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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-925912

ABSTRACT

Background@#Numerous patients around the globe are dying from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). While age is a known risk factor, risk analysis in the young generation is lacking. The present study aimed to evaluate the clinical features and mortality risk factors in younger patients (≤ 50 years) with a critical case of COVID-19 in comparison with those among older patients (> 50 years) in Korea. @*Methods@#We analyzed the data of adult patients only in critical condition (requiring high flow nasal cannula oxygen therapy or higher respiratory support) hospitalized with PCR-confirmed COVID-19 at 11 hospitals in Korea from July 1, 2021 to November 30, 2021 when the delta variant was a dominant strain. Patients’ electronic medical records were reviewed to identify clinical characteristics. @*Results@#During the study period, 448 patients were enrolled. One hundred and forty-two were aged 50 years or younger (the younger group), while 306 were above 50 years of age (the older group). The most common pre-existing conditions in the younger group were diabetes mellitus and hypertension, and 69.7% of the patients had a body mass index (BMI) > 25 kg/m 2 .Of 142 younger patients, 31 of 142 patients (21.8%, 19 women) did not have these pre-existing conditions. The overall case fatality rate among severity cases was 21.0%, and it differed according to age: 5.6% (n = 8/142) in the younger group, 28.1% in the older group, and 38% in the ≥ 65 years group. Age (odds ratio [OR], 7.902; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.754–18.181), mechanical ventilation therapy (OR, 17.233; 95% CI, 8.439–35.192), highest creatinine > 1.5 mg/dL (OR, 17.631; 95% CI, 8.321–37.357), and combined blood stream infection (OR, 7.092;95% CI, 1.061–18.181) were identified as independent predictors of mortality in total patients.Similar patterns were observed in age-specific analyses, but most results were statistically insignificant in multivariate analysis due to the low number of deaths in the younger group.The full vaccination rate was very low among study population (13.6%), and only three patients were fully vaccinated, with none of the patients who died having been fully vaccinated in the younger group. Seven of eight patients who died had a pre-existing condition or were obese (BMI > 25 kg/m 2 ), and the one remaining patient died from a secondary infection. @*Conclusion@#About 22% of the patients in the young critical group did not have an underlying disease or obesity, but the rate of obesity (BMI > 25 kg/m2 ) was high, with a fatality rate of 5.6%. The full vaccination rate was extremely low compared to the general population of the same age group, showing that non-vaccination has a grave impact on the progression of COVID-19 to a critical condition. The findings of this study highlight the need for measures to prevent critical progression of COVID-19, such as vaccinations and targeting young adults especially having risk factors.

2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-899947

ABSTRACT

Background@#South Korea has been experiencing a third wave of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) since mid-November 2020. Our hospital in Gwangju metropolitan city experienced a healthcare-associated COVID-19 outbreak early in the third wave. The first confirmed COVID-19 patient was a symptomatic neurosurgery resident with high mobility throughout the hospital. We analyzed the transmission routes of nosocomial COVID-19 and discussed infection control strategies. @*Methods@#We retrospectively analyzed the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) testing results according to time point and evaluated transmission routes. @*Results@#Since COVID-19 was first confirmed in a healthcare worker (HCW) on 11/13/2020, we performed RT-PCR tests for all patients and caregivers and four complete enumeration surveys for all HCWs. We detected three clusters of nosocomial spread and several sporadic cases. The first cluster originated from the community outbreak spot, where an asymptomatic HCW visited, which led to a total of 22 cases. The second cluster, which included patient-to-patient transmission, originated from a COVID-19 positive caregiver before diagnosis and the third cluster involved a radiologist and a banker. We took measures to isolate Building 1 of the hospital for 17 days and controlled the outbreak during a period of increasing community COVID-19 prevalence. Universal screening of all inpatients upon admission and resident caregivers was made mandatory and hospital-related employees are now screened monthly. @*Conclusion@#Infection control strategies to prevent the nosocomial transmission of emerging infectious diseases must correspond with community disease prevalence. Our data reinforce the importance of multi-time point surveillance of asymptomatic HCWs and routine surveillance of patients and caregivers during an epidemic.

