age of 58.3 years and a female proportion of 86.4%. The age- and sex-matched controls had a similar educational level and economic status to the PBC patients. Among the lifestyle factors, the multivariable analysis showed smoking including both first-hand and second-hand (odds ratio [OR], 2.03; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.06 to 3.93), history of autoimmune diseases (OR, 2.46; 95% CI, 1.06 to 6.35), and family history of PBC (OR, 17.76; 95% CI, 1.77 to 2,418.74) were significantly associated with PBC, whereas alcohol intake was negatively associated with PBC. Among reproductive factors, the number of induced abortions was significantly associated with PBC, while the number of full-term deliveries was negatively associated with PBC. @*Conclusions@#A family history of PBC, accompanying autoimmune diseases, and smoking were significantly associated with PBC. More induced abortions and less full-term deliveries were associated with PBC in women. In contrast, mild to moderate alcohol intake was negatively associated with PBC. Further studies are warranted to validate the results of this study and to search for clues about the pathogenesis of PBC.

5.
Gut and Liver ; : 295-306, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-874590

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Extrahepatic comorbidities and comedication are important to consider in the treatment of chronic hepatitis C (CHC) patients with direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) due to the risk of drug-drug interaction (DDI) and the effect of comorbidities on clinical outcomes. This study aimed to investigate the detailed profiles of comorbidities and comedication among Korean CHC patients. @*Methods@#All adult patients (≥18 years old) with a primary diagnostic code of CHC in 2013 were selected from the National Health Insurance claims database. For each patient, all ICD-10 codes listed as primary or secondary diagnoses and all prescribed medications were collected. @*Results@#Among 47,104 CHC patients (median age, 57 years; male, 49.3%), 84.8% had at least one comorbidity for a mean number of 2.4, which increased with age. The most prevalent comorbidities were hypertension, esophagitis, dyslipidemia, diabetes mellitus, and peptic ulcer. Overall, 96.8% of the patients took at least one prescribed medication, with a mean of 8.1 medications/ year, and the three most common drug types were analgesics, gastrointestinal agents, and antibacterials. Use of at least one drug with a DDI risk category of “contraindicated medication” or “required dose- reduction/additional monitoring” was observed in 97% of the overall patients. The proportion of prescribed medications that were contraindicated with DAAs varied from 2.0% to 38.9% depending on the hepatitis C virus regimen. @*Conclusions@#The majority of CHC patients had comorbidities; almost all patients took multiple prescribed medications, the number of which increased with age, and significant DDI risk was present in 97% of this Korean patient cohort. Comorbidities and comedication profiles should be considered during DAA therapy.

6.
Gut and Liver ; : 895-903, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-914355

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Glecaprevir/pibrentasvir (G/P) is the first pan-genotypic direct-acting antiviral combination therapy approved in Korea. An integrated analysis of five phase II and III trials was conducted to evaluate the efficacy and safety of G/P in Korean patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. @*Methods@#The study analyzed pooled data on Korean patients with HCV infection enrolled in the ENDURANCE 1 and 2, SURVEYOR II part 4 and VOYAGE I and II trials, which evaluated the efficacy and safety of 8 or 12 weeks of G/P treatment. The patients were either treatment-naïve or had received sofosbuvir or interferon-based treatment. Efficacy was evaluated by assessing the rate of sustained virologic response at 12 weeks posttreatment (SVR12). Safety was evaluated by monitoring adverse events (AEs) and laboratory assessments. @*Results@#The analysis included 265 patients; 179 (67.5%) were HCV treatment-naïve, and most patients were either subgenotype 1B (48.7%) or 2A (44.5%). In the intention-to-treat population, 262 patients (98.9%) achieved SVR12. Three patients did not achieve SVR12: one had virologic failure and two had non-virologic failures. Most AEs were grade 1/2; eight patients (3.0%) expe-rienced at least one grade ≥3 AE. No serious AEs related to G/P treatment were reported, and grade ≥3 hepatic laboratory abnormalities were rare (0.8%). @*Conclusions@#G/P therapy was highly efficacious and well tolerated in Korean patients with HCV infection, with most patients achieving SVR12. The safety profile was comparable to that observed in a pooled analysis of a global pan-genotypic population of patients with HCV infection who received G/P.