3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-892243

ABSTRACT

Background@#South Korea has been experiencing a third wave of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) since mid-November 2020. Our hospital in Gwangju metropolitan city experienced a healthcare-associated COVID-19 outbreak early in the third wave. The first confirmed COVID-19 patient was a symptomatic neurosurgery resident with high mobility throughout the hospital. We analyzed the transmission routes of nosocomial COVID-19 and discussed infection control strategies. @*Methods@#We retrospectively analyzed the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) testing results according to time point and evaluated transmission routes. @*Results@#Since COVID-19 was first confirmed in a healthcare worker (HCW) on 11/13/2020, we performed RT-PCR tests for all patients and caregivers and four complete enumeration surveys for all HCWs. We detected three clusters of nosocomial spread and several sporadic cases. The first cluster originated from the community outbreak spot, where an asymptomatic HCW visited, which led to a total of 22 cases. The second cluster, which included patient-to-patient transmission, originated from a COVID-19 positive caregiver before diagnosis and the third cluster involved a radiologist and a banker. We took measures to isolate Building 1 of the hospital for 17 days and controlled the outbreak during a period of increasing community COVID-19 prevalence. Universal screening of all inpatients upon admission and resident caregivers was made mandatory and hospital-related employees are now screened monthly. @*Conclusion@#Infection control strategies to prevent the nosocomial transmission of emerging infectious diseases must correspond with community disease prevalence. Our data reinforce the importance of multi-time point surveillance of asymptomatic HCWs and routine surveillance of patients and caregivers during an epidemic.

4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-832080

ABSTRACT

Objective@#The COVID-19 is overwhelming health care systems globally. Hospital isolation may generate considerable psychological stress. However, there has been scarce evidence on psychological interventions for these patients due to maintain staff safety. We investigated the feasibility and effectiveness of telephone based interventions for psychological problems in hospital isolated patients with COVID-19. @*Methods@#Psychiatrists visited the ward where the patients were hospitalized and interventions were given by using a ward telephone for 30 minutes. All patients were approached to receive a two-week psychological intervention program and/or pharmacotherapy whenever needed. Psychological problems were assessed at baseline, one, and two weeks. For the assessment of anxiety and depressive symptoms, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale was administered to patients once a week. Insomnia severity index and Beck Depression Inventory 9 item were checked weekly to assess insomnia and suicide idea. @*Results@#Of 33 enrolled, clinically meaningful psychological symptoms were found in 6 (18%) patients for anxiety; 13 (39%) for depression; 10 (30%) for insomnia; and 3 (9%) for suicidal ideation. In 9 patients (27%), psychotropic medications were prescribed to manage anxiety, agitation, depressed mood, insomnia, impulsivity, and suicide idea.Compared to baseline, significant improvements were found in anxiety, depression, and suicidal ideation at one week.There were no statistical differences between the values evaluated at baseline and at two weeks. @*Conclusion@#Our report at least indicates potential usefulness of telephone based interventions in hospital isolated patients with COVID-19, and will hopefully form the basis for future randomized clinical trials.

5.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831878

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#This study aimed to collect information on the opinions of Korean infectious disease (ID) experts on coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and related issues in preparation for a future outbreak. @*Methods@#A survey was conducted over the course of 5 days (from April 21 to 25, 2020), targeting all adult ID specialists currently in the medical field in South Korea (n = 265). An online-based survey was forwarded via text message and e-mail. Only one response was accepted from each participant. @*Results@#Of these 265 ID specialists gotten to, 132 (49.8%) responded. The highest proportion of the respondents envisaged the current COVID-19 outbreak to end after December 2020 (47.7% for the domestic Korean outbreak and 70.5% for the global pandemic); moreover, 60.7% of them stated that a second nationwide wave is likely to occur between September and December 2020 in South Korea. N95 respirators were considered to be the most important item in hospitals in preparation for a second wave. The most important policy to be implemented at the national level was securing national hospitals designated for the treatment of ID (67.4%). @*Conclusions@#ID experts in South Korea believe that the COVID-19 pandemic may not be easily controlled and that a second nationwide wave is likely to occur in South Korea. Our results indicate that Korean ID specialists believe that a high level of preparation is needed in various aspects, including the procurement of personal protective equipment, to respond efficiently to a second outbreak.