7.
Gut and Liver ; : 775-782, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-833174

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Sofosbuvir (SOF)-based therapy has been used in Korean patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection since January 2016. This study aimed to in-vestigate the real-life effectiveness and safety of SOF-based therapy in genotype 2 HCV infection. @*Methods@#From January to December 2016, 458 genotype 2 HCV-infected patients who received ≥1 dose of SOF-based therapy were consecu-tively enrolled in seven tertiary hospitals. Sustained virologic response (SVR) rates and safety were determined by inten-tion-to-treat (ITT) and per-protocol (PP) analyses. @*Results@#The mean age of the patients was 61.0 years; 183 (40%) were male, and 13.1% showed a high viral load (>6,000,000 IU/ mL). Among the 378 treatment-naïve patients, the SVR rates were 94.2% (ITT) and 96.7% (PP). Among the 80 treatmentexperienced patients, the SVR rates were 96.3% (ITT) and 98.7% (PP). Patients with a relatively high fibrosis-4 index score (>3.25) had similar SVR rates to those with a relatively low score (p=0.756). A total of 314 patients (68.6%) were treated with a reduced ribavirin dose at the prescriber’s dis-cretion, but they showed similar SVR rates to those treated with the weight-based dose (ITT: 95.5% and 92.3%, PP: 97.4% and 96.3%, respectively). Adverse events were ob-served in 191 patients (41.7%), including 86 (18.8%) with anemia, but only one (0.2%) discontinued antiviral therapy due to nausea. @*Conclusions@#SOF-based therapy showed high real-life efficacy and tolerability in Korean patients with genotype 2 chronic HCV infection, regardless of previous antiviral treatment experience and fibrosis score. A reduced ribavirin dose can be considered in this patient cohort.

8.
Gut and Liver ; : 808-816, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-833168

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#To eliminate hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, improving public knowledge of and access to HCV screening and treatment is essential. The aim of this study was to evaluate the knowledge of and testing rate for HCV and the opinions about the inclusion of the HCV test in the National Health Examination (NHE) among the general population in South Korea. @*Methods@#A telephone interview survey was conducted by an independent research company using a 16 item-questionnaire (demographics, knowledge of HCV, testing and results, need for screening) in May 2019. The sample population consisted of 1,003 adult Korean resi-dents adjusted by age, sex, and area according to the stan-dard Korean population in 2019. @*Results@#Among the 1,003 participants (505 women, mean age of 47.9 years), 56.4% recognized HCV; 44.4% understood that HCV is transmit-table, and 56.8% thought that HCV is curable by medication. The recognition rate tended to increase with an increasing level of education. Testing for anti-HCV antibodies was re-ported by 91 people (9.1%); among them, 10 people (11.0%) reported a positive result, and eight people received treat-ment. The common reasons for HCV testing were a health check-up (58.5%), a physician’s recommendation (11.0%) and elevated liver enzyme levels (10.7%). The majority of the population (75.1%) agreed with the integration of HCV into the NHE. @*Conclusions@#The level of knowledge of HCV is suboptimal, and the self-reported testing rate for HCV is less than 10%; however, once HCV infection is diagnosed, the treatment rate seems to be high in South Korea. More active campaigns and effective screening are needed.

9.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-832294

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#The role of serum myokine levels in sarcopenia and the outcome of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients are not clear. This study investigated the serum levels of myostatin, follistatin, and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in HCC patients and their association with sarcopenia and survival. @*Methods@#Using prospectively collected pretreatment samples from 238 HCC patients in a hospital from 2012 to 2015, the serum levels of 3 myokines were determined and compared to 50 samples from age and sex-matched healthy controls. Sarcopenia was evaluated using the psoas muscle index (PMI) measured at the third lumbar level in the computed tomography, and clinical data were collected until 2017. @*Results@#The median levels of the 3 myokines for the male and female HCC patients were as follow: myostatin (3,979.3 and 2,976.3 pg/mL), follistatin (2,118.5 and 2,174.6 pg/mL), and IL-6 (2.5 and 2.7 pg/mL), respectively. Those in the HCC patients were all significantly higher than in the healthy controls. In the HCC patient, the median PMI was 4.43 (males) and 2.17 cm2/m2 (females) with a sarcopenic prevalence of 56.4%. The serum levels of myostatin, IL-6 and follistatin in the HCC patients showed a positive, negative, and no correlation with PMI, respectively. The serum follistatin level was an independent factor for poor survival in HCC patients. @*Conclusions@#The serum levels of myostatin, follistatin, and IL-6 and their correlation with sarcopenia and survival were presented in HCC patients for the first time. The role of the serum follistatin level as a poor prognostic biomarker warrants further study.

10.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831598

ABSTRACT

N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF), a widely used solvent in the chemical industry, is known to induce toxic hepatitis. However, there have been no reported cases of DMF-associated autoimmune hepatitis. A 31-year-old healthy man working at a glove factory since July 2015 had intermittently put his bare hands into a diluted DMF solution for his first 15 days at work. After 2 months, he felt nausea, fatigue, and hand cramping, and a jaundice followed. His laboratory findings showed positive autoantibodies and elevated immunoglobulin G (IgG), and his liver biopsy pathology was typical of autoimmune hepatitis (AIH). Prednisolone and azathioprine therapy began, and he recovered rapidly without adverse events. Though his liver chemistry was normalized, the IgG level remained persistently upper normal range. His 2nd liver biopsy performed in April 2019 showed mild portal activity, and he was well under a low dose immunosuppressive therapy up to April 2020. This case warns of the hazard of occupational exposure to DMF, and clinicians should be aware of DMF-related AIH for timely initiation of immunosuppressive therapy.

11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-919122

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS@#Non-selective β-blockers (NSBBs) are used for primary prevention of esophageal variceal hemorrhage (VH) in patients with portal hypertension, but a significant number of patients develop VH while on NSBB therapy. In this study, we sought to determine whether liver volume can predict the risk of primary prophylaxis failure in cirrhotic patients on NSBB therapy.@*METHODS@#A retrospective cohort of 309 patients on prophylactic propranolol was analyzed. Liver volume was measured in portal venous phase images of multidetector computed tomography. Predictors of VH were assessed using a Cox proportional hazards model with competing-risks analysis. A nomogram was developed for estimation of the risk of primary prophylaxis failure.@*RESULTS@#During a median follow-up of 36 months, 37 patients on propranolol developed VH. Liver volume index, the ratio of measured-to-expected liver volume, was an independent predictor of VH (adjusted hazard ratio [HR], 2.70; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.37 to 5.33; p = 0.004) as were the presence of large varices and the absence of ascites. A nomogram-based volume score of > 0.6 was predictive of prophylaxis failure (HR, 7.54; 95% CI, 2.88 to 19.73; p < 0.001). Time-dependent receiver operating characteristic curve analysis revealed that a nomogram-based risk score had significantly better discriminatory power than the North Italian Endoscopy Club index in predicting prophylaxis failure at 6 and 8 years.@*CONCLUSIONS@#Liver volume index is an independent predictor of first VH and a nomogram-based volume score stratifies the VH risk in cirrhotic patients on propranolol prophylaxis.

12.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 1357-1369, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763224

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Though regular surveillance of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) for high-risk patients is widely recommended, its rate and effectiveness are not clear. The aim of this study is to investigate the actual rate of HCC surveillance and its related factors and to clarify its impact on survival in a Korean HCC cohort. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From 2012 to 2015, 319 newly diagnosed HCC patients were prospectively enrolled at a tertiary hospital. Patient interviews based on a structured questionnaire survey were conducted. Surveillance was defined as liver imaging test ≥ 2 times with at least 3-month interval within 2 years prior to HCC diagnosis. RESULTS: Surveillance rate was 39.8%. Of the HCC patients with high-risk factors, only 182 (57.1%) had knowledge for the need for regular surveillance, and 141 (44.2%) had the accurate information about the method (ultrasound-based study). Surveillance group showed a higher proportion of early HCC (p < 0.001) and a longer overall survival (p < 0.001) compared to non-surveillance group. The multivariable Cox regression analysis indicated Child-Pugh class A, history of anti-viral therapy, low serum α-fetoprotein level, non-advanced Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer stage as independent predictors of overall survival, while regular surveillance was not (p=0.436). CONCLUSION: Less than half of the newly diagnosed Korean HCC patients were under surveillance and the accurate perception for the need of HCC surveillance was insufficient. Of those under surveillance, most patients were diagnosed with early stage HCC, which led to the improved survival. Comprehensive efforts to optimize the surveillance program for the target population are warranted.