6.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831531

ABSTRACT

Background@#This study was performed to compare the viral load and kinetics of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) in saliva with those in standard nasopharyngeal/oropharyngeal (NP/OP) swabs. @*Methods@#Fifteen patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection from four hospitals were prospectively enrolled and matched samples of nasopharyngeal/oropharyngeal swabs and saliva were collected at Day 1 of admission and every other day till consequently negative for two times. Real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) was performed to detect the envelope (E) and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRP) genes. @*Results@#The cycle threshold values of saliva were comparable to those of NP/OP swabs overall (P = 0.720, Mann–Whitney U test). However, the overall sensitivity of rRT-PCR using saliva was 64% (34/53), which is lower than the 77% (41/53) using NP/OP swabs. The sensitivity of rRT-PCR using saliva was especially lower in early stage of symptom onset (1–5 days; 8/15; 53%) and in patients who did not have sputum (12/22; 55%). @*Conclusion@#Saliva sample itself is not appropriate for initial diagnosis of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) to replace NP/OP swabs, especially for the person who does not produce sputum. COVID-19 cannot be excluded when the test using saliva is negative, and it is necessary to retest using NP/OP swabs.

7.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 301-309, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-816705

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Few studies have been investigated the in vivo efficacy of generic vancomycin products available outside of the United States. In this study, we aimed to compare the in vivo pharmacokinetics (PK) and pharmacodynamics (PD) of five generic vancomycin products available in Korea with those of the innovator.MATERIALS AND METHODS: The in vitro vancomycin purity of each product was examined using high-pressure liquid chromatography. Single-dose PK analyses were performed using neutropenic mice. The in vivo efficacy of vancomycin products was compared with that of the innovator in dose-effect experiments (25 to 400 mg/kg per day) using a thigh-infection model with neutropenic mice.RESULTS: Generic products had a lower proportion of vancomycin B (range: 90.3–93.8%) and a higher proportion of impurities (range: 6.2–9.7%) than the innovator (94.5% and 5.5%, respectively). In an in vivo single-dose PK study, the maximum concentration (C(max)) values of each generic were lower than that of the innovator, and the geographic mean area under the curve ratios of four generics were significantly lower than that of the innovator (all p<0.1). In the thigh-infection model, the maximum efficacies of generic products reflected in maximal effect (E(max)) values were not significantly different from the innovator. However, the PD profile curves of some generic products differed significantly from that of the innovator in mice injected with a high level of Mu3 (all p≤0.05).CONCLUSION: Some generic vancomycin products available in Korea showed inferior PK and PD profiles, especially in hetero-vancomycin-resistant mice infected with Staphylococcus aureus.

8.
Infection and Chemotherapy ; : 154-164, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-834253

ABSTRACT

On March 11, 2020, the World Health Organization declared coronavirus disease (COVID-19), caused by the novel coronavirus severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), a pandemic. During the COVID-19 pandemic, an age-associated vulnerability in the burden of disease has been uncovered. Understanding the spectrum of illness and the pathogenic mechanism of the disease in a vulnerable population is critical, especially during the pandemic. Herein, we reviewed published COVID-19 epidemiology data from several countries to identify any consistent trends in the relationship between age and COVID-19-associated morbidity or mortality. We also reviewed the literature for studies explaining the difference in the host response to SARS-CoV-2 infection according to age. The insights from these data will be useful in determining the treatment policies and preventive measures of COVID-19.

9.
Infection and Chemotherapy ; : 245-251, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-834239

ABSTRACT

Vibrio vulnificus infection was first reported as a necrotizing skin disease of unknown cause in Korea in 1979. In the early days, this disease caused panic across the country due to dreadful wound and its high mortality. Since then, the nature of the disease has become better understood and the overwhelming public fear has dissipated. However, there are still a certain number of infected patients each year and the high mortality rate remains a major health and social problem. From this review on historical and clinical perspective, better understanding of V. vulnificus infection would provide valuable information for public health planning.