Subject(s)
Carcinoma, Hepatocellular , Cohort Studies , Diagnosis , Health Services Needs and Demand , Humans , Korea , Liver , Liver Cirrhosis , Liver Neoplasms , Mass Screening , Methods , Prospective Studies , Tertiary Care Centers
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-713315

ABSTRACT

Autoimmune liver diseases including autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) and primary biliary cholangitis (PBC) are rare diseases. The aim of this review is to examine the epidemiology and clinical characteristics of AIH and PBC in South Korea. There were 4,085 patients registered as AIH in the Rare Intractable Disease Registry of Korea between 2009-2013, with a median age of 56 years and female-to male ratio of 6.4. The age-adjusted incidence and prevalence of AIH were 1.07/100,000/year and 4.82/100,000 persons, respectively. Among the patients, 1.1% underwent liver transplantation, and case fatality was 2.18%. Liver cirrhosis at diagnosis was accompanied in 23%; liver biopsy was performed in 75.2%, and prednisolone therapy or prednisolone and azathioprine combination therapy was done in 73% with a remission rate of 86%. There were 2,824 patients with PBC (≥20 years) registered in Korea between 2009-2013 with a median age of 57 years and female-to male ratio of 6.2. The age-adjusted incidence and prevalence of PBC were 0.86/100,000/year and 4.75/100,000 persons, respectively. Among the patients, 2.5% underwent liver transplantation, and case fatality was 2.2% with a 5-year transplantation-free survival of 95.4%. Ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) was prescribed in 90% of the patients with a UDCA inadequate response rate of 30%. In conclusion, AIH and PBC are rare but mostly treatable diseases if diagnosed in the early stages. However, scarce data, low awareness, delayed diagnosis and non-availability of 2nd line therapeutics are important issues to be solved. Therefore, governmental support for research and drug development and nationwide cooperative studies are warranted.


Subject(s)
Azathioprine , Biopsy , Cholangitis , Delayed Diagnosis , Diagnosis , Epidemiology , Hepatitis, Autoimmune , Humans , Incidence , Korea , Liver Cirrhosis , Liver Diseases , Liver Transplantation , Liver , Male , Prednisolone , Prevalence , Rare Diseases , Ursodeoxycholic Acid
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-717605

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection leads to hepatic and extrahepatic manifestations including chronic kidney disease (CKD). However, the association between HBV and CKD is not clear. This study investigated the association between chronic HBV infection and CKD in a nationwide multicenter study. METHODS: A total of 265,086 subjects who underwent health-check examinations in 33 hospitals from January 2015 to December 2015 were enrolled. HBV surface antigen (HBsAg) positive cases (n = 10,048), and age- and gender-matched HBsAg negative controls (n = 40,192) were identified. CKD was defined as a glomerular filtration rate (GFR) < 60 mL/min/1.73 m² or proteinuria as at least grade 2+ of urine protein. RESULTS: HBsAg positive cases showed a significantly higher prevalence of GFR < 60 mL/min/1.73 m² (3.3%), and proteinuria (18.9%) than that of the controls (2.6%, P < 0.001, and 14.1%, P < 0.001, respectively). In the multivariate analysis, HBsAg positivity was an independent factor associated with GFR < 60 mL/min/1.73 m² along with age, blood levels of albumin, bilirubin, anemia, and hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c). Likewise, HBsAg positivity was an independent factor for proteinuria along with age, male, blood levels of bilirubin, protein, albumin, and HbA1c. A subgroup analysis showed that HBsAg positive men but not women had a significantly increased risk for GFR < 60 mL/min/1.73 m². CONCLUSION: Chronic HBV infection was significantly associated with a GFR < 60 mL/min/1.73 m² and proteinuria (≥ 2+). Therefore, clinical concern about CKD in chronic HBV infected patients, especially in male, is warranted.


Subject(s)
Anemia , Antigens, Surface , Bilirubin , Case-Control Studies , Female , Glomerular Filtration Rate , Hepatitis B Surface Antigens , Hepatitis B virus , Hepatitis B, Chronic , Hepatitis, Chronic , Humans , Male , Multivariate Analysis , Prevalence , Proteinuria , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic
15.
Gut and Liver ; : 440-448, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-715588

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: This study aimed to describe the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) outcomes for Korean chronic hepatitis C patients and to investigate the impact of patient and virus-related factors on HRQoL. METHODS: HRQoL was assessed in 235 hepatitis C virus (HCV)-infected patients from seven nationwide tertiary hospital, including those with liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), using the Shor-Form 36 (SF-36) version 2 and the European quality of life questionnaire-5 dimensions (EQ-5D-3L). RESULTS: The SF-36 physical (48.8±8.3) and mental (46.2±11.7) component summary scores of the HCV-infected patients were below normal limits. Of the eight domains, general health, vitality, and mental health tended to show low scores. Patients with decompensated cirrhosis had the lowest HRQoL, while HCC and chronic hepatitis patients had similar HRQoL results. The EQ-5D index was low (0.848±0.145) in the HCV infected patients. Multivariable analysis showed age ≤65 years, high monthly family income (>$2,641), low comorbidity score, and sustained virologic response (SVR) were independently associated with favorable HRQoL. CONCLUSIONS: HRQoL in Korean patients with chronic HCV infection was low and was affected by cirrhosis severity, SVR, and comorbidity as well as income, which had the strongest effect. Therefore, HRQoL may be improved by antiviral therapy with reasonable costs to prevent cirrhosis progression.


Subject(s)
Carcinoma, Hepatocellular , Comorbidity , Fibrosis , Hepacivirus , Hepatitis C , Hepatitis C, Chronic , Hepatitis, Chronic , Humans , Liver Cirrhosis , Mental Health , Quality of Life , Republic of Korea , Tertiary Care Centers
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-715312

ABSTRACT

Hepatic hemangioma represents the most common benign primary hepatic neoplasm. Although most such tumors are small and asymptomatic, giant hepatic hemangioma is frequently symptomatic, and requires intervention. Moreover, diffuse multiple hepatic hemangiomatosis occupying almost the entire liver is extremely rare in adults, and the optimal management for this condition is unclear. We report a case of a rapidly growing, symptomatic giant hepatic hemangioma with diffuse hepatic hemangiomatosis in a 50-year-old female patient who was treated by living-donor liver transplantation. This case shows malignant behavior of a benign hemangioma that required liver transplantation. Although this case could not meet the criteria for transplantation according to the MELD (model for end-stage liver disease) score system, it should be considered as an exceptional indication for deceased-donor liver allocation. Further studies of the mechanism underlying hemangioma growth are warranted.


Subject(s)
Adult , Female , Hemangioma , Humans , Liver Neoplasms , Liver Transplantation , Liver , Middle Aged
17.
Korean Journal of Radiology ; : 1130-1139, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-718936

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To compare the therapeutic efficacy between conventional transarterial chemoembolization (cTACE) and combined therapy using cTACE and radiofrequency ablation (RFA) in ultrasound (US)-invisible early stage hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). MATERIALS AND METHODS: From January 2008 to June 2016, 167 patients with US-invisible early stage HCCs were treated with cTACE alone (cTACE group; n = 85) or cTACE followed by immediate fluoroscopy-guided RFA targeting intratumoral iodized oil retention (combined group; n = 82). Procedure-related complications, local tumor progression (LTP), time to progression (TTP), and overall survival (OS) were compared between the two groups. Multivariate analyses were performed to identify prognostic factors. RESULTS: There was no major complication in either group. The cTACE group showed higher 1-, 3-, and 5-year LTP rates than the combined group; i.e., 12.5%, 31.7%, and 37.0%, respectively, in the cTACE group; compared to 7.3%, 16.5%, and 16.5%, respectively, in the combined group; p = 0.013. The median TTP was 18 months in the cTACE group and 24 months in the combined group (p = 0.037). Cumulative 1-, 3-, and 5-year OS rates were 100%, 93.2%, and 87.7%, respectively, in the cTACE group and 100%, 96.6%, and 87.4%, respectively, in the combined group (p = 0.686). Tumor diameter > 20 mm and cTACE monotherapy were independent risk factors for LTP and TTP. CONCLUSION: Combined therapy using cTACE followed by fluoroscopy-guided RFA is a safe and effective treatment in US-invisible early stage HCCs. It provides less LTP and longer TTP than cTACE alone.


Subject(s)
Carcinoma, Hepatocellular , Catheter Ablation , Humans , Iodized Oil , Liver Neoplasms , Liver , Multivariate Analysis , Risk Factors , Ultrasonography
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-741164