10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-761735

ABSTRACT

In recent years, the taeniasis has been rarely reported in the Republic of Korea (Korea). But in this study, we intend to report 4 taeniasis cases caused by Taenia saginata during a 5-month period (February to June 2018) at a unversity hospital in Gwangju, Korea. Worm samples (proglottids) discharged from all cases were identified by phenotypic and molecular diagnostics. Mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I sequences showed 99.4–99.9% identity with T. saginata but, differed by 4% from T. asiatica and by 7% from T. multiceps, respectively. We found that tapeworms in 2 cases (Cases 2 and 3) yielded exactly the same sequences between them, which differed from those in Cases 1 and 4, suggesting intra-species variation in tapeworms. These taeniasis cases by T. saginata infection in this study, which occurred within a limited time period and region, suggest the possibility of a mini-outbreak. This study highlights the need for further epidemiological investigation of potentially overlooked cases of T. saginata infection in Korea.


Subject(s)
Cestoda , Electron Transport Complex IV , Korea , Pathology, Molecular , Republic of Korea , Taenia saginata , Taeniasis
11.
Infection and Chemotherapy ; : 150-160, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-914578

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Lamivudine and abacavir sulfate are widely used nucleoside/tide reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTI) backbone agents, which are recommended in major international treatment guidelines. The fixed-dose combination of lamivudine and abacavir sulfate has been developed to contribute to low pill burden of antiretroviral therapy (ART) regimen and patient adherence. A mandatory post-marketing surveillance was conducted in Korea to monitor the safety of Kivexa (lamivudine 300 mg/abacavir 600 mg).@*MATERIALS AND METHODS@#An open label, multi-center, non-interventional post-marketing surveillance was conducted to monitor the safety of Kivexa from July 2011 to July 2017 in 23 hospitals in Korea. Subjects over 12 years old taking Kivexa per prescribing information were enrolled. The primary outcome was defined as the occurrence of any adverse events during the study period. Secondary outcomes included the occurrence of adverse drug reaction, the occurrence of serious adverse events and the effectiveness of Kivexa.@*RESULTS@#A total of 600 patients from 23 hospitals were enrolled within the 6 years of study. The total observation period was 1,004 person-years. Three hundred and ten patients reported 674 adverse events. The incidence of upper respiratory infection (65 cases, 10.9%) was the highest, followed by diarrhea (20 cases, 3.3%), and nausea (18 cases, 3.0%). 109 subjects reported 71 events of adverse drug reactions, and the most common reaction was nausea in 2.33% of the subjects. Thirty-one subjects reported serious adverse events, none of them were considered drug related. From the total of 600 subjects, excluding 48 subjects who were ‘effectiveness unassessable’ by investigators, 552 patients were eligible for the subjective effectiveness analysis. 459 (83.2%) were evaluated as ‘improved’. Proportion of subjects whose human immunodeficiency virus-RNA is <50 copies/ml was 61.2% (309/505) at the beginning of observation and increased to 91.9% (464/505) at the end of study period.@*CONCLUSIONS@#The post-marketing surveillance showed the safety of Kivexa in HIV-1 patients in Korea. Ischemic cardiovascular events and hypersensitivity associated with Kivexa were few. There was no significant new safety information. This data may be helpful in implementing Kivexa and lamivudine/abacavir sulfate containing drugs in Korea.

12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-722003

ABSTRACT

Mycobacterium marinum infection in humans occurs mainly as a granulomatous infection after exposure of traumatized skin to contaminated water. It is usually confined to the skin and soft tissue. Disseminated disease involving other organs rarely occurs in immunocompetent patients. Here, we report a case of disseminated M. marinum infection involving not only the cutaneous tissue, but also the lung of a male patient with uncontrolled diabetes and a previous history of steroid injection who was employed by a deep-water fishery.


Subject(s)
Diabetes Mellitus , Fisheries , Humans , Lung , Male , Mycobacterium marinum , Mycobacterium , Skin , Steroids , Water
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-721498

ABSTRACT

Mycobacterium marinum infection in humans occurs mainly as a granulomatous infection after exposure of traumatized skin to contaminated water. It is usually confined to the skin and soft tissue. Disseminated disease involving other organs rarely occurs in immunocompetent patients. Here, we report a case of disseminated M. marinum infection involving not only the cutaneous tissue, but also the lung of a male patient with uncontrolled diabetes and a previous history of steroid injection who was employed by a deep-water fishery.


Subject(s)
Diabetes Mellitus , Fisheries , Humans , Lung , Male , Mycobacterium marinum , Mycobacterium , Skin , Steroids , Water
14.
Infection and Chemotherapy ; : 293-296, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-102693

ABSTRACT

Protothecosis is an uncommon human infection caused by achlorophyllic algae of the genus Prototheca, especially P. wickerhamii. The skin is the most frequently involved organ and cases of protothecal tenosynovitis are very rare. A 71-year-old woman without prior medical history except hypertension presented with painful swelling of her right hand that did not improve despite receiving antibiotic treatment. She underwent tenosynovectomy and drainage. Histopathologic examination revealed necrotizing granulomatous inflammation and numerous spherical or morula-like organisms with a spoked wheel appearance. P. wickerhamii was identified from tissue culture. The lesion did not improve with empirical fluconazole therapy. Conventional amphotericin B was administered according to antifungal susceptibility tests and the lesion completely resolved. Protothecosis should be considered in the differential diagnosis for chronic tenosynovitis that does not respond to conventional antibacterial treatment; tissue biopsy with culture is required for diagnosis.


Subject(s)
Aged , Amphotericin B , Biopsy , Deoxycholic Acid , Diagnosis , Diagnosis, Differential , Drainage , Female , Fluconazole , Hand , Humans , Hypertension , Inflammation , Prototheca , Skin , Tenosynovitis
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-73247

ABSTRACT

Since Zika virus has been spreading rapidly in the Americas from 2015, the outbreak of Zika virus infection becomes a global health emergency because it can cause neurological complications and adverse fetal outcome including microcephaly. Here, we report clinical manifestations and virus isolation findings from a case of Zika virus infection imported from Brazil. The patient, 43-year-old Korean man, developed fever, myalgia, eyeball pain, and maculopapular rash, but not neurological manifestations. Zika virus was isolated from his semen, and reverse-transcriptase PCR was positive for the virus in the blood, urine, and saliva on the 7th day of the illness but was negative on the 21st day. He recovered spontaneously without any neurological complications. He is the first case of Zika virus infection in Korea imported from Brazil.


Subject(s)
Adult , Brazil , Humans , Male , Microscopy, Electron, Transmission , RNA, Viral/analysis , Republic of Korea , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Saliva/virology , Semen/virology , Travel , Zika Virus/genetics , Zika Virus Infection/diagnosis
16.
Infection and Chemotherapy ; : 118-126, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-51105

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: From May to July 2015, the Republic of Korea experienced the largest outbreak of Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) outside the Arabian Peninsula. A total of 186 patients, including 36 deaths, had been diagnosed with MERS-coronavirus (MERS-CoV) infection as of September 30th, 2015. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We obtained information of patients who were confirmed to have MERS-CoV infection. MERS-CoV infection was diagnosed using real-time reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction assay. RESULTS: The median age of the patients was 55 years (range, 16 to 86). A total of 55.4% of the patients had one or more coexisting medical conditions. The most common symptom was fever (95.2%). At admission, leukopenia (42.6%), thrombocytopenia (46.6%), and elevation of aspartate aminotransferase (42.7%) were observed. Pneumonia was detected in 68.3% of patients at admission and developed in 80.8% during the disease course. Antiviral agents were used for 74.7% of patients. Mechanical ventilation, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, and convalescent serum were employed for 24.5%, 7.1%, and 3.8% of patients, respectively. Older age, presence of coexisting medical conditions including diabetes or chronic lung disease, presence of dyspnea, hypotension, and leukocytosis at admission, and the use of mechanical ventilation were revealed to be independent predictors of death. CONCLUSION: The clinical features of MERS-CoV infection in the Republic of Korea were similar to those of previous outbreaks in the Middle East. However, the overall mortality rate (20.4%) was lower than that in previous reports. Enhanced surveillance and active management of patients during the outbreak may have resulted in improved outcomes.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents , Aspartate Aminotransferases , Coronavirus Infections , Disease Outbreaks , Dyspnea , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Fever , Humans , Hypotension , Leukocytosis , Leukopenia , Lung Diseases , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus , Middle East , Mortality , Pneumonia , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Republic of Korea , Respiration, Artificial , Thrombocytopenia
18.
Intestinal Research ; : 80-84, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-78092