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We aimed to determine the clinicopathological significance of the gross classification of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) according to the Korean Liver Cancer Association (KLCA) guidelines. METHODS: A retrospective analysis was performed on 242 cases of consecutively resected solitary primary HCC between 2003 and 2012 at Seoul National University Bundang Hospital. The gross classification (vaguely nodular [VN], expanding nodular [EN], multinodular confluent [MC], nodular with perinodular extension [NP], and infiltrative [INF]) was reviewed for all cases, and were correlated with various clinicopathological features and the expression status of “stemness”-related (cytokeratin 19 [CK19], epithelial cell adhesion molecule [EpCAM]), and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT)–related (urokinase plasminogen activator receptor [uPAR] and Ezrin) markers. RESULTS: Significant differences were seen in overall survival (p=.015) and disease-free survival (p = .034) according to the gross classification; INF type showed the worst prognosis while VN and EN types were more favorable. When the gross types were simplified into two groups, type 2 HCCs (MC/NP/INF) were more frequently larger and poorly differentiated, and showed more frequent microvascular and portal venous invasion, intratumoral fibrous stroma and higher pT stages compared to type 1 HCCs (EN/VN) (p < .05, all). CK19, EpCAM, uPAR, and ezrin expression was more frequently seen in type 2 HCCs (p < .05, all). Gross classification was an independent predictor of both overall and disease-free survival by multivariate analysis (overall survival: p=.030; hazard ratio, 4.118; 95% confidence interval, 1.142 to 14.844; disease-free survival: p=.016; hazard ratio, 1.617; 95% confidence interval, 1.092 to 2.394). CONCLUSIONS: The gross classification of HCC had significant prognostic value and type 2 HCCs were associated with clinicopathological features of aggressive behavior, increased expression of “stemness”- and EMT-related markers, and decreased survival.


Subject(s)
Carcinoma, Hepatocellular , Classification , Disease-Free Survival , Epithelial Cells , Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition , Liver Neoplasms , Multivariate Analysis , Plasminogen Activators , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Seoul
19.
Gut and Liver ; : 543-550, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-88941

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: To evaluate the era of direct acting antivirals (DAAs), we must understand the treatment patterns and outcomes of interferon-based therapy for hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. We aimed to elucidate the treatment rate, factors affecting treatment decisions, and efficacy of interferon-based therapy in a real-world setting. METHODS: This nationwide cohort study included 1,191 newly diagnosed patients with chronic HCV infection at seven tertiary hospitals in South Korea. Subjects were followed retrospectively until March 2015, which was just before the approval of DAA therapy. RESULTS: In total, 48.2% and 49.3% of the patients had HCV genotypes 1 and 2, respectively. Interferon-based therapy was initiated in 541 patients (45.4%). The major reasons for no treatment included ineligibility (18.9%), concern about adverse events (22.3%), cost (21.5%), and an age >75 years (19.5%). Interferon-based therapy was discontinued (18.5%) mainly due to adverse events (n=66). The intent-to-treat analysis found that the sustained virologic response (SVR) rate was 58.3% in genotype 1 patients and 74.7% in non-genotype 1 patients. CONCLUSIONS: Approximately one-third of newly diagnosed HCV patients in South Korea received interferon-based therapy and showed a suboptimal SVR rate. Diagnosis of patients at younger ages and with a less advanced liver status and reducing the DAA therapy cost may fulfill unmet needs.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents , Cohort Studies , Diagnosis , Genotype , Hepacivirus , Hepatitis C, Chronic , Hepatitis, Chronic , Humans , Korea , Liver , Retrospective Studies , Ribavirin , Tertiary Care Centers
20.
Gut and Liver ; : 835-842, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-82303

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: The introduction of direct-acting antivirals (DAA) in 2013 revolutionized hepatitis C virus (HCV) treatment, offering a cure rate >90%. However, this therapy is expensive, and estimations of the number of chronic HCV-infected (CHC) patients and their treatment costs pre-2013 are therefore essential for creating policies and expanding drug access. Herein, we aimed to investigate the number of HCV-related liver disease patients, their healthcare utilization, their annual direct medical costs, and the interferon-based antiviral treatment rates and costs from 2009 to 2013 in South Korea. METHODS: The National Health Insurance database was reviewed, and patients diagnosed with CHC from 2009 to 2013 were extracted. Data regarding detailed healthcare utilization, prescribed drugs, and direct medical costs were obtained. For annual direct healthcare cost calculations, a prevalence-based approach was used. RESULTS: Overall, 181,768 CHC patients were identified. In 2013, the annual per-patient costs for chronic hepatitis, liver cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma, and the first year post-liver transplant were 895, 1,873, 6,945, and 67,359 United States dollars, respectively. Interferon-based antiviral therapeutics were prescribed to 25,223 patients (13.9%). CONCLUSIONS: Healthcare costs have increased remarkably with increasing liver disease severity. Thus, efforts to stop disease progression are needed. Moreover, the low rate of interferon-based therapy indicates an unmet need for DAA.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular , Costs and Cost Analysis , Delivery of Health Care , Disease Progression , Health Care Costs , Hepacivirus , Hepatitis C , Hepatitis C, Chronic , Hepatitis, Chronic , Humans , Korea , Liver Cirrhosis , Liver Diseases , National Health Programs , Ribavirin , United States
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