ABSTRACT

The rates and severity of Clostridium difficile infections, including pseudomembranous colitis, have increased markedly. However, there are few effective treatments for refractory or recurrent C. difficile infections and the outcomes are poor. Fecal microbiota transplantation is becoming increasingly accepted as an effective and safe intervention in patients with recurrent disease, likely due to the restoration of a disrupted microbiome. Cure rates of >90% are being consistently reported from multiple centers. We cured a case of severe refractory C. difficile infection with fecal microbiota transplantation in a patient colonized by vancomycin-resistant enterococcus.


Subject(s)
Clostridioides difficile , Colon , Enterococcus , Enterocolitis, Pseudomembranous , Humans , Microbiota
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-58250

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Incidence of pyogenic liver abscess (PLA) has been increasing worldwide, especially in the elderly population. Therefore, the aim of this study is to elucidate the clinical features and outcomes of PLA in elderly patients. METHODS: A total of 602 patients diagnosed with PLA from January 2003 to January 2013 were analyzed retrospectively. The patients were divided according to two age groups; > or =65 years (n=296) and <65 years (n=306). RESULTS: The mean age was 73.59+/-5.98 (range, 65-93) years in the elderly group. Significantly higher incidence of females (52.4% vs. 29.1%, p<0.001), hepatobiliary disease (41.2% vs. 24.8%, p<0.001), hepatobiliary procedure (29.4% vs. 13.7%, p<0.001), underlying malignancy (18.2% vs. 4.6%, p<0.001), culture positivity of resistant organism (20.6% vs. 14.4%, p=0.047), occurrence of complication (19.6% vs. 12.8%, p=0.026), and higher white blood cell (13.44+/-6.56 vs. 12.26+/-5.89, p=0.021), but lower rates of right lobe abscess (67.2% vs. 80.4%, p<0.001), fever (68.6% vs. 79.3%, p=0.003), and lower CRP (16.79+/-9.67 vs. 18.80+/-9.86, p=0.012) was observed in elderly PLA patients, compared to younger patients. Regarding complications, elderly patients had higher incidence of septic shock (8.1% vs. 2.3%, p=0.001) and cardiovascular disease (2% vs. 0%, p=0.014). CONCLUSIONS: More atypical presentations and complications tend to occur in elderly PLA patients compared with younger patients. Clinicians should be aware of these age-related differences in PLA and devise management strategies accordingly.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Child , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Escherichia coli/isolation & purification , Female , Humans , Incidence , Klebsiella pneumoniae/isolation & purification , Leukocyte Count , Liver Abscess, Pyogenic/drug therapy , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Sex Factors , Shock, Septic/epidemiology , Young Adult
20.
Korean Journal of Medicine ; : 518-524, 2015.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-162286

ABSTRACT

Invasive fungal diseases are an important cause of morbidity and mortality in both immunocompromised and immunocompetent patients. The recent introduction of new antifungal agents seemed to open a new era for the treatment of invasive fungal infections. However, widespread use of prophylactic and therapeutic antifungal agents has lead to the emergence of antifungal resistance and potentially compromises their clinical utility. By understanding the mechanisms of drug resistance, new strategies can be utilized to minimize the emergence of drug resistance and to promote the development of innovative therapeutic approaches. In the meantime, close monitoring of antifungal resistance and its evolution is warranted in a clinical setting given the limited repertoire of antifungal drugs.


Subject(s)
Antifungal Agents , Drug Resistance , Humans , Mortality
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